Assessment made on 01 Jan 2003
ClassificationTransport (Primary theme)
DPSIR: Driving force
- TERM 001
Policy issue: Reduce consumption of fossil energy by transport
Transport final energy consumption increased, on average, by 15 % between 1990 and 2000 in AC-10, mainly due to growth in road transport energy consumption. Road is the only growing transport energy consumer, being responsible for 89 % of transport energy consumption in AC-10.
Transport energy consumption increased by 22 % between 1990 and 2000. It is the largest energy-consuming sector, being responsible for about 35 % of total energy consumption in 2000. Aviation is the sector's fastest growing energy consumer and road transport is the biggest, consuming around 72 % of transport energy (including marine bunkers).
Transport energy consumption in the EEA-17 area has grown by about 2.0 % per year during the period 1990-2000, and equalled 365 Mtoe (million tonnes oil equivalent) in 2000 (some 35 % of all energy use). As a consequence of the growth in energy consumption, CO2 emissions from transport also continued to increase.
Ireland, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain show the highest growth in transport energy consumption in the period 1990-2000. These are the countries showing the highest growth in GDP in this period (varying from 33 to 113 %), whereas the average GDP growth for EU-15 is 23 % in this period. Finland, Norway, Germany and the United Kingdom show the lowest growth in transport final energy consumption, which is related to moderate growth in passenger and freight transport compared with the European average.
The increased transport demand and the continuing shift of transport demand towards road and air, combined with the increasing use of heavier, more powerful cars and trucks, have offset the improvements in fuel economy of improved engine technology. Reducing the need to travel, improving energy efficiency and logistics are necessary to temper growth in energy consumption by transport.
In the 10 new member states (AC-10), total transport energy consumption grew by 15 % between 1990 and 2000, up to 20 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). Road is the main energy consumer in transport. As a result of the bad economic climate in some countries, the growth of energy consumption is smaller in AC-10 than in EU-15, where the growth of final energy consumption in transport was 22 %.
Transport energy consumption is closely linked to transport volumes, which in turn are closely linked to economic development. The countries bordering the EU that show the highest growth in GDP (Malta, Cyprus, Poland, Slovenia and Turkey) also show a high growth in transport energy consumption. Lithuania, Estonia, Bulgaria and Romania show the greatest decline in energy consumption, corresponding to economic decline in these countries in this period.
Download detailed information and factsheets
AC + CC - Transport final energy consumption by mode
EEA-17 - Transport final energy consumption by mode