The solid lines are based on observations smoothed to remove the effects of interannual variability (light lines connect data points). Data in most recent years are obtained via satellite based sensors. The envelope of IPCC (2001) projections is shown for comparison; this includes the broken lines as individual projections and the shading as the uncertainty around the projections.
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New supermarkets in the area can reduce business for smaller shops. Pollution and congestion would be significantly less if consumers frequented their local shops, rather than travelling long distances to out-of-town shopping centres.
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