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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Energy efficiency and energy consumption in industry / Energy efficiency and energy consumption in industry (ENER 025) - Assessment published Aug 2011

Energy efficiency and energy consumption in industry (ENER 025) - Assessment published Aug 2011

This content has been archived on 06 Nov 2013, reason: Other
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Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
energy consumption | odex | industry | air pollution indicators | energy efficiency | energy
DPSIR: State
Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
Indicator codes
  • ENER 025
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2008
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: Is energy efficiency improving in the industrial sector?

Key messages

Over the period 1990-2008, in EU-27 countries, energy efficiency in industry has improved by 30% at an annual average rate of 1.9% per year, with large differences among countries. Energy efficiency improvement has been realized in all industrial branches except textiles. Over the same period of time, per capita energy consumption in industry in EU-27 countries has decreased by 18%, with a faster pace in the new member countries, Germany, Belgium, France and the UK while the CO2 emissions (including those associated with electricity consumption) decreased by 23%.

Energy efficiency index (ODEX) in industry in EU-27

Note: Energy efficiency index of industry (ODEX) is a weighted average of the specific consumption index of 10 manufacturing branches; the weight being the share of each branch in the sum of the energy consumption of these branches in year t and the sum of the implied energy consumption from each underlying industrial branches in year t (based on the unit consumption of the sub-sector with a moving reference year).

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : August 2009). ODEX EU-27 in industry. The Odyssee database is available at  http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

 

Downloads and more info

Energy efficiency improvement (ODEX) in EU-27 countries

Note: Energy efficiency index of industry (ODEX) is a weighted average of the specific consumption index of 10 manufacturing branches; the weight being the share of each branch in the sum of the energy consumption of these branches in year t and the sum of the implied energy consumption from each underlying industrial branches in year t (based on the unit consumption of the sub-sector with a moving reference year).

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : August 2009). ODEX EU-27 in industry. The Odyssee database is available at  http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project partners or subscribers

Downloads and more info

Key assessment

  • Over the period 1990-2008, energy efficiency in industry has improved in EU-27 countries by around 30%, at an annual average rate of 1.9 % per year (Figure 1). Greater progress was achieved in the nineties but slowed down somehow in more recent years (2.3 % per year over 1990-2000 against 1.5 % per year after 2000).
  • There is a large difference among countries concerning progress towards improving the energy efficiency (Figure 2). Among the ten countries with the highest improvement in energy efficiency there are six new EU Member States. Energy efficiency improvement in industry results from technical improvement in industrial process and electric motors, encouraged by policies combining voluntary agreements (e.g. with CEMEP for motors), investment subsidies or audit schemes.

Specific policy question: Is energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

% change in industry final energy consumption per capita (1990-2008)

Note: Based on the ratio : energy consumption / population (%/year calculated on the period 1990-2008)

Data source:

EUROSTAT

 

Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

  • Over the period 1990-2008, improvements took place in all industrial branches except the textile industry. The three most energy intensive branches (chemicals, steel and paper), which represent over 50% of the energy consumption of the sector, reduced their specific energy consumption, i.e. energy consumption per unit of physical output, by 53%, 27% and 11% respectively. Significant improvements were also made in the machinery and cement industries which reduced their specific energy consumption by 39% and 24% respectively (Figure 1).

 

  • From 1990 to 2008, per capita energy consumption in industry decreased by 18% in the EU-27 or 1.1% a year (Figure 3). The decrease was very strong in most new member countries, particularly in the Baltic countries and Romania (more than 60%) due to changes in the structure of the industrial activity (i.e. in the share of each individual industrial branches in the total value added of the sector. There was also a reduction in the 3 largest EU countries, Germany, France and UK (respectively -19%, -10% and -13%); this trend is the result of a low growth of the sector and of structural changes towards less intensive branches. The consumption increased by more than 20% in Finland and Austria because of a development of more intensive branches (e.g. pulp and paper in Finland).

 

  • In 2008 energy consumption per capita has decreased by 4.3%/year and concerned almost all the countries except five countries where consumption per capita remained quite stable (Estonia, Netherlands) or increased (Romania 1.1%, France 3.3%, Cyprus 7.5%).

Specific policy question: What are the key drivers behind the energy consumption in selected industrial branches?

Benchmarking in the pulp and paper industry

Note: The figure displays the unit energy consumption per ton of paper as a function of the ratio pulp production to paper production: the higher the ratio, the higher the energy unit consumption.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/  The access is restricted to project partners or subscribers

Downloads and more info

Benchmarking in the steel industry

Note: Figure shows a more detailed comparison of the performance (in terms of energy unit consumption) of the European steel sector across the different EU-27 countries taking into account the relative share of electric steel in total crude steel production.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

Downloads and more info

Benchmarking in the cement industry

Note: Figure compares the energy unit consumption of cement in EU countries as a function of the share of clinker: the higher this ratio, the higher the specific energy consumption.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at  http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

 

When analyzing specific energy consumption trends in industrial branches, one has to account for the specificities in terms of process mix and product mix. For steel, there are basically two main production processes: the blast furnace oxygen process and the arc furnace electric process. The first one is much more energy intensive. For paper and cement, part of the energy intensive component, pulp and clinker respectively, may be imported instead of being produced in the country, which will reduce the unit energy consumption, all things being equal .

  • Figure 4 shows a more detailed comparison of the performance (in terms of energy unit consumption) of the European steel sector across the different EU-27 countries taking into account the relative share of electric steel in total crude steel production. The vertical distance to the red line (benchmark) shows the technical improvement possible at the given process mix of the country.
  • Figure 5 compares the energy unit consumption of cement in EU countries as a function of the share of clinker: the higher this ratio, the higher the specific energy consumption. The vertical distance from the world best practice (benchmark based on the best available in terms of specific energy consumption) shows the technical improvement possible at a given clinker/cement mix of the country; in other words it indicates the potential of energy savings.
  • Energy unit consumption in the pulp and paper industry is very different among countries: it varies by a factor of 2-3 from a minimum of 0.25 toe/tonne to 0.7 toe/tonne (Figure 6). Low values may mean that most of the pulp is imported and high values that pulp is exported. Therefore, to make the comparison more meaningful, Figure 6 displays the unit energy consumption per ton of paper as a function of the ratio pulp production to paper production: the higher the ratio, the higher the energy unit consumption.
     

 

Specific policy question: What are the main explanatory factors behind CO2 emissions trends in the industry sector in Europe?

CO2 emissions in EU countries (1990, 2008)

Note: The figure shows the CO2 emissions in the industry in EU Countries

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

  • CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in industrial plants were around 25 % lower in 2008 than in 1990 in the EU-27. If we add the indirect emissions due to electricity consumption in industry, total emissions (direct and indirect) have decreased by 23%. Indirect emissions (or electricity related emissions) represent around 45% of total CO2 emissions for the EU-27 as a whole, with a large scope according to countries, depending on the power mix (from 16% for France to 80% for Estonia or 84% for Malta).
  • Total CO2 emissions have decreased in almost all the countries since 1990 except in six countries, Portugal 0.5%, Austria 20%, Ireland 26%, Spain 34 %, Cyprus +72% and Malta.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Document Actions
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100