Bars represent average annual concentrations over a limited number of monitoring stations along busy roads in major European cities (Vienna, Bruxelles, Prague, Helsinki, Paris, Berlin, Athens, Krakow, Bratislava, Stockholm and London), error bars represent the highest annual concentration measured at one single monitoring station
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New supermarkets in the area can reduce business for smaller shops. Pollution and congestion would be significantly less if consumers frequented their local shops, rather than travelling long distances to out-of-town shopping centres.
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