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Emissions of ozone precursors (version 1)

Indicator Assessmentexpired Created 24 Sep 2007 Published 07 Mar 2008 Last modified 03 Sep 2015, 07:17 PM
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Indicator codes: CSI 002

Key messages

Aggregated emissions of ozone-forming gases (ground-level ozone precursors - CH4, CO, NMVOC and NOx) were reduced by 38% across the EEA member countries between 1990 and 2005, mainly as a result of the increased use of catalytic converters and to a lesser extent to a switch from petrol cars to diesel cars. Together these changes have significantly reduced emissions of NOx and CO from vehicles, an important source of ozone precursor emissions (Figure 1).

Emissions in the EU-15 Member States decreased by 41% since 1990 (Figure 2), from 36 981 kt to 21 760 kt.

Between 1990 and 2005 emission of ozone precursors in the new EU-12 Member States declined significantly from 9 136 kt to 5 715 kt, a reduction of 37% (Figure 3).

The EU-15 and new EU-12 are unlikely to meet their aggregated 2010 NECD target for the two ozone precursors NOx and NMVOCs.

What progress is being made in reducing emissions of ozone precursors across Europe?

Emissions of ozone precursors (EU-15)

Note: NEC Directive targets are applied on LRTAP Convention data.

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

Emissions of ozone precursors (EU-27 - EU-15)

Note: NEC Directive targets are applied on LRTAP Convention data.

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

Change in emissions of ozone precursors compared with the 2010 NECD targets (EEA member countries)

Note: Gothenburg targets are applied for countries without a NEC Directive target.

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC..

Downloads and more info

Emissions of ozone precursors (EEA member countries)

Note: N/A

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

Total emissions of ozone precursors were reduced by 38% across the EEA-32 member countries between 1990 and 2005.

For the EU-15 Member States, emissions were reduced by 41%. Emission reductions in the EU-15 since 1990 are mainly due to the further introduction of catalytic converters for cars and increased penetration of diesel, but also as a result of, for example, the implementation of the Solvent Emissions Directive in industrial processes.

A large majority of the reduction of ozone precursors occurred in the road transport sector, while the next most important sector was energy industries (8%).

Emissions of nitrogen oxides (51% of total weighted emissions) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (36% of total weighted emissions) contributed the most to the formation of tropospheric ozone in 2005. Carbon monoxide and methane contributed 12% and 1%, respectively. However, emissions of NOx and NMVOC were reduced significantly between 1990 and 2005, contributing 33% and 47%, respectively, of the total reduction in precursor emissions.

In the new EU-12 [1], total ozone precursor emissions were reduced by 37% between 1990 and 2005. Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (38% of the total) and nitrogen oxides (46% of the total) were the most significant pollutants contributing to the formation of tropospheric ozone in the new EU-12 Member States in 2005.

A recent study performed for the European Commission [2] indicates that 10 out of 23 EU-27 Member States (excluding Greece, Romania, Bulgaria and Luxembourg) predict that their 2010 emission estimates will be higher than their NECD target vaue for NOx and 2 out of 23 member States predict that they are unlikely to meet their NECD target for NMVOC in 2010 under implemented and planned policies and measures.

Emission reductions of the ozone precursors covered by the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (non-methane volatile organic compounds NMVOCs, and nitrogen oxides NOx) have to be reduced further for the EU-15 to reach the overall target for reducing these emissions by 2010. Ten out of 13 EU-15 Member States indicated that they are unlikely to meet their NECD ceiling for NOx or NMVOC in 2010 [2] .

Within the new EU-12, nine of 10 Member States (excluding Bulgaria and Romania) are well on track to meeting their NECD targets for SO2 or NOx [2].

[1] Data from Malta not available for CO.

[2] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pollutants/nationalprogr_dir200181.htm

How do different sectors and processes contribute to emissions of ozone precursors?

Distance-to-target for EU-27 Member States

Note: The DTI results are shown in red (positive result ie

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

Sector split of emissions of ozone precursors (EEA member countries; EU-15; EU-27 - EU-15; EFTA-4 and CC-3)

Note: N/A

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

Contribution to change in ozone precursors emissions for each sector and pollutant (EEA member countries)

Note: Contribution to change plots show the contribution to the total emission change between 1990-2005 made by a specified sector/ pollutant

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

Contribution to change in ozone precursors emissions for each sector and pollutant (EU-15)

Note: Contribution to change plots show the contribution to the total emission change between 1990-2005 made by a specified sector/ pollutant

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

Contribution to change in ozone precursors emissions for each sector and pollutant (EU-27 - EU-15)

Note: Contribution to change plots show the contribution to the total emission change between 1990-2005 made by a specified sector/ pollutant

Data source:

Data from 2007 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

In the EU-15, transport is the dominant source of ozone precursors. In 2005, transport contributed to 43% of total EU-15 emissions, with emissions from this sector contributing to 67% of the total reduction of ozone precursor emissions between 1990 and 2005 (Figure 8). Other important EU-15 emission sources in 2005 included commercial and domestic combustion and use of solvents in paint, glue and printing. After the transport sector, the sector responsible for the second largest absolute reduction was the energy industries sector due to the decline in coal use in favour of gas and electricity, contributing 8% of the total reduction of ozone precursor emissions. Emission reductions that have occured within the EU-15 region since 1990 are mainly due to the further introduction of catalytic converters for cars and increased penetration of diesel, but also as a result of the implementation of the Solvent Emissions Directive in industrial processes.

 

In the new EU-12 Member States, transport is again the dominant source of ozone precursors, contributing 33% of total TOFP-weighted emissions in 2005 (Figure 9). Other significant emission sources in the new EU-12 include commercial and domestic combustion processes (15% of total emissions), other non-energy (14%) and engery industries (14%). As observed across the EU-15, the emission reductions are also mainly due to further introduction of catalytic converters for cars and increased penetration of diesel, but also due to the implementation of the Solvent Emissions Directive in industrial processes and reduction of fuel consumption. Emissions in the industry (processes) and energy sectors have all been significantly reduced, and contributed to 16% and 24% of the total reduction of ozone precursor emissions, respectively.

Indicator specification and metadata

Indicator definition

This indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors: Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, methane and non methane volatile organic compounds, each weighted by their tropospheric ozone-forming potential.

The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy industries; road and other transport; industry (processes and energy); other (energy); fugitive emissions; waste; agriculture and other (non energy).

Units

ktonnes (NMVOC-equivalent)


Policy context and targets

Context description

Emission ceiling targets for NOx and NMVOCs are specified in both the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD) and the Gothenburg protocol under the United Nations Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) (UNECE 1999). Emission reduction targets for the new EU-12 Member States have been specified in a consolidated version of the NECD for the EU-25 [1] which was adopted by the European Community after the accession of the EU-10 Member States. In addition, the consolidated NECD also includes emission ceilings for Bulgaria and Romania whose targets have been defined in their respective Accession treaties [2].

 

There are no specific EU emission targets set for either carbon monoxide (CO) or methane (CH4). However, there are several Directives and Protocols that affect the emissions of CO and CH4. For example, carbon monoxide is covered by the second daughter Directive under the Air Quality Directive. This gives a limit of 10 ug m-3 for ambient air quality to be met by 2005. Methane is included in the basket of six greenhouse gases under the Kyoto protocol (see CSI 10: Greenhouse gas emissions and removals).

 

[1] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/necd_consolidated.pdf

[2] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/eu27_nat_emission_ceilings_2010.pdf

3. UNECE (1999). Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary air pollution (LRTAP Convention) to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1 December 1999.

4. NECD. Directive 2001/81/EC, on national emissions ceilings (NECD) for certain atmospheric pollutants.

Targets

Emissions of NOx and NMVOCs are covered by the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD) (2001/81/EC) and the Gothenburg Protocol under the United Nations Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) (UNECE 1999). The NECD generally involves slightly stricter emission reduction targets than the Gothenburg Protocol for EU-15 countries for the period 1990-2010.

Table 1. Percentage reduction required by 2010 from 1990 levels by country, for emissions of ozone precursors NOx and NMVOCs (emission targets weighted by ozone formation potential).

Country group

Country

1990 - 2010: NECD targets

1990 - 2010: LRTAP Convention/Gothenburg targets

EU-15

Austria

-14%

-45%

EU-15

Belgium

-31%

-58%

EU-15

Denmark

-20%

-53%

EU-15

Finland

-28%

-43%

EU-15

France

-28%

-59%

EU-15

Germany

-51%

-69%

EU-15

Greece

22%

5%

EU-15

Ireland

-10%

-48%

EU-15

Italy

-34%

-46%

EU-15

Luxembourg

-84%

-12%

EU-15

Netherlands

-45%

-55%

EU-15

Portugal

14%

-20%

EU-15

Spain

17%

-35%

EU-15

Sweden

-37%

-44%

EU-15

United Kingdom

-48%

-56%

NewEU-12

Bulgaria

34%

15%

NewEU-12

Cyprus

15%

33%

NewEU-12

Czech Republic

-52%

-53%

NewEU-12

Estonia

-44%

-23%

NewEU-12

Hungary

1%

-24%

NewEU-12

Latvia

-11%

19%

NewEU-12

Lithuania

-36%

-18%

NewEU-12

Malta

-17%

24%

NewEU-12

Poland

-2%

-22%

NewEU-12

Romania

3%

18%

NewEU-12

Slovakia

-47%

-28%

NewEU-12

Slovenia

-19%

-21%

 

EU-27

-30%

-51%

EFTA-4

Liechtenstein

-38%

-19%

EFTA-4

Norway

-22%

-30%

EFTA-4

Switzerland

-58%

-50%

CC-3

Turkey

87%

-85%

Related policy documents

  • 1999 Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone
    Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution 1999 Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, amended on 4 May 2012.
  • Directive 2001/81/EC, national emission ceilings
    Directive 2001/81/EC, on nation al emissions ceilings (NECD) for certain atmospheric pollutants. Emission reduction targets for the new EU10 Member States have been specified in the Treaty of Accession to the European Union 2003  [The Treaty of Accession 2003 of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia. AA2003/ACT/Annex II/en 2072] in order that they can comply with the NECD.

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

The dataset compiled by EEA/ETC-ACC for this indicator is based on national total and sectoral emissions of CO, NMVOC and NOx (expressed as NO2) officially reported to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution (LRTAP Convention) and GHG Monitoring Mechanism.

Emissions data reported to the LRTAP Convention can be submitted in NFR format. A detailed discription of the difference reporting formats can be found in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2006 (1).

Base data is available from http://webdab.emep.int/ and from the EEA dataservice.  Emission data for methane is obtained from the EEA Greenhouse Gas Inventory database. Base data, reported in NFR are converted into EEA sector codes to obtain a common reporting format across all countries and pollutants:

-          Energy industry: Emissions from public heat and electricity generation

-          Fugitive emissions: Emissions from extraction and distribution of solid fossil fuels and geothermal energy

-          Industry (Energy): relates to emissions from combustion processes used in the manufacturing industry including boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

-          Industry (Processes): Emissions from production processes

-          Road transport: light and heavy duty vehicles, passenger cars and motorcycles;

-          Off-road transport: railways, domestic shipping, certain aircraft movements, and non-road mobile machinery used in agriculture, forestry;

-          Agriculture: manure management, fertiliser application, field-burning of agricultural wastes

-          Waste: incineration, waste-water management.

-          Other (energy-related) covers energy use principally in the services and household sectors

-          Other (Non Energy): Emissions from solvent and other product use.

 

The current LRTAP template Version 2004-1 includes 103 categories.

The following table shows the conversion of NFR sector codes into EEA sector codes:

 EEA Code

EEA classification

Non-GHGs (NFR)

0

National totals

National Total

1

Energy industries

1A1

3

Industry (Energy)

1A2

2

Fugitive emissions

1B

7

Road transport

1A3b

8

Other transport (non-road mobile machinery)

1A3 (excl 1A3b) + sectors mapped to 8 in table below

9

Industry (Processes)

2

4

Agriculture

4 + 5B

5

Waste

6

6

Other (Energy)

1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4b(i), 1A4c(i), 1A5a

10

Other (non-energy)

3 + 7

14

Unallocated

Difference between NT and sum of sectors (1-12)

12

Energy Industries (Power Production 1A1a)

1A1a

Where reported data from countries is incomplete, simple gap-filling techniques are used in order to obtain a consistent time-series (see section on gap-filling).

To obtain emission values for the ozone precursors, the gap-filled emission values are multiplied by tropospheric ozone formation potential factors, de Leeuw (2002). The factors are NOx 1.22, NMVOCs: 1, CO: 0.11 and CH4: 0.014. Results are expressed in NMVOC equivalents (ktonnes).  For the main indicator trend graph, emissions are shown indexed to 1990 values (1990 emission =100). The sectoral shares are the share of the specific sector relative to the sum of all sectors for a given year. The 'unallocated' sector corresponds to the difference between the reported national total and the sum of the reported sectors for a given pollutant/country/year combination. This can be either negative or positive. Inclusion of this additional sector means that the officially-reported national totals do not require adjustment to ensure they are consistent with the sum of the individual sectors reported by countries.

(1) http://reports.eea.europa.eu/EMEPCORINAIR4/en/BNPA_v3.1.pdf

Methodology for gap filling

To allow trend analysis, where countries have not reported data for one or more years, data have been interpolated to derive the emission for the missing year or years. If the reported data is missing either at the beginning or at the end of the period, the emission value is assumed to equal the first (or last) reported emission value. The use of gap-filling may lead to artificial trends, but it is considered unavoidable if a comprehensive and comparable set of emissions data for European countries is required for policy analysis purposes. A list of the gap-filled dataset, plus a spreadsheet containing a record of the gap-filled data will be made available from EEA's dataservice: http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/dataservice/metadetails.asp?id=818

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

The use of ozone formation potential factors leads to some uncertainty. The factors are assumed to be representative for Europe as a whole; on the local scale uncertainties are larger and other factors are more relevant.  An extensive discussion on the uncertainties in these factors is available in de Leeuw (2002).

Data sets uncertainty

EEA uses data officially submitted by EU Member States and other EEA member countries which follow common guidelines on the calculation and reporting of emissions (EMEP/EEA 2006) for the air pollutants NOx, NMVOC and CO, and IPCC (2006) for the greenhouse gas CH4.

NOx emission estimates in Europe are thought to have an uncertainty of about +/-30%, as the NOx emitted comes both from the fuel burnt and the combustion air and so cannot be estimated accurately from fuel nitrogen alone. EMEP has compared modelled and measured concentrations throughout Europe (EMEP 1998). From these studies differences for individual monitoring stations of up to a factor of two have been found. This is consistent with an inventory of national annual emissions having an uncertainty of +/-30% (there are also uncertainties in the measurements and especially the modelling). Uncertainties in emissions of CO are likely to have a similar magnitude of uncertainty as for NOx. NMVOC emissions data have been verified by EMEP and others by means of comparison between modelled and measured concentration throughout Europe. From these studies total uncertainty ranges have been estimated to about +/-50%. Some main source categories are less uncertain.

CH4 estimates are reasonably reliable as they are based on a few well-known emission sources. The IPCC believes that the uncertainty in CH4 emission estimates from all sources, in Europe, is likely to be about +/-20 %. CH4 emissions from some sources, such as rice fields, are much larger (possibly an order of magnitude), but are a minor emission source in Europe. In 2004, EU Member States reported uncertainties in their estimates of CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation as ranging between 0.5 % (UK) and 2.8 % (Ireland) of the total national GHG emissions (EEA 2004).

Incomplete reporting and resulting intra- and extrapolation may obscure some trends.      

EMEP/EEA (2006). Joint EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook (2006), 3rd ed, EEA, Copenhagen. 

IPCC (2006). Revised 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. JT Houghton, LG Meira Filho, B Lim, K Treanton, I Mamaty, Y Bonduki, DJ Griggs and BA Callender (Eds). IPCC/OECD/IEA. UK Meteorological Office, Bracknell.

EMEP (1998). Transboundary Acidifying Air Pollution in Europe, Part 1: Estimated dispersion of acidifying and eutrophying compounds and comparison with observations. EMEP/MSC-W Report 1/98, July 1998.

EEA (2004). European Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2002 and Inventory Report 2004, Technical Report No 2/2004. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

Rationale uncertainty

This indicator on emissions of ozone precursors is produced annually by EEA and is used regularly in its State of the Environment reporting. The uncertainties related to methodology and data sets are therefore of importance. Any uncertainties involved in the calculation and in the data sets need to be accurately communicated in the assessment, to prevent erroneous messages influencing policy actions or processes.

Data sources

Generic metadata

Topics:

Air pollution Air pollution (Primary topic)

Tags:
ozone | csi | air
DPSIR: Pressure
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 002
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Martin Adams

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Filed under: , ,
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100