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Natura 2000 data - the European network of protected sites

Natura 2000 is the key instrument to protect biodiversity in the European Union. It is an ecological network of protected areas, set up to ensure the survival of Europe's most valuable species and habitats. Natura 2000 is based on the 1979 Birds Directive and the 1992 Habitats Directive. This version covers the reporting in 2021, revision 1. Two member states, Germany and Ireland, were rolled back to their previous submissions in the European dataset.

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Nutrients in European water bodies

This figure shows the trends in nitrate in European groundwater and rivers and the trends in phosphorus in European lakes and rivers.

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Emissions of pollutants from transport in EU-27

The figure shows the emissions of pollutants from transport in EU-27.

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Premature deaths attributable to PM2.5 at NUTS3 level for European countries in 2020, adjusted for population

The map shows the number of premature deaths (PDs) attributed to PM2.5 in 2020 at NUTS3 level for European countries. The PDs, which in absolute terms are higher for those NUTS3 level regions with the highest populations, have been normalised by 100,000 inhabitants, to make the numbers comparable among regions. For countries where NUTS3 regions are not available, the national value is shown.

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Extended wetland ecosystem layer

The dataset “Extended wetland ecosystem” is a derived product of the Corine Land Cover (CLS) layer for the year 2018 which has then been reclassified into 20 wetland classes on the basis of ancillary spatial layers (“Water and Wetness 2018” and “Riparian Zone Layer” Copernicus products, the “Ecosystem types of Europe” v3.1 and “The Global Spatial Water Explorer” datasets). Besides the traditional types of inland and coastal wetlands (i.e. marshes, rivers, lakes, lagoons, estuaries), the layer also covers the forest, grassland and agricultural ecosystems which are seasonally or permanently flooded (i.e. riparian forests, wet grasslands, rice fields) and are therefore considered as wetlands according to the Ramsar Convention definition and typology. This wetland reclassification and mapping considers their hydro-ecological characteristics and provides information about the real spatial extent and distribution of varied wetland habitats.

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EEA marine assessment areas

The EEA marine assessment vector areas are harmonised units used for statistics. The assessment areas allow the consistent calculation of status and trends in the EU waters, e.g. for marine protected areas coverage.

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Exceedance of atmospheric nitrogen deposition above critical loads for eutrophication in Europe in 2020

The map shows the ecosystem areas at risk of eutrophication in 2020. Critical loads refer to the upper limits of one or more pollutants deposited on the Earth’s surface that an ecosystem, such as nutrient-poor grasslands or forests, can tolerate without its function (e.g. the nutrient nitrogen cycle) or its structure (e.g. plant species’ richness) being damaged. If the deposition of airborne nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium compounds) is in excess of these critical loads, this is termed an ‘exceedance’, and an ecosystem is considered at risk of eutrophication. The map shows areas where critical loads are not exceeded (grey shading), indicating no risk of eutrophication, and where atmospheric nitrogen deposition exceeds critical loads, by magnitude of exceedance.

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