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Bathing water quality (CSI 022/WAT 004) - Assessment published Dec 2010

Indicator Assessment Created 18 Oct 2010 Published 17 Dec 2010 Last modified 09 Jan 2015, 03:23 PM
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Key messages

  • The quality of water at designated bathing beaches in Europe (coastal and inland) has improved significantly since 1992.
  • Compliance with mandatory values in EU coastal bathing waters increased from 82.3 % in 1992 to 95.6 % in 2009. Compliance with guide values likewise rose from 71.1 % to 89 %.
  • In 1992, 37.4 % of EU inland bathing areas complied with mandatory values compared to 89.4 % in 2009. Similarly, the rate of compliance with guide values moved from 22 % in 1992 to 70.7 % in 2009.

Is bathing water quality improving?

Coastal bathing water quality in the European Union

Note: 1990, 7 EU Member States; 1991 to 1994, 12 EU Member States; 1995-96, 14 EU Member States; 1997 to 2003, 15 EU Member States; 2004, 21 EU Member States; 2005-06, 25 EU Member States; 2007 to 2009, 27 EU Member States

Data source:

WISE Bathing Water Quality database based on annual reports by EU Member States

Downloads and more info

Inland bathing water quality in the European Union

Note: The figure shows the bathing water quality in different European countries over time

Data source:

WISE Bathing Water Quality database based on annual reports by EU Member States

Downloads and more info

Percentage of European coastal bathing waters complying with mandatory values and meeting guide values of the Bathing Water Directive for the year 2009 by country

Note: Countries arranged by the percentage of compliance with mandatory values.

Data source:

WISE Bathing Water Quality database based on annual reports by EU Member States, Croatia and Switzerland

Downloads and more info

Percentage of European inland bathing waters complying with mandatory values and meeting guide values of the Bathing Water Directive for the year 2009 by country

Note: Sea regions arranged by the percentage of compliance with mandatory values. EU Member States and Switzerland. No inland bathing waters are reported from three Member States (Cyprus, Malta and Romania), Croatia and Montenegro. The quality classes under the New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) for Hungary and Luxembourg are jointed with compliance categories under the Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC).

Data source:

WISE Bathing Water Quality database based on annual reports by EU Member States, Croatia and Switzerland

http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/bathing-water-directive-status-of-bathing-water-3

Downloads and more info

Percentage of European inland bathing waters complying with mandatory values and meeting guide values of the Bathing Water Directive for the year 2009 by sea region

Note: Regions arranged by the percentage of compliance with mandatory values. EU27 Member States plus Croatia and Switzerland

Data source:

WISE Bathing Water Quality database based on annual reports by EU Member States, Croatia and Switzerland

Downloads and more info

Percentage of European coastal bathing waters complying with mandatory values and meeting guide values of the Bathing Water Directive for the year 2009 by sea region

Note: Regions arranged by the percentage of compliance with mandatory values. EU27 Member States and Croatia

Data source:

WISE Bathing Water Quality database based on annual reports by EU Member States, Croatia and Switzerland

Downloads and more info

Introduction

The first European bathing water legislation, the ‘Bathing Water Directive’ was adopted in 1975 and came into force in 1976. Its main objectives are to safeguard public health and protect the aquatic environment in coastal and inland areas from pollution. Bathing waters covered by the Bathing Water Directive can be coastal waters or inland waters (rivers, natural lakes, reservoirs and ponds) in which bathing is explicitly authorised by the competent authorities of each Member State, or not prohibited and traditionally practiced by a large number of bathers. Swimming pools and waters for therapeutic purposes are not covered. The period during which bathers can be expected in bathing areas depends largely on local bathing rules and weather conditions. A bathing season can also vary within a Member State. In the European Union it usually runs from the end of May until the end of September.
New European legislation on bathing water was adopted in 2006. The ‘New Bathing Water Directive’ updates the measures of the 1975 legislation and simplifies its management and surveillance methods.
The New Bathing Water Directive will repeal the old one (Directive 76/160/EEC) by the end of 2014 at latest. Member States can choose to report either under the Bathing Water Directive or the New Bathing Water Directive until the 2012 bathing season when the reporting under the New Bathing Water Directive will become obligatory.
By the 2009 bathing season, 14 countries were monitoring and reporting under the New Bathing Water Directive. In 2005 Sweden was the first country to monitor under the New Bathing Water Directive and has reported results from the 2008 bathing season. Luxembourg started to monitor under the New Bathing Water Directive in the 2006 bathing season and started to report from the 2007 bathing season. Malta started to monitor under the New Bathing Water Directive in the 2006 bathing season and started to report from the 2009 bathing season. Another ten countries (Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Spain) started to monitor and report according to the New Bathing Water Directive's more stringent requirements in the 2008 bathing season, and the Netherlands changed their monitoring and reporting from the 2009 bathing season.

Key assessment

European Union (Figure 1-2)

See also EEA report: Quality of bathing water - 2009 bathing season

Europeans have a huge diversity of beautiful beaches and bathing areas at their disposal. More than 20 000 bathing waters were monitored in the 27 Member States for the 2009 bathing season. Around two-thirds were coastal bathing waters and one-third were inland bathing waters (rivers, lakes and ponds).

Coastal bathing waters
The overall water quality of coastal bathing waters slightly decreased in the European Union in 2009 relative to 2008. Some 95.6 % of coastal bathing waters in the European Union complied with the mandatory values of the Bathing Water Directive during the 2009 bathing season (Fig. 1). This is a decrease of 0.7 percentage points compared to the previous year. However, some 89 % of coastal bathing waters complied with the Bathing Water Directive’s more stringent guide values, which is a 0.4 percentage point increase from 2008. A small number of coastal bathing waters (1.6 %) did not comply with mandatory values, which is a 0.2 percentage point increase. Only 2.3 % of bathing waters were banned or closed during the season, which also represents a 0.2 percentage point increase from 2008.
The quality of the European Union’s coastal bathing waters has improved significantly since 1990 (Fig. 1). The number of bathing waters not complying with the Bathing Water Directive’s provisions decreased from 9.2 % to 1.6 % in 2009, with the lowest level (1.2 %) attained in 2003. Compliance with mandatory values improved dramatically, increasing from just fewer than 80 % in 1990 to over 95 % in 1999, and has remained quite stable since then. Compliance with guide values likewise rose from over 68 % to over 89 % in 2003 and has slightly decreased thereafter.

Inland bathing waters
In 2009, the quality of inland bathing waters decreased relative to 2008. Almost nine in ten reported inland bathing waters (89.4 %) in the European Union complied with the mandatory values during the 2009 bathing season, 2.6 percentage points less than in the previous year (Fig. 2). The percentage of inland bathing waters complying with the more stringent guide values also decreased by 2.7 percentage points, reaching 70.7 %. Only 3.1 % of inland bathing areas in the European Union did not comply with mandatory values, which represented a 0.3 percentage point increase. The share of bathing waters that were banned or closed during the season in 2009 is 4.7 %, a slight increase of 0.1 percentage points.
The overall quality of inland bathing areas in the EU has markedly improved since 1990 (Fig 2) but with greater variations than coastal bathing waters. In 1990, some 52 % of inland bathing areas complied with mandatory values and this number reached 90 % by the early 2000s and decreased slightly afterwards before recovering to 92 % in 2008. Similarly, the rate of compliance with guide values moved from 36.4 % in 1990 to over 70 % since 2008. That represented an increase of approximately 10 percentage points compared to 2005. The number of bathing areas not complying with mandatory values decreased from 11.9 % in 1990 to 3.1 % in 2009.

Assessment by sea regions (Figure 3-4): EU27 plus Croatia and Switzerland
Coastal bathing waters
The majority of coastal bathing waters are located in the Mediterranean Sea region which is 9 026. In the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean regions the number of coastal bathing waters is around 2 000. In the Baltic Sea region there are 1 229 coastal bathing waters and in the Black Sea region 138.
The best compliance with mandatory values in the coastal bathing waters in 2009 was found in the Black Sea region (99.3%) (Fig. 3). The compliance rate was above the average of the European Union (95.6 %) also in the Atlantic Ocean (98 %), North Sea (96.4 %) and Baltic Sea regions (95.9 %). The compliance rate was slightly below the EU average in the Mediterranean Sea region (95.4 %).
The differences among sea regions in regard to guide level values are higher than in regard to mandatory standards. Only the Mediterranean Sea region (93.9 %)  had above average compliance rate with the guide values compared to the EU average of 89 %. The share of coastal bathing areas complying with the guide values in the Atlantic Ocean and North Sea regions stood at 87.4 % and 86 %, respectively. In the Baltic Sea region, 70.7 % of coastal bathing waters complied with the guide values. The lowest compliance rate was achieved in the Black Sea region (61.6 %).


Inland bathing waters
The highest number of inland bathing waters is located in the North Sea region  which is 2 710,. In the Baltic Sea region there are 1 255 inland bathing waters and in the Mediterranean Sea region 1 541. The Black Sea and Atlantic Ocean regions have less than 1 000 inland bathing waters, with 870 and 844 respectively.
The North Sea region achieved the highest compliance rate with mandatory values in the inland bathing waters in 2009 95.8 %, (Fig. 4). The compliance rate was above the average of the European Union of 89.4 % also in the Black Sea (95.1%), Atlantic Ocean and Baltic Sea regions (both 94.3 %). Only the inland bathing waters of the Mediterranean Sea region (71.3 %) fall below the EU average in complying with the mandatory standards.
The differences among sea regions in regard to guide level values in the inland bathing waters are lower compared to the coastal bathing waters. Inland bathing waters in the Atlantic Ocean region performed the best against the guide values, with 79.6 % of bathing waters complying. 73.4 % of inland bathing waters in the Black Sea region and 73.8 % of inland bathing waters in the North Sea region complied with the guide values, which is above the EU average of 70.7 %. The compliance rate in the Baltic Sea and Mediterranean Sea regions stood at 67.6 % and 64.4 %, respectively.

Assessment by countries (Figure 5-6)
See also WISE interactive map: State of bathing waters
Coastal bathing waters
Italy (4 921), France (2 005), Spain (1 910), Greece (1 273), Denmark (1 087), Croatia (905) and the United Kingdom (596) have the highest number of coastal bathing waters. Countries with less than 50 coastal bathing waters are Romania (49), Latvia (46), Belgium (42), Estonia (27), Slovenia (20) and Lithuania (16).
Seven countries, Slovenia (20), Cyprus (111), Malta (87), Lithuania (16), Belgium (42), Latvia (46) and Romania (49) achieved 100 % compliance with mandatory values in their coastal bathing waters in 2009, while Greece (1 273), Croatia (905) and Germany (373) almost achieved it (99.9%, 99.6% and 99.5%, respectively) (Fig. 5). The mandatory water quality was below the average of the European Union (95.6 %) only in five countries: the Netherlands (95.6 % of 91), Denmark (94.5 % of 1 087), Ireland (93.4 % of 122), Italy (92.2 % of 4 921) and Poland (87.6 % of 89).
The differences among countries in regard to guide values are much higher than in regard to mandatory standards. In general, guide levels values were met in far fewer coastal bathing waters than were the mandatory standards. The best compliance with guide levels (above 96 %) was found in Slovenia (20; 100 %), Greece (99.8 % of 1 273), Cyprus (99.1 % of 111), Croatia (97.9 % of 905), Portugal (96.8 % of 443) and France (96.4 % of 2 005). The guide water quality was below the average of the European Union (89 %) in 14 countries. The lowest compliance with guide levels (below 60 %) was reached in Estonia (55.6 % of 27), Latvia (50 % of 46), Poland (37.1 % of 89) and Romania (8.2 % of 49).
Among countries with coastal bathing waters, Malta is the first country that was assessed under the New Bathing Water Directive. In Malta, 93.1 % of the coastal bathing waters had excellent quality and 6.9 % of the coastal bathing waters had good quality in 2009. No bathing waters had poor quality.


Inland bathing waters
Germany and France have the highest number of inland bathing waters (1 906 and 1 343 respectively). The other countries with more than 300 inland bathing waters are Italy (770), the Netherlands (553) and Switzerland (382). Countries with less than 30 inland bathing waters are Estonia (28), Slovenia (25), Luxembourg (20), the United Kingdom (12), Ireland (nine), Greece (four) and Bulgaria (four).
Three countries with few inland bathing waters, Greece (four), Bulgaria (four) and the United Kingdom (12), achieved 100 % compliance with mandatory values in their inland bathing waters in 2009, while Sweden (210) and Switzerland (382) almost reached it (both 99.5 %) (Fig. 6). The compliance rate was lower than the average of the European Union (89.4 %) in seven countries: Denmark (88.9 % of 117), Ireland (88.9 % of nine), Hungary (86.4 % of 177), Belgium (82.1 % of 84), Poland (81.5 % of 232), Luxembourg (55 % of 20) and Italy (46.4 % of 770). Compared to the coastal bathing waters the differences in compliance with mandatory standards among countries are much higher.
As with the coastal bathing waters, in general, the guide levels were met in far fewer inland bathing waters as compared to mandatory values. The best compliance with guide levels (above 90 %) was found in Greece (four; 100 %), France (94.6 % of 1 343) and Finland (90.6 % of 254). Countries with more than 80 % compliance rate were also Switzerland (84 % of 382), Sweden (83.8 % of 210) and Germany (81.2 % of 1 906). The guide water quality was lower than the average of the European Union (70.7 %) in 15 countries. Countries with the lowest compliance rate (below 40 %) were Italy (37.3 % of 770), Slovenia (36 % of 25) and the United Kingdom (33.3 % of 12).
Among countries with inland bathing waters, Luxembourg is the first country that was assessed under the New Bathing Water Directive. In Luxembourg, 55 % of the inland bathing waters had excellent quality and 45 % of the inland bathing waters had poor quality in 2009.

Indicator specification and metadata

Indicator definition

The indicator describes the changes over time in the quality of identified bathing waters (inland and coastal) in EU in terms of compliance with standards for parameters introduced by the EU Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC) , i.e. microbiological parameters (total coliforms and faecal coliforms) and physicochemical parameters (mineral oils, surface-active substances and phenols), as well as in terms of meeting standards for parameters introduced by the New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC), i.e. microbiological parameters (intestinal enterococci and Escherichia coli). The indicator also shows bathing water quality results in the European countries and European sea regions for the 2012 bathing season. The indicator is based on the annual reports made by Member States, as well as Croatia and Switzerland to the European Commission. Croatia (Member State from July 2013) is not included in EU average up to the 2012 season.

Units

The data are expressed in terms of percentage of inland and coastal bathing waters complying with the mandatory values and guide values for microbiological and physicochemical parameters (assessment under the Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC) in previous years) and with the mandatory value for Escherichia coli and guide values for Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci respectively (assessment during transition period). The data are also expressed in terms of percentage of inland and coastal bathing waters of excellent and at least sufficient quality (assessment under the New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC)). In addition, Figure 1 and 2 show percentage of coastal and inland bathing waters per compliance category or quality class where all categories/classes are presented. The quality classes under the New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) are jointed with compliance categories under the Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC). Some bathing waters cannot be classified according to compliance or quality but are instead classified as closed, insufficiently sampled or not sampled, new or changes.  


Policy context and targets

Context description

Under the Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC) Member States are required to designate coastal and inland bathing waters and to monitor the quality of the water throughout the bathing season. Bathing waters are designated where bathing is authorised by the competent authority and also where bathing is traditionally practised by a large number of bathers. The bathing season is then determined according to the period when there are the largest number of bathers (May to September in most European countries). The quality of the water has to be monitored fortnightly during the bathing season and also two weeks before. The sampling frequency may be reduced by a factor of two if the water quality gets a good rating for two previous consecutive years (compliance with mandatory or guide values). Annex 1 of the directive lists a number of parameters to be monitored but the focus has been on bacteriological quality. The directive sets both minimum standards (mandatory) and optimum standards (guide). For compliance with the directive, 95% of the samples must comply with the mandatory standards. To be classified as achieving guide values, 80% of the samples must comply with the total and faecal coliform standards and 90% with the standards for the other parameters.

On 24 October 2002, the Commission adopted the proposal for a revised Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the Quality of Bathing Water COM(2002)581. The New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) entered into force on 24.3.2006. It applies to any element of surface water where the competent authority expects a large number of people to bathe and has not imposed a permanent bathing prohibition, or issued permanent advice against bathing, except for swimming pools and spa pools, confined waters subject to treatment or used for therapeutic purposes and artificially created confined waters separated from surface water and groundwater. The Directive makes use of only two bacteriological indicator parameters, but sets a higher health standard than the Directive 76/160/EC. Based on international epidemiological research and the experience with implementing the current Bathing Water and Water Framework Directives, the revised Directive provides long-term quality assessment and management methods in order to reduce both monitoring frequency and monitoring costs. It creates four quality categories for bathing waters - 'poor', 'sufficient', 'good' and 'excellent'. The classification of bathing water quality is determined on the basis of a four-year trend instead of a single year's result, as was the case for the Bathing Water Directive. Member States have until December 2014 to achieve full implementation of the New Bathing Water Directive. As such Member States could choose to report either under the Bathing Water Directive or the New Bathing Water Directive until the 2011 bathing season. From the 2012 bathing season reporting under the New Bathing Water Directive becomes obligatory since the first classification according to the requirements of this Directive shall be completed by the end of the 2015 bathing season (using data for the period 2012-2015). Member States must take one sample at each bathing place shortly before the start of the bathing season and continue sampling until the end of the season, with at least one sample per month for Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci.

The New Bathing Water Directive lays down provisions for more sophisticated monitoring and classification of bathing water. It also provides for extensive public information and participation in line with the Århus Convention as well as for comprehensive and modern management measures:

• The Directive requires Member States to draw up a management plan for each site to minimise risks to bathers based on an assessment of the sources of contamination that are likely to affect it. Users of the site should be actively involved in developing the management plan. Where bathing sites have a history of poor water quality, preventive measures should be taken to close the bathing area when such conditions are forecasted. If the quality standards are not respected, remedial measures must be taken.
• Information on a bathing site’s quality classification, the results of water quality monitoring, the site’s management plan and other relevant information is to be made readily available to the public, both through displays at the site and through the media and internet.
• While the Directive 76/160/EEC requires regular monitoring of 19 pollutants or other parameters (for example water colour) the revised Directive reduces this list to just two microbiological indicators of faecal contamination, E. Coli and intestinal enterococci. This simplification reflects recognition that faecal matter, for instance due to inadequate sewage treatment and pollution from animal waste, is the primary health threat to bathers.
• The classification of water quality at a bathing site is determined on the basis of a four year trend instead of a single year’s result, as was the case for the Bathing Water Directive. This means that the classification is less susceptible to bad weather or one-off incidents. Where water quality is consistently good over a four year period the frequency of sampling may be reduced, thereby cutting costs. It provides for the assessment of water quality on the basis of the set of water quality data compiled during the bathing seasons.
• The Directive requires "bathing profiles" to be drawn up describing the characteristics of the bathing water and identifying sources of pollution. The presence of pollution may result in needing to regularly review the status of the bathing, ban bathing there if needed and inform the public.
• To ease the monitoring burden for Member States the Directive reduces monitoring frequencies if the quality of bathing areas proves to be constantly "good" or "excellent".

Targets

All bathing waters to comply with mandatory values in Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC).

Increase in number of bathing waters complying with guide values in Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC). 

All bathing waters are at least ‘sufficient’ by the end of the 2015 bathing season in New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC). 

Increase the number of bathing waters classified as ‘excellent’ or ‘good’ in New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC).

Related policy documents

No related policy documents have been specified

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC)

The parameters to be taken into account for assessment according to the assessment rules of the Directive 76/160/EEC are microbiological (1 Total coliforms, 2 Faecal coliforms) and physico-chemical (8 Mineral oils, 9 Surface-active substances reacting with methylene blue, 10 Phenols (phenol indices)). The assessment under this Directive was done up to the 2011 bathing season (three countries still reported and being assessed under this Directive) since reporting under the Directive 2006/7/EC becomes obligatory from the 2012 season on.

The results are classified in the following categories:

    • CI: Compliant with mandatory values of the Directive for the five parameters;
    • CG: Compliant with mandatory and more stringent guide values of the Directive for the five parameters;
    • NC: Not compliant with mandatory values of the Directive for the five parameters;
    • NF: Bathing waters that are not sufficiently sampled (frequency criteria not satisfied);
    • NS: Bathing waters that are not sampled due to external causes;
    • B: Banned or closed.

 

Assessment during the transition period - reporting under the New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) and assessment according to the limit values of the Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC)

Assessing bathing water quality under Directive 2006/7/EC requires a data set of four consecutive years. While those data are being compiled, the rules for transition period are applied. This means that the classification of bathing waters is defined on the basis of concentrations of intestinal enterococci and Escherichia coli reported under Directive 2006/7/EC. The limit values for the classification are taken from the Directive 76/160/EEC. The parameter intestinal enterococci is evaluated according to the guide value for the faecal streptococci parameter given in Directive 76/160/EEC. The parameter Escherichia coli is evaluated according to the mandatory and guide values for the parameter faecal coliforms given in Directive 76/160/EEC.

The results are classified in the following categories:

  • CI: Compliant with the mandatory value of the Directive 76/160/EEC for Escherichia coli and not compliant with the guide values of the Directive 76/160/EEC for Escherichia coli or intestinal enterococci;
  • CG: Compliant with the mandatory value of the Directive 76/160/EEC for Escherichia coli and the more stringent guide values for the Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci; 
  • NC: Not compliant with the mandatory value of the Directive 76/160/EEC for Escherichia coli
  • NF: Bathing waters that are not sufficiently sampled (frequency criteria not satisfied);
  • NS: Bathing waters that are not sampled due to external causes;
  • B: Banned or closed.

 

The frequency of sampling is set out in Annex IV of the Directive 2006/7/EC. Including a sample to be taken shortly before the start of the bathing season, the minimum number of samples taken per bathing season is four. However, only three samples are sufficient when the bathing season does not exceed eight weeks or the region is subject to special geographical constraints. Sampling dates are to be distributed throughout the bathing season, with the interval between sampling dates never exceeding one month.

One pre-season sample should be available and the interval between sampling dates in 2012 should never exceed 35 days, provided that the next sampling is done according to the monitoring calendar.

The sampling frequency rules applied in previous years are described in annual European and national bathing water reports for previous seasons. The previous reports are available at the European Environment Agency’s bathing water website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/water/status-and-monitoring/state-of-bathing-water).

New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC)

When four consecutive years of samples of intestinal enterococci and Escherichia coli for bathing water are available, the assessment is done according to assessment rules of the Directive 2006/7/EC.

Coastal and inland bathing waters are classified as 'excellent', 'good', 'sufficient' and 'poor' quality. The assessment is based on a percentile evaluation and defines three different standards separately for inland and coastal bathing waters. The standards for excellent and good quality are based on a 95-percentile evaluation; the standards for sufficient quality are based on a 90-percentile evaluation. Bathing waters not meeting the standards for sufficient quality are classified as poor. Some bathing waters cannot be classified according to their quality but are instead classified as 'closed' (bathing water is closed temporarily or throughout the 2012 season and a complete set of data is not available), 'new' (bathing water is newly identified and classification not yet possible), 'insufficiently sampled' (a pre-season sample is missing, sampling frequency is not satisfied or a set of data is not complete) or 'changes' (bathing water is not new and classification not yet possible since a set of monitoring data is incomplete).

The frequency of sampling is set out in Annex IV of the Directive. Including a sample to be taken shortly before the start of the bathing season, the minimum number of samples taken per bathing season is four. However, only three samples are sufficient when the bathing season does not exceed eight weeks or the region is subject to special geographical constraints. Sampling dates are to be distributed throughout the bathing season, with the interval between sampling dates never exceeding one month.

The assessment provisions of the Directive 2006/7/EC are transformed into the following technical rules: a) one pre-season sample should be available; b) the interval between sampling dates in 2012 should never exceed 35 days, provided that the next sampling is done according to the monitoring calendar; c) the yearly number of samples in the previous years should be four or three if bathing season does not exceed eight weeks or the region is subject to special geographical constraints. Furthermore, the number of samples for the assessment period should be at least 16 or 12 if season duration is less than eight weeks or the region is subject to special geographical constraints.

Hungary grouped 54 % of the bathing waters (124 out of 232) into 44 groups for the 2012 bathing season. Therefore, the assessment of bathing water quality in 2012 is done by groups. The samples obtained during the season from any of the bathing waters in a group were treated as one set of samples for the group. The classification of bathing waters in a group is done on the basis of this sample set.

The sampling frequency rules applied in previous years are described in annual European and national bathing water reports for previous seasons. The previous reports are available at the European Environment Agency’s bathing water website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/water/status-and-monitoring/state-of-bathing-water).

Methodology for gap filling

No gaps are filled.

Methodology references

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

There are differences in how countries have interpreted and implemented the directive leading to differences in the representativeness of bathing waters included in terms of recreational water use.

Data sets uncertainty

The EU has expanded during the life of the Directive from 12 countries in 1992 to 28 at present. The time series is thus is not consistent in terms of geographic coverage. The new EU Member States have reported on the quality of their bathing waters since 2004 or 2005 (EU-10), 2007 (Bulgaria and Romania) and 2009 (Croatia). Croatia (Member State from July 2013) is not included in EU average up to the 2012 season. Switzerland has reported on the quality of their bathing waters since 2009 and Montenegro reported for 2010 and 2011. No allowance is made for differences between the years in the number of (EU) countries reporting, and the numbers of identified bathing waters.

Rationale uncertainty

Human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, and so the main parameters analysed for compliance with the Directive are indicator organisms; total and faecal coliforms. Compliance with the mandatory standards and guide levels for these indicator organisms does not therefore guarantee that there is no risk to human health.

The Directive 2006/7/EC reduces the number of parameters from 19 to 2 key microbiological parameters, complemented by visual inspection such as algae bloom, and oil.The parameters used for setting the standards were reviewed and streamlined, focusing on the most robust microbiological indicators which are the most relevant for human health. Parameters are based on the latest scientific evidence.

The new parameters are the following:

  • Escherichia coli to replace the faecal coliforms parameter;
  • intestinal enterococci to replace the faecal streptococci parameter.

 Other microbiological parameters such as total coliforms and enteroviruses were removed because according to the latest scientific evidence they were not considered to be the best indicators for assessing bathing water quality. The choice of microbiological parameters is based on available scientific evidence provided by epidemiological studies conducted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and health institutes in Germany, France and Netherlands.

Data sources

Generic metadata

Topics:

Water Water (Primary topic)

Coasts and seas Coasts and seas

Tags:
soer2010 | thematic assessments | freshwater quality | water | csi | freshwater
DPSIR: State
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 022
  • WAT 004
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2009
Geographic coverage:
Atlantic, Austria, Belgium, Black Sea, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marine Baltic sea, Marine North sea, Mediterranean, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peter Kristensen

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 1.4.2 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100