Abstract: The potential health benefits of reducing annual mean PM2.5 levels from the current observed values to 25, 20, 15 and 10 µg/m3 were estimated for the 26 European cities of the APHEIS network in 15 European countries, using well-established methods and published results of research on the effects of current air pollution on public health
Note: PM2.5 target/limit values (annual average concentration): 25 µg/m3 concentration cap by 2015 in the draft new Directive on ambient air quality (CAFÉ Directive) 20 µg/m3 target value proposed by the European Parliament 15 µg/m3 US EPA standard 10 µg/m3 the annual WHO guideline
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All other things being equal, policies to reduce PM2.5 to 15 µg/m3 would prevent three times more premature deaths in the cities than a reduction to 25 µg/m3, and reducing them to 10 µg/m3 to five times more than to 25 µg/m3