CO2 emissions for total transport and main modes (road, rail, water, domestic air) are directly extracted from EEA inventories.
CO2 emissions by road transport modes (cars, trucks and light vehicles, bus) are calculated from energy consumption by modes according to a sample of 15 countries available in ODYSSEE and extrapolated to EU-27.
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New supermarkets in the area can reduce business for smaller shops. Pollution and congestion would be significantly less if consumers frequented their local shops, rather than travelling long distances to out-of-town shopping centres.
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