The map shows the average soil sealing degree inside the UMZ of European core cities (core city defined in Urban Atlas / Urban Audit). Soil sealing degrees are represented in coloured dots. The city dots are overlaid onto a modelled map displaying the change in annual number of days with heavy rainfall between the reference periods 1961-1990 and 2071-2100.
The degree of soil sealing is taken from the Pan-European soil sealing layer that contains the degree of soil sealing. To approximate the morphological area of the city, the reference unit is composed of the Urban Morphological Zones (derived from CLC 2006) inside the core city boundaries (core city defined in Urban Atlas / Urban Audit) and above a threshold of 10ha. Those reference unit objects have been overlaid onto the soil sealing mosaic of Europe to compute the mean soil sealing degree of each core city-UMZ by means of zonal statistics. Those values have again been classified into four classes and presented as coloured dots.
The modelled map has been computed in the framework of the ESPON Climate project and shows the change in annual mean number of days with extreme precipitation (>20mm/day) between the CCLM scenarios run (2071-2100) and the reference run (1961-1990) for IPCC scenario A1B. Those data are calculated based on the CCLM parameter ‘rainfall’ (yearly). This indicator will illustrate regional exposure to changes in heavy rainfall events and thus indicate hydrologic extremes. This variable has strong relevance for local heavy rainfall event, especially when occurring over highly sealed surface area
EEA standard re-use policy: unless otherwise indicated, re-use of content on the EEA website for commercial or non-commercial purposes is permitted free of charge, provided that the source is acknowledged (http://www.eea.europa.eu/legal/copyright). Copyright holder: European Environment Agency (EEA).
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Fly only for distances greater than 700 km. Otherwise take the train. A transatlantic flight produces almost half as much CO2 as an average person produces over a period of one year while meeting all his or her other needs, such as lighting, heating and car travel!
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