For waste plastics, iron & steel, copper, aluminium and nickel; precious metals and paper and cardboard, data on waste exports/imports were extracted from Eurostat's international trade statistics database and summed into the material categories. The following product codes were selected: plastics: 39151000, 39152000, 39153000, 39159011, 39159013, 39159018, 39159019, 39159080, 39159090, 39159091, 39159093 and 39159099; Iron and steel: 72041000, 72042100, 72042110, 72042190, 72042900, 72043000, 72044910, 72044990, 72044991 and 72044999; Cu, Al, Ni: 74040010, 74040091, 74040099, 75030010, 75030090, 76020019 and 76020090; Precious metals: 71121000, 71122000, 71123000, 71129000, 71129100, 71129200, 71129900; Paper and cardboard: 47071000, 47072000; 47073010; 47073090; 47079010; 47079090. Exports/imports were calculated from the EU-27 out of the EU27/into the EU (select parnter: EU_extra) . The sum of all the waste types (codes) represents the total amount of exports/imports of the respective waste material. In order to convert the waste export amounts into million tonnes, the sums of the raw values (as extracted from the Eurostat database) is divided by 10000000 for volumes and by 1000000 for values.
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New supermarkets in the area can reduce business for smaller shops. Pollution and congestion would be significantly less if consumers frequented their local shops, rather than travelling long distances to out-of-town shopping centres.
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