Total energy intensity in the EU-27 during 1990-2005, 1990=100
For few member states Eurostat data was not available: Czech Republic (1990-94), Bulgaria (1990), Romania (1990-98), Cyprus (1990-94), Hungary (1990), Poland (1990-94), Malta (1991-1998) and Germany (1990). The European Commission's annual macroeconomic database (AMECO) was used as an additional data source for filling the gaps, although this could not be done in all cases. With the purpose of estimating the EU-27 aggregate, few assumptions were made: GDP in Germany in 1990 has been estimated by applying the 1990-91 growth rate in West Germany to the 1991 GDP in Germany. The Commission 2004 Autumn forecasts is the source of GDP in 1990 in Hungary. For Estonia, GDP in 1990-92 is assumed constant (in real terms) and takes the value observed in 1993. For Slovakia, GDP in 1990-91 takes the value of 1992. For Malta and Bulgaria, GDP in 1990 is assumed to be equal to GDP in 1991. These assumptions do not distort the trend observed for the EU-27's GDP, since the latter four countries represent about 0.7 of EU-27's GDP.