Total energy Research and Development expenditure, EU-15 Member States and EU level funding
MS means Member States. EU level funding is from the R&D; European Community Framework programmes. Framework programme expenditure has been estimated as an annual average over the duration of the programme. Non-nuclear research includes renewable energy, energy conservation, fossil fuel production, power production and storage technologies and cross-cutting research.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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