Estimated average EU-25 external costs for electricity generation technologies in 2003
The components of external costs include the marginal damage cost factors for CO2 (low estimate) and non-environmental social costs for non-fossil generating technologies (both taken from ExternE-Pol, 2005), and the high/low marginal damage cost factors for SO2, NOX, NMVOCs and PM2.5 (taken from CAFE). The high estimate for the external costs of CO2 emissions is taken from Watkiss et al. (2005). PBFC means pressurised fluidised bed combustion, CHP means combined heat and power, CC means combined cycle.