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Data and maps

Land cover country fact sheets 2000-2018

Based on common template, EEA has analysed the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service Corine Land cover data for 2000-2018. The set of interactive dashboards provide graphs and maps with concise characterization of land cover changes in the EEA38 member and collaborating countries.

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Ecosystem Extent Accounts

Ecosystem Extent Accounts are derived from the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service Corine Land Cover datasets every six years from 2000 till 2018. They describe the extent of various ecosystem types in the EEA38+UK region and how they change over time.

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Many obsolete barriers harm Europe's rivers

River continuity is key to improving the ecological status of Europe’s water bodies. However, very few free-flowing rivers remain and the barriers in them cause significant pressures for about 20 % of Europe’s surface water bodies. A European Environment Agency (EEA) briefing, published today, looks at the issue of river barriers and their impact on ecosystems.

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Tunicate

Tunicate

02 Feb 2021

A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata /tjuːnɪˈkeɪtə/. It is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.

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Measuring the extent and condition of European ecosystems

Protecting ecosystems and biodiversity are key policy targets in the EU’s biodiversity strategy for 2030 and the European Green Deal. EU and national policymaking require approaches to be developed to measure the extent and condition of ecosystems to improve their management. This briefing presents the EEA’s work on ecosystem extent accounts and pilot ecosystem condition accounts in the EU INCA project. Examples illustrate the potential use of ecosystem accounting results to design measures to protect and restore European ecosystems, e.g. in implementing the EU biodiversity strategy for 2030.

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Measuring the extent and condition of European ecosystems

Protecting ecosystems and biodiversity are key policy targets in the EU’s biodiversity strategy for 2030 and the European Green Deal. EU and national policymaking require approaches to be developed to measure the extent and condition of ecosystems to improve their management. This briefing presents the EEA’s work on ecosystem extent accounts and pilot ecosystem condition accounts in the EU INCA project. Examples illustrate the potential use of ecosystem accounting results to design measures to protect and restore European ecosystems, e.g. in implementing the EU biodiversity strategy for 2030.

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Soil moisture deficit during the vegetation growing season, annual time-series, 2000-2019

The dataset consists of a collection of annual soil moisture (SM) anomalies during the vegetation growing season (GS) for the years 2000-2019 across EEA 38 area and the United Kingdom. The vegetation growing season is defined by EEA´s phenology data series "Vegetation growing season length 2000-2016" [https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/annual-above-ground-vegetation-season]. The anomalies are calculated based on the European Commission's Joint Research Centre European Drought Observatory (EDO) Soil Moisture Index (SMI) with respect to the 1995–2019 base period. The yearly start and end of GS periods are dynamic and calculated according to the EEA Phenology Indicators. A positive anomaly indicates that the observed SM was wetter than the long-term SM average for the base period, while a negative anomaly indicates that the observed SM was drier than the reference value. Because SM anomalies are measured in units of standard deviation from the long-term SMI average, they can be used to compare annual deficits/surplus of SM between geographic regions. EDO is one of the early warning and monitoring systems of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. As the dataset builds on EDO's SMI, it therefore contains modified Copernicus Emergency Management Service information (2019).

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Nationally designated terrestrial protected areas in Europe

The area and number of terrestrial protected areas in Europe have grown steadily over time, with the biggest increases in recent decades. In 2020, protected areas covered 26 % of EU land, with 18 % designated as Natura 2000 sites and 8 % as other national designations. In the EEA-38 countries plus the United Kingdom, this coverage is lower and amounts to 23 %. Further expansion of terrestrial protected areas will be needed to achieve the target of legally protecting a minimum of 30 % of EU land, as set out in the EU biodiversity strategy for 2030.  The designation of protected areas is not in itself a guarantee of biodiversity conservation. Effective management requires building a coherent and well-connected network of protected areas with clearly defined conservation objectives and measures. 

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Nationally designated terrestrial protected areas in Europe

The indicator illustrates the rate of growth in the number and cumulative area of nationally designated terrestrial protected areas over time. It also shows the overlap between the international protected areas networks such as Natura 2000 or the Emerald Network and national designations. A 'nationally designated protected area' is an area protected by a national legislation. If a country has included sites designated under international agreements, such as the EU Birds and Habitats Directives, or the Bern or Ramsar Convention in its legislation, the corresponding protected sites, such as the Natura 2000, Emerald or Ramsar sites, of this country are included in the indicator.

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Conservation status of habitats under the EU Habitats Directive

At the EU level, only 15 % of habitat assessments have a good conservation status, with 81 % having poor or bad conservation status. Grasslands, dunes, and bog, mire and fen habitats show strong deteriorating trends, while forests have the most improving trends. The EU is not on track to meet the 2020 target of improving the conservation status of EU protected species and habitats. At the EU Member State level, the majority of assessments indicate a low number of habitats with a good conservation status. Intensive agriculture, urban sprawl and pollution are the top reported pressures to habitats.

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Conservation status of habitats under the EU Habitats Directive

The indicator illustrates the conservation status and trends of 233 habitats of European interest listed in the Habitats Directive at EU and Member State level. Conservation status is shown as good, poor, bad and unknown. It is based on data collected under the reporting obligations of Article 17 of the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).

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EEA-Eionet Strategy 2021-2030: delivering data and knowledge to achieve Europe’s climate and environment ambitions

Our joint Strategy indicates our direction of travel. It introduces a new way of working together and creating knowledge — more agile, more responsive, more pro-active, more actionable — befitting the challenges we will face and the knowledge we will need in the decade to come.

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Conservation status of habitats at Member State level, 2013-2018

The figure shows the conservation status of habitats at Member State level. Statistics are based on the number of habitat assessments at Member States′ biogeographical/marine level. The number of assessments per Member State is indicated in parentheses. The total number of assessments is 3 246.

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Conservation status of habitats at EU level, 2013-2018

The figure shows the conservation status of habitats at EU level. Statistics are based on the number of EU habitats assessments (818)

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European river water bodies with significant pressures from barriers

The map shows European river water bodies with significant pressures from barriers. ‘Significant’ means that the pressure contributes to an impact that may result in failing to meet the WFD objectives of not having at least good status. Each redish line on the map indicates a river water body affected by barriers according to the country-specific assessment system of significant pressures. The map was created from WISE-WFD data reported for the 2nd RBMPs under the WFD (EU-27, and Norway)

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Synthetic biology and the environment

New approaches to biodiversity conservation or unexpected but irreversible forms of environmental disruption?

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Species protection and conservation

Protecting and conserving Europe’s species and their habitats is critical, not only for their intrinsic value as part of our shared natural heritage, but also for human well-being.

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