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Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the transport sector (ENER 023) - Assessment published Apr 2012

Indicator Assessmentexpired Created 03 Apr 2012 Published 30 Apr 2012 Last modified 06 Nov 2013, 04:11 PM
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Contents
 

Indicator definition

Energy efficiency progress (Figure 1) is measured from the ODEX indicator. This index aggregates the unit consumption trends for each transport mode in a single indicator for the whole sector. It is calculated at the level of 8 modes or vehicle types: cars, trucks, light vehicles, motorcycles, buses, total air transport, rail, and water transport. For cars, energy efficiency is measured by the specific consumption, expressed in litre/100km; for the transport of goods (trucks and light vehicles), the unit consumption per ton-km is used, as the main activity is to move goods; for other modes of transport various indicators of unit consumption are used, taking for each mode the most relevant indicator given the statistics available: toe/passenger for air, goe/pass-km for passenger rail, goe/ton-km for transport of goods by rail and water, toe per vehicle for motorcycles and buses.

 The variation of the weighted index of the unit consumption by mode between t-1 and t is defined as follows

  • It /It -1= 1/( It -1/It)

with : energy share EC i  (consumption of each mode i   in total transport consumption); unit consumption index UC i (ratio : consumption related to traffic or specific consumption in l/100 km for cars); t refers the current year, t-1 to the previous year.

The value at year t can be derived from the value at the previous year by reversing the calculation:

  • It /It -1= 1/( It -1/It)

ODEX is set at 100 for a reference year and successive values are then derived for each year t by the value of ODEX at year t-1 multiplied by It /It -1.

The energy consumption variation of passenger transport in Figure 4 is broken down into 3 explanatory effects: activity effect (increase in traffic), modal shift effect (from private transport to public transport modes) and energy savings (change in specific consumption per unit of traffic). A positive “modal shift effect” means that the share of public passenger transport in passenger traffic is decreasing (shift from public transport to cars)  or the road in total freight traffic is increasing (shift from rail-water to road): this offsets energy savings.

CO2 emissions for total transport are split into 2 explanatory effects (Figure 6): an activity effect due to an increase in traffic of passengers and freight, CO2 savings due to the reduction in the specific emissions of vehicles per unit of traffic.

Units

ODEX indicator: #

Energy consumption: Mtoe/year

CO2 emissions: Mt CO2


Key policy question: Is transport sector becoming more efficient?

Key messages

In the EU-27 countries, energy efficiency in the transport sector increased by 16% between 1990 and 2009,  at an annual average rate of 0.9% due to increased efficiency particularly for passenger cars and airplanes. Over the same period, energy consumption in transport in EU-27 countries increased by 28% at an annual average rate of 1.3% - slower than GDP (1.8%/year). Trends in transport are mainly due to an increasing consumption of air transport (+2.9%/year since 1990) followed by trucks and light vehicles (1.6%/year) and cars (+0.9%/year). On the contrary energy consumption of rail tends to decrease over the period (-0.8%/year).Growth in passengers and freight traffic, together with an observed modal shift from public transport to road transport, contributed to increase the energy consumption in transport, offsetting part of the energy efficiency gains.

Energy efficiency progress in transport in the EU

Note: The figure shows the energy efficiency progress in transport as ODEX index

Data source:

ODYSSEE database. Energy efficiency in transpor sector. The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/.  The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

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Energy efficiency progress by country

Note: Energy efficiency progress by country

Data source:

Odyssee

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Key assessment

  • The energy efficiency of transport in the EU-27 improved by about 16% between 1990 and 2009 (0.9%/year), as measured according to the ODEX indicator. Greater progress was achieved in the energy efficiency of both cars and airplanes than in the rest of the sector (Figure 1). Since 2005 we can observe a reverse trend in the efficiency of trucks and light vehicles (resulting in an increase in the consumption of road goods per tonne kilometre).
  • Improvement in energy efficiency can be observed in all the countries since 2005 except for 5 countries where transport of goods by road is becoming less efficient (Figure 2).

Specific policy question: What are the main factors behind the energy consumption trends in transport in Europe?

Energy consumption by transport mode in the EU-27

Note: The figure shows the share of energy consumption by mode in total transport in EU-27. Energy consumption for rail, road, water, air and total transport come from Eurostat. The consumption by type of road vehicle is calculated for each type of vehicle from the stock of vehicles and an annual consumption (toe per vehicle, taken as a weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

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Breakdown of the energy consumption variation for transport in the EU-27 (1990-2009)

Note: The energy consumption variation of passenger and goods transport is broken down into 2 explanatory effects: activity effect (increase in traffic) and global energy savings (change in specific energy consumption per unit of traffic). Air transport excluded; Activity: impact of increase in traffic; modal shift : decrease in the share of public transport in total traffic; energy savings: measured from the reduction in specific consumption per unit of traffic.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/. The access is restricted to project

partners or subscribers.

 

Data on traffic for passengers or freight:

 

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

 

 

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Variation of CO2 emissions from transport (EU-27)

Note: The figure shows the variation of CO2 emission from transport, EU-27 level CO2 represent around 99% of the sector’s greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions from international air transport are not included in countries’ emissions (UNFCCC methodology).

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/. The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

 

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

 

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Specific assessment

Road transport represented on average 82 % of the total energy consumption in transport in EU-27 in 2009 (84% in 1990). In half of the countries however, its share is declining due to the growing importance of air transport. Cars represent almost 50% of the total energy consumption of the transport sector but this share is declining slowly (48% in 2009 compared to 52% in 1990), while the share of road freight transport (trucks and light- duty vehicles) is increasing (30% of total energy consumption of transport in 2009 compared to 29% in 1990). Road freight transport vehicles have the fastest energy consumption growth among road vehicles (1.6%/year compared to 0.9%/year for passenger cars from 1990 to 2009) and did not slow down after 2005, as it did for other vehicles. In 2009, transport consumption decreased by 3.2%, of which 4.5% for road freight transport consumption and 1.2% for cars because of the economic crisis. (Figure 3).

The energy consumption for domestic and international air transport increased by 2.9%/year over the period 1990-2009. The growth was mainly on the beginning of the period as from 2005 to 2009 this consumption remained quite stable, with even a severe drop in 2009 (-7.4%). The energy consumption of rail and domestic water transport accounts for around 4% of total transport energy demand (respectively 2.0% for rail and 1.7% for water in 2009). The consumption of rail for reduced regularly over the period (-0.5%/year until 2008) with a sharp drop in 2009 (-6%). The energy consumption of inland waterways increased slowly over the period 1990-2008 by 0.4%/y with a drop in 2009 (-7%).

At the EU level, the share of public transport in passenger traffic decreased by five points, from 23% in1990 to 17% in 2009. This trend had a negative impact on the energy consumption of passenger transport, since cars consume four times more energy per passenger-km than public transport[1]. This modal shift contributed to increase the energy consumption in transport  by 0.5 Mtoe/year on average (Figure 4). In a few countries, however, public transport increased its market share since 1995 and contributed to save energy (namely Belgium, France, UK, Denmark, Sweden, Italy and Germany)[2].

     

    The increase in freight traffic in tonne-km was responsible for a consumption increase of 27 Mtoe since 1990. Energy efficiency improvements, linked to the reduction in the specific consumption per unit of traffic, led to 10.5 Mtoe of energy savings, thus partially offsetting the effect of modal shift and increase in freight traffic and limiting the energy consumption increase to 26.7 Mtoe (i.e. a progression of the freight energy consumption by 1.3%/year). (Figure 4). The energy efficiency improvements in freight transport are due to both improved efficiency of vehicles and a better management of transport operations (load factors). In 2009, the freight traffic (in tonne kilometre) dropped significantly because of the economic crisis (-10% for road transport, -18% for rail, -16% for inland waterways); as a result, the freight consumption has decreased by 5% (or 6 Mtoe). In addition, in 2009, the energy consumption per tonne kilometre increased, because of a decrease in load factor, which means a deterioration of energy efficiency (i.e. negative energy savings); this loss of efficiency contributed to increase the freight energy consumption by 7 Mtoe.

       

      Over the period 1990-2009, traffic growth and modal shift to road transport (cars for passengers and trucks for goods) contributed to increase the consumption by 74 Mtoe (3.9 Mtoe/year) and 20 Mtoe (1.1 Mtoe/year), respectively. Over the same period, energy savings due to changes in the specific energy consumption per unit of traffic amounted to around 40 Mtoe (2.1 Mtoe/year), of which 73% for passengers and 27% for goods: these savings contributed to limit the increase of the energy consumption to 55 Mtoe (2.9 Mtoe/year). In 2009 energy consumption of road transport decreased by 2% (or 5 Mtoe): the effect of the reduction in traffic was offset by negative energy savings (mainly for goods transport).


        [1] Calculated as an average for the EU-27

        [2] Countries ranked according to the size of the variation since 1995 increase since 2000 only for.Italy).

        Data sources

        Policy context and targets

        Context description

        Policy context

        Adoption of the 'energy-climate'' package on December 2008 (also called the ''20-20-20 plan'')

        The package sets legally binding targets to cut greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and to increase the share of renewable energy to 20%, both by 2020 (10% in transport). It will also help achieve the EU's objective of improving energy efficiency by 20% within the same timeframe.

         

        The climate and energy package consists of four legislative texts:

        • A Directive revising the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), which covers some 40% of EU greenhouse gas emissions;
        • An "effort-sharing" Decision setting binding national targets for emissions from sectors not covered by the EU ETS;
        • A Directive setting binding national targets for increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix;
        • A Directive creating a legal framework for the safe and environmentally sound use of carbon capture and storage technologies.

        The package is complemented by two further legislative acts:

        • Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council requiring a reduction in CO2 emissions from new cars to an average of 120g per km, to be phased in between 2012 and 2015, and further to 95g per km in 2020. This measure alone will contribute more than one-third of the emission reductions required in the non-ETS sectors;
        • A revision of the Fuel Quality Directive requiring fuel suppliers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel production chain by 6% by 2020.


        Energy efficiency: delivering the 20% target  - COM(2008) 772 final

        European leaders committed themselves to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% compared to projections for 2020. Energy efficiency is the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption while maintaining an equivalent level of economic activity. Improving energy efficiency also addresses the key energy challenges of climate change, energy security and competitiveness

        Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential [COM(2006) 545]

        This Action Plan outlines a framework of policies and measures with a view to intensify the process of realising the over 20% estimated savings potential in EU annual primary energy consumption by 2020. The Plan lists a range of cost-effective measures, proposing priority actions to be initiated immediately, and others to be initiated gradually over the Plan's six-year period. Further action will subsequently be required to reach the full potential by 2020.

        Commission Green Paper, 22 June 2005, "Energy Efficiency - or Doing More With Less" [COM(2005) 265 final. It outlines the need to adopt specific measures to improve energy efficiency

        Decision No 1639/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 2006 establishing a Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (2007 to 2013)

        Energy and transport play a large part in climate change since they are the leading sources of greenhouse gas emissions; this is why energy policy is particularly important in the European Union's sustainable development strategy. The EU is increasingly dependent on energy imported from Non-EU Member Countries, creating economic, social, political and other risks for the Union.

        The EU therefore wishes to reduce its dependence and improve its security of supply by promoting other energy sources and cutting demand for energy. Consequently, it is putting the accent, above all, on improving energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy sources, in particular though the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme (IEE).

        Targets

        No targets have been specified

        Related policy documents

        Methodology

        Methodology for indicator calculation

        ODEX indicator is calculated at the level of 8 modes or vehicle types: cars, trucks, light vehicles, motorcycles, buses, total air transport, rail, and water transport. For cars, energy efficiency is measured by the specific consumption, expressed in litre/100km; for the transport of goods (trucks and light vehicles), the unit consumption per ton-km is used, as the main activity is to move goods; for other modes of transport various indicators of unit consumption are used, taking for each mode the most relevant indicator given the statistics available: toe/passenger for air, goe/pass-km for passenger rail, goe/ton-km for transport of goods by rail and water, toe per vehicle for motorcycles and buses.

        The variation of the weighted index of the unit consumption by mode between t-1 and t is defined as follows:

         It -1/It = Sumi (ECi,t) * ( UCi,t/UCi,t-1)  
        with : energy share EC i  (consumption of each mode i in total transport consumption);
        unit consumption index UC i (ratio : consumption related to traffic or specific consumption in l/100 km for cars)
        t refers the current year, t-1 to the previous year
        The value at year t can be derived from the value at the previous year by reversing the calculation:
                           It /It -1= 1/( It -1/It)
        ODEX is set at 100 for a reference year and successive values are then derived for each year t by the value of ODEX at year t-1 multiplied by It /It -1.     

        The energy consumption variation of passenger transport in Figure 4 is broken down into 3 explanatory effects: activity effect (increase in traffic), modal shift effect (from private transport to public transport modes) and energy savings (change in specific consumption per unit of traffic). A positive “modal shift effect” means that the share of public passenger transport in passenger traffic is decreasing (shift from public transport to cars)  or the road in total freight traffic is increasing (shift from rail-water to road): this offsets energy savings.

        CO2 emissions for total transport are split into 2 explanatory effects (Figure 6): an activity effect due to an increase in traffic of passengers and freight, CO2 savings due to the reduction in the specific emissions of vehicles per unit of traffic.

        Geographical coverage:
        Odyssee database covers EU-27 plus Norway and Croatia. Not always data is available for all countries

        Temporal coverage:
        1990-2009 with a focus on the period 2000/2009 for detailed analysis by country (due to non available or reliable data for new EU countries before 2000)

        Methodology and frequency of data collection:
        Data collected annually in the framework of the ODYSSEE MURE project

        Methodology for gap filling

        • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : calculated as a sum of data by country with a sample of 15 countries (of which 11 main EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries).
        • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). A weighted average specific consumption of cars for the countries for which we have data is calculated, using as a weighting factor the number of cars in each country, and the same value is assumed for the EU-27.
        • Stock of vehicles: as a sum (all data by countries available)

         

        Methodology references

        No methodology references available.

        Uncertainties

        Methodology uncertainty

        No uncertainty has been specified

        Data sets uncertainty

        Strengths and weaknesses (at data level) Not all data is available for all countries. Odyssee database is updated twice a year : the last version of the database is October 2011, with most data and indicators updated until 2009.

        The reliability of total household energy consumption and related CO2 emissions is reliable due to trustworthy statistics underlying it. Division of the energy consumption among activities (heating / cooking etc.) is less accurate, because it is based on assumptions.

        Rationale uncertainty

        No uncertainty has been specified

        More information about this indicator

        See this indicator specification for more details.

        Generic metadata

        Topics:

        Energy Energy (Primary topic)

        Tags:
        energy consumption | consumption | energy | co2 | emissions | transport
        DPSIR: State
        Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
        Indicator codes
        • ENER 023
        Dynamic
        Temporal coverage:
        1990-2009
        Geographic coverage:
        Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

        Contacts and ownership

        EEA Contact Info

        Anca-Diana Barbu

        Ownership

        EEA Management Plan

        2012 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

        Dates

        European Environment Agency (EEA)
        Kongens Nytorv 6
        1050 Copenhagen K
        Denmark
        Phone: +45 3336 7100