State of Nature in the EU

Page Last modified 03 Apr 2023
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This page was archived on 03 Apr 2023 with reason: A new version has been published
Reporting under the Habitats and the Birds Directives

Nature policy in the European Union is largely based on two main pieces of legislation:

  • the 1979 Birds Directive (codified by Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds)
  • the 1992 Habitats Directive (Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora);

Both were amended to accommodate EU enlargement. Under Article 10 of the Birds Directive, Member States are asked to encourage research and work in support of the protection, management and use of the populations of all species naturally occurring in their European territories (approximately 450 bird species).

Under Article 11 of the Habitats Directive, Member States are requested to undertake surveillance of the 233 habitats and the more than 1 250 species and subspecies considered to be of Community interest, and listed in Annexes I, II, IV and V.

Moreover, Article 17 of the Habitats Directive and Article 12 of the Birds Directive call for Member States to regularly prepare and submit national reports on progress made in implementing the directives and for the European Commission to produce composite reports based on these national reports. Reports are submitted every 6 years.

State of Nature 2020

Results and material from the reporting period 2013-2018 for the Habitats and the Birds Directives.

State of Nature 2015

Results and material from the reporting period 2007-2012 for the Habitats Directive and, for the first time, for the Birds Directive.

State of Nature 2010

Results and material from the reporting period 2001-2006 for the Habitats Directive.



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Temporal coverage

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