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A positive value suggests an under-achievement by 2004 and a negative value an over-achievement by 2004. The DTI is used as an early indication of progress towards the Kyoto targets. Countries with base-years other than 1990 are Hungary (average 1985-1987), Poland (1988) and Slovenia (1986). For Slovenia, the effect of activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (carbon sinks) was also included.
New supermarkets in the area can reduce business for smaller shops. Pollution and congestion would be significantly less if consumers frequented their local shops, rather than travelling long distances to out-of-town shopping centres.
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