Progress in charge structures and internalisation policies.
Note: A tick in the above table means - with the exception of the categories "urban charging" and "distance-based charging" that the charges are directly linked with the specific external effect. It does not necessarily mean that this external cost is fully internalised. Reduced excise duty on biofuels is not taken into account, but mentioned in the tables at the end of this fact sheet. Tax reductions for hybrid vehicles receive a tick in the category "Climate change". Ticks do not provide information on the absolute charge level or its revenues and on its appropriateness. For more detailed information on tax and charging structures, see the tables at the end of this fact sheet. A green "plus" (new measure) and green total number of measures means an advancement in internalisation, a red "minus" (removed measure) and red total number of measures means a decay in internalisation. Green and red ticks hold their colour for one year. A black colour of the total numbers means no change.
Detailed information on fuel tax levels, structures and trends is provided in the fact sheet TERM 21 EU - Fuel prices and taxes. More information on external costs is provided in fact sheet TERM 25 EU - External costs of transport. Due to recent EEA membership, Switzerland is not yet included in this table
Source: Boeing, 2006; ACEA, 2004, 2005, 2006, Infras, 2000, TRL, 2002, Climate change database, IEA, ECMT 2004, Questionnaire 2004.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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