Assessment made on 01 Jan 2002
ClassificationTransport (Primary theme)
DPSIR: Driving force
- TERM 001
Policy issue: Reduce consumption of fossil energy by transport
Energy consumption by transport is increasing rapidly, mainly as a result of growth in road transport
Energy consumption - in particular the consumption of fossil fuels - is a major policy concern as it is closely linked to emissions of greenhouse gases and the security of energy supply. In the ACs, the share of energy consumed by transport in total final energy consumption is 19 %. In the EU this share is much larger, 34 % in 1999. Transport energy consumption per capita in the EU is around three to four times higher than in the ACs (depending on the selection of transport modes).
In both regions, the transport sector is the fastest-growing energy consumer, with an increase of around 22 % between 1992 and 1999 in the AC-13 and 17 % in the EU. In the EU as well as in ACs, road transport consumes most energy. In ACs, road transport is also the fastest growing energy consumer (20 % increase between 1994 and 1999), followed by aviation (6 %). In the EU, aviation is the fastest growing transport energy consumer (34 %), followed by maritime shipping (24 % increase between 1994 and 1999). Energy consumption by maritime bunkers for ACs is not available.
In the ACs, energy consumption by rail fell by 19 % between 1994 and 1999, following a dramatic decrease in rail transport volumes. The (limited) statistics available on energy consumption by aviation (domestic and international) show an increase over the same period in most ACs, most strikingly for Malta (115 %), a popular holiday destination.
The European climate change programme focuses on improving the energy efficiency of cars, changing driver behaviour, promoting modal shift and introducing transport pricing and economic instruments for aviation (European Commission, 2000). The slight improvement in energy efficiency of passenger and freight road transport that can be observed in some EU countries has proved, however, insufficient to slow down the growth rate of transport energy consumption. This emphasises the need to tackle transport volume growth in addition to the above-mentioned measures.