"Timestamp" "Model ID" "Codename" "Full name" "Institution" "User Email address" "User Phone number" "User Fax number" "User Address" "Policy issue:list" "Application type:list" "Model output:list" "Type of air pollution source:list" "Release type:list" "Spatial scale of model application:list" "Simulation character:list" "Form of release:list" "Contaminant properties:list" "Type of model:list" "Duration of the simulation:list" "Computer Platform:list" "Model name:label" "Full model name" "Model version and status" "Latest date of revision" "Institutions" "Contact person" "Contact address" "Phone number" "Fax number" "E-mail address" "URL:url" "Technical support" "Level of knowledge needed to operate model" "Remarks" "Intended field of application" "Model type and dimension" "Model description summary" "Model limitations/approximations" "Temporal resolution" "Horizontal resolution" "Vertical resolution" "Advection & Convection" "Turbulence" "Deposition" "Chemistry" "Solution technique" "Availability and Validation of Input data" "Emissions" "Meteorology" "Topography" "Initial conditions" "Boundary conditions" "Data assimilation options" "Other input requirements" "Output quantities" "User interface availability" "User community" "I Application type" "I Application description" "II Application type" "II Application description" "III Application type" "III Application description" "Documentation status" "Validation and evaluation" "Model intercomparison" "Frequently asked questions" "Portability" "CPU time" "Storage" "Availability" "References about model development (up to 5)" "Other references" 3/29/2011 17:45:25 133 "GRAL" "Dietmar Oettl, Raimund Almbauer, Peter Sturm" "Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology" "dietmar.oettl@stmk.gv.at, almbauer@vkmb.tugraz.at, sturm@vkmb.tugraz.at" "Inffeldgasse 25, 8010, Graz, Austria" "Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Plume-rise models, Eulerian models, Lagrangian models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC" "GRAL" "Graz Lagrangian Model" 4.1 "April 2010" "Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Air Qualtiy Department Styria" "Dietmar Oettl, Ulrich Uhrner" "Graz University of Technology
Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics
Inffeldgasse 21A, 8010 Graz, Austria
or
Amt der Stmk. Landesregierung
Referat fuer Luftgueteueberwachung
Landhausgasse 7, 8010 Graz, Austria" "++43 316 873 7584 or ++43 316 877 3327" "++43 316 873 8080 or ++43 316 877 3995" "sturm@vkmb.tugraz.at or dietmar.oettl@stmk.gv.at" "http://fvkma.tu-graz.ac.at/ or http://www.umwelt.steiermark.at" "Dietmar Oettl Ulrich Uhrner" "Advanced" "Line-Sources, Point-Sources, Tunnel Portals, Area-Sources
Model domain: 100 m - 50 km.
Flat- and Complex-Terrain, Built-up areas.
All wind speeds.
Regulatory and scientific purposes.
Building downwash needs improvement
No chemical reactions.
No dense gas dispersion." "Coupled Eulerian (GRAMM) - Lagrangian model (GRAL) for the Micro- Mesoscale." "GRAL consists of various model parts. It has three different meteorological pre-processors depending on the input data. It is possible to use time-series of meteorological data as well as statistcs of wind speed, direction, and stabiltiy class. Also data computed from sonic-anemometers can be used. In case of complex terrain or buildings, a mesoscale model is used for the wind field calculations (GRAMM=Graz Mesoscale Model). Buildings can also be taken into account either using a simple diagnostic approach, which improves the results compared to neglecting buildings, or using an advanced approach, where the Navier-Stokes Equations are solved. The latter approach is only validated for flat terrain at the moment.

The dispersion is calculated using the Lagrangian particle model GRAL, which is able to cope with vertical inhomogeneous turbulence and inhomogeneous 3D wind-fields.

It has special algorithms for treating dispersion in low wind speed conditions and for treating dispersion from tunnel portals. There exist different post-processing routines for analysing the computed concentrations with GRAL (e.g. to compute annual means, percentiles, maximum concentrations, daily means, etc.). Odour dispersion is also treated via postprocessing routines to obtain annual frequencies of odour annoyance.

Grafical representation is currently done with the commercially available software SURFER from Golden Software and ARCGIS from ESRI." "GRAL has no treatment for heavy gas dispersion. There are restrictions regarding time-series simulations. Inhomogenous wind fields and buildings can not be taken into account for the dispersion calculation from tunnel portals.

GRAMM does not take into account cloud-processes, run-off, etc. It has not been tested for domains larger than 500 km x 500 km nor has it been nested with numerical weather models, such as European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ECMWF (http://www.ecmwf.int/)." "The model has been validated for averaged concentrations between 10 min and 1 hour." "Lower limit: approx. 1 m for GRAMM; no limit for GRAL.
Upper limit: no technical limit for GRAMM and GRAL." "Lower limit: approx. 1 m for GRAMM; no limit for GRAL.
Upper limit: no technical limit for GRAMM and GRAL." "For the wind field modeling (GRAMM) either first order upwind or TVD." "Local, one and a half-order (k-L-model) for the wind field (GRAMM).
Stochastic differential eq. (GRAL). " "Not included. Can only be computed from annual mean concentrations using the `deposition velocity` approach." "Not included." "Wind field modelling (GRAMM): Implicit integration over time allowing larger time steps for small grid sizes. Time steps are computed continuously as a function of the trend of integrated flow divergence. For non-hydrostatic pressure a TDMA solver is used. RANS equations are solved in a tetrahedronal grid, where fluxes are controlled over the surfaces. The soil module consists of 7 layers. Only two different cloud schemes are available. Shadowing effects by terrain are taken into account. Soil parameters (heat conductivity, moisture, roughness,..) are deduced from CORINE landuse-data. 7 different types of boundary conditions are implemented, which allows for forcing by the geostrophic wind only or by a larger scale model. A simple module to nest GRAMM in MM5 is implemented.

Dispersion modelling (GRAL): Independent Langevin eqations (LE) for the horizontal and vertical dispersion. For the horizontal dispersion two linked LE describing a damped harmonic oscillator are used to take into account meandering in low wind speed conditions (Oettl et al., 2005). The well-mixed criterium according to Thomson (1987) is fulfilled using the algorithm suggested by Franzese et al. (1999). Buoyancy effects for point sources are taken into account following Hurley (2005) and for tunnel portals a modified approach by Van Dop (1992)." "There is no data from a specific provider necessary. Usually the model is applied with locally observed wind speed, -direction and stability class. A meteorological pre-processor to derive all necessary profiles for mean and turbulent quantities is used, which is based on the work of Golder (1972), Venkatram (1996), Oettl et al. (2001), Kaimal and Finnigan (1994), Luhar and Britter (1989), Franzese et al. (1999), Hanna (1982), Zannetti (1990), Anfossi et al. (2000), and Anfossi et al. (2004)." "Line sources in [kg/h/km]
Point sources and tunnel portals in [kg/h].
Temperature difference between source and ambient air, exit velocities, shape of the source." "Minimum: Wind speed, -direction, and stability.
Maximum: As above plus standard deviations of wind speed components, friction velocity, Monin-Obukhov length, mixing height, parameters to describe meandering in low wind speed conditions." "Terrain or Building heights, coordinates.
Terrain data as well as Landuse data has to be provided in CORINE format." "GRAMM:
Simplest way is to use one point measurement of wind speed, direction and stability class. All necessary initial conditions are then computed.
It is also possible to use several point- and vertical profiles of wind speed, -direction, and temperature measurements for initialising the model. Alternativley there will be a module to initialise and drive GRAMM with output from MM5. " "GRAMM: Seven different boundary conditions are implemented with options for out- and inflow boundaries." "Not implemented." "Emissions, Meteorology, Topography, several parameters for to initialize and run the model. Optional: Receptor points." "3D wind and temperature fields.
2D concentration fields.
Concentrations at receptors." "DOS, Windows, LINUX." "The tunnel module is free and has been distributed to more than 20 institutions, universities, and civil-engineers worldwide.
The complete model is free for research purposes, but is generally sold. It has been distributed to institutions and offices in Israel, Switzerland, Italy, U.K., Germany, Thailand, and Austria." "Urban" "Dispersion from road tunnel portals
References:
- Oettl, D., P.J. Sturm, R.A. Almbauer (2004): Evaluation of GRAL for the pollutant dispersion from a city street tunnel portal at depressed level. Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 499-504.
- Puxbaum, H., R. Ellinger, K.H. Greßlehner, E. Mursch-Radlgruber, D. Oettl, M. Staudinger, P.J. Sturm (2003): Messung und Modellierung der Schadstoffverteilung im Nahbereich von Tunnelportalen. Endbericht zum Forschungsprojekt FSV 3.248 im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie.
Description:
In the frame of validation study for the dispersion from tunnel portals, GRAL has been used to determine hourly mean concentrations in the vicinity of the Kaisermuehlentunnel in Vienna, Austria. The daily mean traffic flow was about 90,000 veh./day. NOx was monitored at 5 permanent stations. The model was initialised with local observations of wind speed, -direction, and stability class. A fairly good agreement between observed and modelled concentrations was found. The largest deviation between observed and modeled mean NOx concentrations was -13%. GRAL was also found to perform better in this case than other available commercial software tested. GRAL is now the recommended model for the dispersion from tunnel portals in Austria and is available for free. " "Regional" "Dispersion from road tunnel portals
References:
- Oettl, D., P.J. Sturm, R.A. Almbauer (2004): Evaluation of GRAL for the pollutant dispersion from a city street tunnel portal at depressed level. Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 499-504.
- Puxbaum, H., R. Ellinger, K.H. Greßlehner, E. Mursch-Radlgruber, D. Oettl, M. Staudinger, P.J. Sturm (2003): Messung und Modellierung der Schadstoffverteilung im Nahbereich von Tunnelportalen. Endbericht zum Forschungsprojekt FSV 3.248 im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie.
Description:
In the frame of validation study for the dispersion from tunnel portals, GRAL has been used to determine hourly mean concentrations in the vicinity of the Kaisermuehlentunnel in Vienna, Austria. The daily mean traffic flow was about 90,000 veh./day. NOx was monitored at 5 permanent stations. The model was initialised with local observations of wind speed, -direction, and stability class. A fairly good agreement between observed and modelled concentrations was found. The largest deviation between observed and modeled mean NOx concentrations was -13%. GRAL was also found to perform better in this case than other available commercial software tested. GRAL is now the recommended model for the dispersion from tunnel portals in Austria and is available for free. " "Urban" "Dispersion from road tunnel portals
References:
- Oettl, D., P.J. Sturm, R.A. Almbauer (2004): Evaluation of GRAL for the pollutant dispersion from a city street tunnel portal at depressed level. Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 499-504.
- Puxbaum, H., R. Ellinger, K.H. Greßlehner, E. Mursch-Radlgruber, D. Oettl, M. Staudinger, P.J. Sturm (2003): Messung und Modellierung der Schadstoffverteilung im Nahbereich von Tunnelportalen. Endbericht zum Forschungsprojekt FSV 3.248 im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie.
Description:
In the frame of validation study for the dispersion from tunnel portals, GRAL has been used to determine hourly mean concentrations in the vicinity of the Kaisermuehlentunnel in Vienna, Austria. The daily mean traffic flow was about 90,000 veh./day. NOx was monitored at 5 permanent stations. The model was initialised with local observations of wind speed, -direction, and stability class. A fairly good agreement between observed and modelled concentrations was found. The largest deviation between observed and modeled mean NOx concentrations was -13%. GRAL was also found to perform better in this case than other available commercial software tested. GRAL is now the recommended model for the dispersion from tunnel portals in Austria and is available for free. " "Level 2: Rather good scientific documentation and less complete users manuals.
15 publications in peer-reviewed papers, 2 text book contributions, 1 thesis, and about 35 contributions at international conferences." "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data.
References: see list below.

The following data sets are used for validation:

  • Idaho National Engineering Laboratory INEL (surface point source, non-buoyant, flat): Sagendorf, J. F., and C. R. Dickson, 1974: Diffusion Under Low Windspeed, Inversion Conditions. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL ARL-52, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Model validation kit (http://www.harmo.org/kit/default.asp):
  • Copenhagen (elevated point source, non-buoyant, flat).
  • Lillestroem (elevated point source, non-buoyant, flat).
  • Indianapolis (elevated point source, buoyant, flat).
  • Kincaid (elevated point source, buoyant, flat).
  • Prairie Grass (surface point source, non-buoyant, flat): Barad, M.L. (Editor), (1958): Project Prairie Grass, A field program in diffusion. A Geophysical Research Paper, No. 59, Vol I and II, Report AFCRC-TR-58235, Air Force Cambridge Research Center, 439 pp
  • Raaba (surface point source, non-buoyant, flat): Anfossi, D., S. Alessandrini, S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, D. Oettl, G. Degrazia (2006): Tracer dispersion simulation in low wind speed conditions with a new 2-D Langevin equation system. Atmos. Environ., 40, 7234-7245.
  • Uttenweiler (roof-top point source, non-buoyant, flat): Baechling, W., A. Ruehling, A. Lohmeyer (2002): Bereitstellung von Validierungsdaten für Geruchsausbreitungodelle - Naturmessungen. Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer, FZKA-BWPLUS Forschungsbericht, Dresden, Deutschland, S187 (http://www.lohmeyer.de/).
  • CALTRANS 99 (roadside data set, flat): http://www.cerc.co.uk/software/pubs/ADMS-Roads%20Validation%20Caltrans99.pdf
  • TU-Vienna (roadside data set, flat): Kalina, M. F., R. Ellinger, W. Hann, and H. Puxbaum (2000): Dispersion modelling in the vicinity of highways (German). Report 1/00, Vienna, p148 (Available from: Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Technical University Vienna, Getreidemarkt 9/151, A-1060 Vienna).
  • Hitachi tunnel (tunnel, complex).
  • Enrei tunnel (tunnel, complex).
  • Ninomiya tunnel (tunnel, complex).
  • Oettl, D., P.J. Sturm, R. Almbauer, S. Okamoto, K. Horiuchi (2003): Dispersion from road tunnel portals: Comparison of two different modelling approaches. Atmos. Environ., 37, 5165-5175.
  • Ehrentalerberg tunnel (tunnel, flat): Oettl, D., P. J. Sturm, M. Bacher, G. Pretterhofer, R. A. Almbauer (2002): A simple model for the dispersion of pollutants from a road tunnel portal. Atmos. Environ., 36, 2943-2953.
  • Kaisermuehlen tunnel (tunnel, urban): Oettl, D., P.J. Sturm, R.A. Almbauer (2004): Evaluation of GRAL for the pollutant dispersion from a city street tunnel portal at depressed level. Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 499-504.
  • Wietersdorf (elevated buoyant point source, complex): No publication available.
  • Tracy (elevated buoyant point source, complex): http://gcmd.nasa.gov/records/GCMD_EPA0003.html
  • Elimaeki (Finish roadside data set, flat): Oettl, D., J. Kukkonen, R.A. Almbauer, P.J. Sturm, M. Pohjola and J. Härkönen (2001): Evaluation of a Gaussian and a Lagrangian model against a roadside dataset, with focus on low wind speed conditions. Atmos. Environ., 35, 2123-2132.
  • Frankfurter Allee (street canyon): http://aix.meng.auth.gr/sec/SEC_Page_2_files/SEC_Berlin_Mar2005_page.pdf
  • Marylebone Road (street canyon): http://aix.meng.auth.gr/sec/SEC_Page_2_files/SEC_London_Mar2005_page.pdf
  • Hornsgatan Road (street canyon): http://aix.meng.auth.gr/sec/SEC_Page_2_files/SEC_Stockholm_Mar2005_page.pdf
  • Goettinger Strasse (street canyon): Ketzel, M., R. Berkowicz, A. Lohmeyer (2000): Comparison of numerical steet dispersion models with results from wind tunnel and field measurements. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 363-370.
  • Wind tunnel experiment performed by Klein et al. (1994) and used by Flassak and Blessing (2007). U-shaped building with three non-buoyant releases at different heights.
  • SF6-Tracer Releases from a parking lot in vienna. Performed by Graz University of Technolgy.
  • SF6-Tracer experiments from a pig stable from three different stack configurations near Roager in Denmark. Ellerman and Løfstrøm, 2002: Spredning af lugt fra svinestalde; SF6-racermålinger ved Roager i 1999 og 2000. (Dispersion of odour from pig houses; SF6 tracer gas measurements). Unpublished report from the National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. 40 pp.
  • MUST (Mock Urban Setting Test) wind tunnel data set provided by COST 732 (http://atmosphericdispersion.wikia.com/wiki/COST_732_forum)
  • EOCR (Experimental Organically Cooled Reactor study) reported in Start, G.E., N.F. Hukari, J.F. Sagendorf, J.H. Cate, and C.R. Dickson (1981): EOCR Building Wake Effects on Atmospheric Diffusion. NUREG/CR-1395, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Idaho Falls, ID.
  • AGA (American Gas Association) experiments as reported in US-EPA (2003): AERMOD, Latest Features and Evaluation Results. EPA-454/R-03-003.
  • Alaska North Slope Tracer Study as reported in US-EPA (2003): AERMOD, Latest Features and Evaluation Results. EPA-454/R-03-003." "Prairie Grass experiment
    Reference:
    Oettl, D., R.A. Almbauer, and P.J. Sturm (2001): A new method to estimate diffusion in stable, low wind conditions. J. of Appl. Meteor., 40, 259-268.
    Description:
    Sulfure dioxide was released from a point source near the surface and was sampled arcwise at distances 50m, 100m, 200m, 400m and 800m. Only arcwise maximum concentrations have been used for comparison purposes.
    Correlation coefficient: 0.86
    Fractional bias: -0.05
    Normalised mean square error: 1.1

    Indianapolis experiment
    Reference:
    Onchang, R., P.J. Sturm, D. Oettl (2006): Evaluation of Dispersion Models Performance Using a Standard Procedure ASTM D6589. Thailand national conference - Air Pollution Technology: Community with Better Breath held on 24-25 March 2006, Bangkok Thailand.
    Description:
    From a power plant SF6 was released. Stack height was 87m and sampling took place arcwise at various distances between 250 m up to 10000m. Only arcwise maximum concentrations have been used for comparison purposes. This data set is part of the model validation kit.
    Correlation coefficient: 0.31
    Fractional bias: -0.03
    Normalised mean square error: 0.90

    Hornsgatan Street Canyon
    Reference: http://aix.meng.auth.gr/sec/SEC_Page_2_files/SEC_Stockholm_Mar2005_page.pdf
    Description:
    Three permanent air quality monitoring stations were operated in the Hornsgatan street canyon in Stockholm to provide hourly NOx-concentrations at two sites within the canyon and for the background. This data set was part of the SEC-model intercomparison project.
    Correlation coefficient: 0.13
    Fractional bias: -0.19
    Normalised mean square error: 1.7 " "Is GRAL freely available for non-commercial use? GRAL can be used free of costs for research purposes." "Windows, DOS, LINUX (in work)." "1 min - several weeks depending on the task." "Wind field modelling: 500 Mb
    Dispersion modelling: No special requirements." "Free for research purposes.
    The tunnel module is free at all.
    For commerical and administrative purposes on request (contact Ulrich Uhrner, Graz University of Technology, Austria)." "Oettl, D., A. Goulart, G. Degrazia, D. Anfossi (2005): A new hypothesis on meandering atmospheric flows in low wind speed conditions. Atmos. Environ., 39, 1739 - 1748. Oettl, D., P. J. Sturm, M. Bacher, G. Pretterhofer, R. A. Almbauer (2002): A simple model for the dispersion of pollutants from a road tunnel portal. Atmos. Environ., 36, 2943-2953. Oettl, D., R.A. Almbauer, P.J. Sturm, M. Piringer, and K. Baumann (2000): Analysing the nocturnal wind field in the city of Graz, Atmos. Environ., 35, pp. 379-387. Oettl, D., P. Sturm, R. Almbauer(2005): Evaluation of GRAL for the pollutant dispersion from a city street tunnel portal at depressed level. Environmental Modelling and Software 20(5), 499-504. Oettl, D., R. A. Almbauer, P. J. Sturm, and G. Pretterhofer (2003): Dispersion modelling of air pollution caused by road traffic using a Markov Chain - Monte Carlo model. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 58-75." "Oettl, D.,and U. Uhrner (2010):Documentation of the Lagrangian Particle Model GRAL (Graz Lagrangian Model Vs. 4.10. Amt d. Stmk. Landesregierung, FA17C, Technische Umweltkontrolle, Bericht: Lu-10-08, 107 S (http://www.umwelt.steiermark.at/cms/beitrag/11023486/19222537/) Oettl, D., J. Kukkonen, R.A. Almbauer, P.J. Sturm, M. Pohjola and J. Härkönen (2001): Evaluation of a Gaussian and a Lagrangian model against a roadside dataset, with focus on low wind speed conditions. Atmos. Environ., 35, 2123-2132. Almbauer, R.A., Oettl D., Bacher M., and Sturm P.J. (2000): Simulation of the air quality during a field study for the city of Graz, Atmos. Environ., 34, pp. 4581-4594. Almbauer, R.A., Piringer M., Baumann K., Oettl D., and Sturm P.J. (2000): Analysis of the daily variations of wintertime air pollution concentrations in the city of Graz-Austria, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65 (1/2), 79-87. Thunis, P., S. Galmarini, A. Martilli, A. Clappier, S. Andronopoulos, J. Bartzis, M Vlachogianni, K. deRidder, N. Moussiopoulos, P. Sahm, R. Almbauer, P. Sturm, D. Oettl, S. Dierer, H. Schluenzen (2003): MESOCOM An inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation. Atmos. Environ., 37, 363-382. Oettl, D., P.J. Sturm, G. Pretterhofer, M. Bacher, J. Rodler, R.A. Almbauer (2003): Lagrangian dispersion modeling of vehicular emissions from a highway in complex terrain. J. of the Air and Waste Management Association, 53, 1233-1240. Oettl, D., P.J. Sturm, R. Almbauer, S. Okamoto, K. Horiuchi (2003): Dispersion from road tunnel portals: Comparison of two different modelling approaches. Atmos. Environ., 37, 5165-5175. Anfossi, D., D. Oettl, G. Degrazia, A. Goulart (2005): An analysis of sonic anemometer observations in low wind speed conditions. Bound.-Layer Met., 114, 179-203. Oettl, D., S. Hausberger, M. Rexeis, and P.J. Sturm (2006):Simulation of traffic induced NOx-concentrations near the A 12 highway in Austria. Atmos. Environ., 40, 6043-6052. Anfossi, D., S. Alessandrini, S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, D. Oettl, G. Degrazia (2006): Tracer dispersion simulation in low wind speed conditions with a new 2-D Langevin equation system. Atmos. Environ., 40, 7234-7245. Thomson, D. J., 1987: Criteria for the selection of stochastic models of particle trajectories in turbulent flows. J. Fluid Mech., 180, 529-556. Franzese, P., A. K. Luhar, and M. S. Borgas, 1999: An efficient Lagrangian stochastic model of vertical dispersion in the convective boundary layer. Atm. Env., 33, 2337-2345. Van Dop, H. (1992): Buoyant plume rise in a Lagrangian framework. Atmos. Environ., 26A, 1335-1346. Hurley, P. (2005): The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) Version 3.Part 1 Technical Description. CSIRO Atmospheric Research Technical Paper 71, ISBN 0643 06891 0, Australia, p57. Golder, D. (1972): Relations among stability parameters in the surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteor., 3, 47-58. Venkatram, A. (1996): An examination of the Pasquill-Gifford-Turner dispersion scheme. Atmos. Environ., 8, 1283-1290. Kaimal J.C, and Finnigan J.J. (1994): Atmospheric boundary layer flows. Oxford University Press, 289pp. Luhar, A. K., and R. E. Britter (1989): A random walk model for dispersion in inhomogeneous turbulence in a convective boundary layer. Atmos. Environ., 23, 1911-1924. Hanna, S. R. (1982): Applications in air pollution modeling. Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modeling, F. T. M. Nieuwstadt and Van Dop H., Ed., Chapter 7, Reidel, Dordrecht. Zannetti, P. (1990): Air pollution modelling, Theories, computational methods and available software. Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton Boston. Anfossi, D., G. Degrazia, E. Ferrero, S.E. Gryning, M.G. Morselli, and S. Trini Castelli (2000): Estimation of the Lagrangian structure function constant C0 from surface layer wind data. Boundary-Layer Meteor., 95, 249-270. Anfossi D., D. Oettl, G. Degrazia and A. Goulart (2004): An analysis of sonic anemometer observations in low wind speed conditions. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 114, 179-203. " 3/29/2011 17:45:25 132 "AUSTAL2000" "Ulf Janicke" "Janicke Consulting" "support@janicke.de, uj@janicke.de" "Janicke Consulting, 26427 Dunum, Germany" "Summer smog, Winter smog, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Lagrangian models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC" "AUSTAL2000" "Ausbreitungsrechnungen nach TA Luft (Dispersion calculations according to TA Luft)" "2.4, released" "February 2009" "Janicke Consulting; German Environmental Agency (UBA)" "Dr. Ulf Janicke; Alfred Trukenmüller (UBA)" "Janicke Consulting
    Environmental Physics
    Hermann-Hoch-Weg 1
    88662 Überlingen, GERMANY" "++49 (0)7551 947 1818" "++49 (0)7551 947 1819" "info@janicke.de" "http://www.austal2000.de" "Free hotline (German/English, info@austal2000.de)" "Intermediate" "AUSTAL2000 is the official reference model of the German Regulation on Air Quality Control (TA Luft, 2002) and of the guideline on odor nuisance (GIRL, 2008).
    It is available free of charge at http://www.austal2000.de (German/English)." "Assessment/licensing procedures, local and regional air quality studies." "Three-dimensional Lagrangian particle model with variable time step. The model is set up and verified in conformance with the German guideline VDI 3945/3. The software package includes a diagnostic wind field model (TALdia) for terrain profile and/or building structures." "

    AUSTAL2000 is the official reference model of the German Regulation on Air Quality Control (Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft, TA Luft) and implements the specifications and requirements given therein, in particular in Appendix 3 of the regulation.

    The model is a Lagrangian particle model in conformance with the German guideline VDI 3945/3. In the years 2001 and 2002, the model system was developed in a research project on behalf of the German Environmental Agency (UBA) on the basis of the commercial modelling system LASAT.

    The transport of passive trace substances in the lower atmosphere (up to heights of about 2000 m) is calculated on a local to regional scale (up to distances of about 150 km). In a Lagrangian model type, the dispersion of trace substances is simulated utilizing a random walk process on a computer.

    The following physical processes, including time dependencies, are simulated: transport by the mean wind field, dispersion in the atmosphere, sedimentation of heavy aerosols, deposition on the ground, chemical conversion of NO to NO2 according to guideline VDI 3782/1. Thermal plume rise is covered parametrically.

    Emission sources are defined in form of point, line, area, and volume sources.

    Meteorology (wind direction, wind speed, stability class or Monin-Obukhov length) is provided in form of a time series of hourly means or in form of a dispersion class statistics. The meteorological boundary layer profile is defined according to guideline VDI 3783/8 and TA Luft.

    Source properties are defined as constant or within the meteorological time series or as a function of meteorological parameters (wind-induced emissions).

    The trace substances specified in the TA Luft and one unspecified trace substance can be applied. Particulate matter is defined by the 5 size groups of the TA Luft or in form of a simplified continuous spectrum.

    Nested calculation grids can be applied that allow for a high spatial resolution close to the sources while at the same time covering a large simulation area.

    An average surface roughness length is automatically derived from a given land register (the default register covers Germany) or user-defined as one of the 9 TA Luft categories.

    The model system includes a diagnostic wind field model (TALdia) to account for terrain profile and/or buildings structures.

    The result of the dispersion calculation are the substance-specific quantities according to EU directives.

    Although mainly applied as regulatory standard tool in Germany, AUSTAL2000 is increasingly applied as well in Austria and Switzerland and it has been introduced to other countries in the framework of EU twinning projects. In course of the latter, a thorough English version of the program package will be released in course of the second half of 2008." "

    The model is strictly adapted to the specifications and requirements of the TA Luft, in particular to Appendix 3:
    - gaseous substances with names so2, no, no2, nox, bzl, tce, f, nh3, hg, odor (including rated components), xx (unspecified)
    - particulates with names pm, as, pb, cd, ni, hg, tl, xx (unspecified)
    - 5 size classes for particulates, optionally a simplified continuous spectrum
    - fixed deposition and sedimentation velocities
    - chemical conversion of no to no2 according to guideline VDI 3782/1
    - no wet deposition
    - plume rise according to guidelines VDI 3782/3 and VDI 3784/2
    - boundary layer profile according to VDI 3783/8 and TA Luft
    - 9 average surface roughness length classes
    - time-dependent meteorology and emissions in form of hourly means
    - output quantities according to TA Luft requirements (EU directives)" "Hourly means of meteorology, emissions, and concentrations. Longest time period one year. Concentration output according to TA Luft and EU directives (hourly, daily, annual means)." "Typically between 15 meters and 200 meters, depending on the type of problem." "A few meters close to the ground to some decameters at larger heights." "The simulation particles are transported by the mean wind flow (defined by the implemented one-dimensional boundary layer model or in form of three-dimensional fields)." "The turbulent motion of the simulation particles is described by a Markov process in phase space. Input parameters are the components of velocity fluctuations and diffusion coefficients (defined by the implemented one-dimensional boundary layer model or in form of three-dimensional fields)." "Dry deposition is parameterized by a deposition velocity, gravitational settling by a settling velocity. Wet deposition is not implemented." "Chemical conversion of NO to NO2 is parametrized by linear conversion rates according to guideline VDI 3782/1. " "The path of simulation particles, that form a representative sample of a substance cloud in the atmosphere, is simulated on the computer by means of a random process (Lagrange simulation). The concentration is deduced from the masses carried by the particles in a given spatial volume during a given period of time." "Input data are checked for formal correctness, not for scientific plausibility or consistency." "

    Sources (up to some dozen) are defined in form of point, line, area or volume sources (rectangular base).

    Each source can emit any combination of given trace substances. Emission strengths are specified in mass per second and can be defined as constant or together with the meteorological time series.

    " "Hourly means of wind direction, wind speed and stability (German classification scheme according to Klug/Manier or Monin-Obukhov length) for one anemometer height in 2 different formats; alternatively dispersion class statistics according to guideline VDI 3782/1." "For structured terrain, a file with the terrain profile covering the complete calculation area must be provided. The data is automatically transformed to the applied calculation grid(s).
    Buildings are defined as blocks with rectangular base.
    The surface roughness is described by an average roughness length and a displacement height." "Not available." "Not available." "Not available." "Input parameters are defined in a simple text file (austal2000.txt), meteorology in form of a separate text file.
    Calculation grid(s) and average surface roughness length are automatically set or defined by the user.
    Additional files can be provided for the definition of a terrain file and for gridded building shapes. " "- Log file with main results according to TA Luft requirements.
    - Concentration time series at given monitor points.
    - Two-dimensional concentration and deposition distributions according to TA Luft requirements.
    - Odor hour frequency (including rated odorant components)." "AUSTAL2000 is operated in a command shell without graphical user interface. Different commercial graphical user interfaces are available." "Consultants; industry; local and national authorities." "Regional" "Local air quality studies and licensing procedures
    Relevant references:
    - Trukenmüller A, Bächlin W, Sörgel Ch, 2007: Modelling incremental concentrations from domestic heating with the regulatory Lagrangian particle model AUSTAL2000. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. Provided at http://www.harmo.org.
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: A modeling system for licensing industrial facilities. UFOPLAN 200 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de.
    Description
    As the official reference model of the German Regulation on Air Quality Control (TA Luft), AUSTAL2000 is the standard dispersion tool for licensing procedures according to TA Luft in Germany. " "Urban" "Local air quality studies and licensing procedures
    Relevant references:
    - Trukenmüller A, Bächlin W, Sörgel Ch, 2007: Modelling incremental concentrations from domestic heating with the regulatory Lagrangian particle model AUSTAL2000. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. Provided at http://www.harmo.org.
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: A modeling system for licensing industrial facilities. UFOPLAN 200 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de.
    Description
    As the official reference model of the German Regulation on Air Quality Control (TA Luft), AUSTAL2000 is the standard dispersion tool for licensing procedures according to TA Luft in Germany. " "Local air quality studies and licensing procedures
    Relevant references:
    - Trukenmüller A, Bächlin W, Sörgel Ch, 2007: Modelling incremental concentrations from domestic heating with the regulatory Lagrangian particle model AUSTAL2000. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. Provided at http://www.harmo.org.
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: A modeling system for licensing industrial facilities. UFOPLAN 200 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de.
    Description
    As the official reference model of the German Regulation on Air Quality Control (TA Luft), AUSTAL2000 is the standard dispersion tool for licensing procedures according to TA Luft in Germany. " "

    The program package is provided with executables (Windows, Linux), source code, a variety of examples, a handbook, and additional documentation.

    The program package is provided in German and English. Native Language Support (NLS) allows an easy adaptation of the program to other languages.

    " "

    Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed.
    Relevant references:
    - Janicke U, Janicke L, 2007: Lagrangian particle modeling for regulatory purposes; A survey of recent developments in Germany. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. See http://www.harmo.org.
    - Bahmann W, Schmonsees N, Janicke L, 2006: Study of the applicability of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000 with the wind field model TALdia with respect to building effects for exhaust emissions via cooling towers and stacks. VGB Research Project No. 262 (German). Provided at http://www.vgb.org/data/vgborg_/Forschung/FE262.pdf.
    - Janicke U, Janicke L, 2004: Enhancement of a diagnostic wind field model for licensing industrial facilities (TA Luft). UFOPLAN 203 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German/English). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de.
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: A modeling system for licensing industrial facilities. UFOPLAN 200 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de.
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: The development of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000G. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 5, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de.
    - Janicke L, 2002: Lagrangian dispersion modeling. Particulate Matter in and from Agriculture, 235, 37-4, ISBN 3-933140-58-7.
    Description
    The model has been validated by means of commonly used experimental data sets (Prairie-Gras, wind tunnel), see Janicke and Janicke (2002), Janicke (2002), VDI 3783/8 (2002). Further validation and evaluation has been carried out over the last 15 years for the model LASAT from which AUSTAL2000 was developed.

    The model type is fixed in form of a guideline (VDI 3945/3) and is part of German regulations (TA Luft, GIRL).

    The German guideline VDI 3945/3 describes the model type and defines a set of verification tests that a numerical realization of the model type must pass. AUSTAL2000 conforms to this guideline. The verification tests can be run and inspected by the user. " "Relevant references:
    - Janicke Consulting, 2007: Reference book AUSTAL2000 2.3.
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: The development of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000G. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 5, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de.
    Description
    As part of the standardized verification procedure, the model results are compared to analytical solutions. In this context, an important test is the comparison with analytical solutions of the stationary advection-diffusion equation for simplified, non-homogeneous boundary layer profiles (Berljand solution).
    In course of the development of a prediction scheme for odor nuisance, the model results have been compared to results from a hybrid Gauss-Euler model (HEGAU) which applies a Gaussian plume description in the horizontal and an Eulerian description in the vertical." "How much does the model cost? Nothing, it is available free of charge at http://www.austal2000.de. What does the GNU licence (GPL) of the source code imply? Simply speaking, any modifications of the model must be distributed free of charge and under a different name. See the licence information provided with the source code. Does the model provide a graphical user interface? No, the model is executed in a command shell (DOS window under Windows). Commercial interfaces are available. What time is required for training? An initial training period of some days is recommended. Do I need background knowledge in atmospheric dispersion to adequately apply the model? Yes. Does the model check my input? For formal correctness yes, not for scientific plausibility or consistency. Do I get support when using the model? A free hotline support via email is provided (info@austal2000.de). Does the model require any other third-party programs? No. What is the difference between AUSTAL2000 and LASAT? AUSTAL2000 is free of charge, but limited to the requirements and specifications of the German regulation TA Luft. LASAT is commercial, has a larger scope of applications, more features (user-interface, multicore) and is steadily improved. With appropriate parameter settings, LASAT and AUSTAL2000 produce identical results." "The software package is provided for Windows 2000/XP/Vista and for Linux (tested with Suse Linux). At least 512 MB RAM and 1 GB hard disk space are recommended. AUSTAL2000 is a standalone system that does not require other commercial software programs. " "CPU time depends on the type of problem and the quantities of interest. Typical calculation times for a time series over one year in flat terrain is half an hour to 2 hours. Shorter calculation times can be achieved at the cost of the statistical uncertainty of the results which depends on the number of simulation particles applied. Calculations for complex terrain demand considerably longer calculation times. " "Depending on the chosen calculation grids, required disk space can be some MB to some 100 MB. Wind field libraries created for calculations in complex terrain can require several GB hard disk space." "

    The complete program package is provided free of charge at http://www.austal2000.de. The package includes executables (Windows, Linux), complete source code (C, GNU licensed), examples, reference book (German, English, Romanian), additional documentation.

    " "Janicke U, Janicke L, 2004: Enhancement of a diagnostic wind field model for licensing industrial facilities (TA Luft). UFOPLAN 203 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German/English). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de. Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: A modeling system for licensing industrial facilities. UFOPLAN 200 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de. Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: The development of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000G. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 5, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de. VDI 3945 Part 3, 2000: Atmospheric dispersion models; Particle model. Berlin, Beuth (German/English). See http://www.vdi.de." "Janicke U, Janicke L, 2007: Lagrangian particle modeling for regulatory purposes; A survey of recent developments in Germany. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. See http://www.harmo.org. Trukenmüller A, Bächlin W, Sörgel Ch, 2007: Modelling incremental concentrations from domestic heating with the regulatory Lagrangian particle model AUSTAL2000. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. Provided at http://www.harmo.org. Bahmann W, Schmonsees N, Janicke L, 2006: Study of the applicability of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000 with the wind field model TALdia with respect to building effects for exhaust emissions via cooling towers and stacks (Studie zur Anwendbarkeit des Ausbreitungsmodells AUSTAL2000 mit Windfeldmodell TALdia im Hindblick auf die Gebäudeeffekte bei Ableitung von Rauchgasen über Kühltürme und Schornsteine). VGB Research Project No. 262 (German). Provided at http://www.vgb.org/data/vgborg_/Forschung/FE262.pdf. TA Luft, 2002: Technical Regulation on Air Quality Control. GMBl. 2002, Heft 25-29, S. 511-605. Provided at www.bmu.de/files/taluft.pdf (German). Janicke L, 2002: Lagrangian dispersion modeling. Particulate Matter in and from Agriculture, 235, 37-4, ISBN 3-933140-58-7. VDI 3782 Part 1, 2001: Environmental Meteorology; Gaussian plume model for air quality management. Berlin, Beuth (German/English). See http://www.vdi.de. VDI 3782 Part 3, 1985: Environmental Meteorology; Dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere; Calculation of plume rise. Berlin, Beuth (German/English). See http://www.vdi.de. VDI 3783 Part 8, 2002: Environmental meteorology; Turbulence parameters for dispersion models supported by measurement data. Berlin, Beuth (German/English). See http://www.vdi.de. VDI 3784 Part 2, 1990: Environmental Meteorology; Dispersion modeling for the discharge of flue gas via cooling towers. Berlin, Beuth (German/English). See http://www.vdi.de. Janicke L, 1983: Particle simulation of inhomogeneous turbulent diffusion. Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, II, (ed. Weber). Plenum Press, N.Y., 527-535. Janicke L, 1985: Particle simulation of dust transport and deposition and comparison with conventional models. Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, IV, (ed. C. de Wispelaere). Plenum Press, N.Y., 759-769. " 3/29/2011 17:45:25 130 "FARM" "Gregory Carmichael" "ARIANET srl (www.aria-net.it)" "gcarmich@icaen.uiowa.edu" "+39-02-27007255" "+39-02-25708084" "via Gilino 9, 20128 Milano, ITALY " "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Eutrophication, Summer smog, Winter smog, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "FARM" "FARM (Flexible Air quality Regional Model)" "Version 3" "October 2009" "ARIANET s.r.l." "Giuseppe Calori & Camillo Silibello" "ARIANET, via Gilino 9, 20128 Milano, ITALY" "+39-02-27007255" "+39-02-25708084" "g.calori@aria-net.it & c.silibello@aria-net.it" "http://www.aria-net.it" "Provided by contact persons" "Basic" "FARM is a three-dimensional Eulerian grid model for dispersion, transformation and deposition of reactive pollutants (including photochemistry and particulates) and toxics species, designed to be used in: case studies, episodes analysis and investigation of pollutant formation and accumulation processes; analysis of scenarios and of the effects of regional emission control policies; pollution forecast in complex situations, driven by prognostic meteorological models." "Three-dimensional Eulerian model." "FARM (Flexible Air quality Regional Model) code has been originally derived from STEM (G.R. Carmichael, Centre for Global and Regional Environmental Research, U. of Iowa). FARM major features currently include: emissions from area and point sources, with plume rise calculation and mass assignment to vertical grid cells; three-dimensional transport by advection and turbulent diffusion; transformation of chemical species by gas-phase chemistry, with flexible mechanism configuration using KPP interface; aerosol modelling using two different schemes; dry removal of pollutants dependent on local meteorology and land-use; wet removal through precipitation scavenging processes; parallelization of the code using OpenMP paradigmpossibility of one- or two-way nesting with an arbitrary number of computational grids; interface with a complete modelling system for multiscale air quality simulations." "Mesoscale/regional scale. Long-term runs are possible, but require considerable computational resources." "Time integration steps: minutes/seconds; results stored hourly or at multiple of hours." "Grid size typically between 500 m and 50 km; typically 50 to 100 cells in each dimension. Available coordinates systems: UTM, polar stereographic, geographic (latitude/longitude) and Mercator. Use of map scale factors (ratio of the length of a path on the map to the length of the path that it represents on the earth) to properly consider wide domains." "Variable vertical spacing, in terrain-following coordinates." "Horizontal: Blackman cubic polynomials (Yamartino, 1993); vertical: hybrid semi-implicit Crank-Nicolson / fully implicit scheme (Yamartino et al., 1992)." "ABL-scaling, using related pre-processor (SURFPRO)." "Deposition velocity (from SURFPRO pre-processor) depending on land type, season, surface meteorology, surface wetness, by means of a big leaf resistance model after Walcek (1986) and Wesley (1989). Precipitation scavenging for gases and aerosols based on EMEP (2003)." "Gas-Phase: flexible mechanism, assigned through KPP chemical pre-processor (Kinetic PreProcessor; Damian et al., 2002; Daeuscu et al., 2003; Sandu et al., 2003, 2006); currently adopted: SAPRC-99 (Carter, 2000), EMEP-acid (Hov et al., 1988), POP (Persistent Organic Pollutants, Gusev et al., 2005; Seigneur et al., 1998). On-line calculation of photolysis rates using TUV code (Madronich, 1987), taking into account the effects of aerosol particles and gaseous species (as in STEM model). Particulates: two options - the aerosol module (aero3) implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system (Binkowski, 1999) or a simpler equilibrium module (aero0) for secondary inorganic aerosol." "Operator splitting with adaptive fractional steps. Chemistry: LSODE (Radhakrishnan e Hindmarsh, 1993) and Rosenbrock (Sandu et al., 1997) solvers." "Hourly SO2, NOx, NMVOC (splitted into classes used by the chosen chemical mechanism), NH3, CO emissions at each grid location and (optionally) at a set of point sources. Plume rise and grid cells allocation are computed for each point source. Emissions from an arbitrary set of tracers can be also considered. Emissions input can be generated by Emission Manager pre-processing system, starting from inventories of point, line and area sources." "Hourly 2d/3D fields of wind, air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, cloud cover and height, precipitation, turbulent horizontal and vertical diffusivities, surface resistances and gas deposition velocities. Can be provided (through the GAP grid adaptor) by a wide series of diagnostic/prognostic meteorological models; among the others have been used: RAMS, MM5, Lokal-Modell, WRF, SWI, CALMET. " "Topography height for each grid cell." "3D fields, either from measurements or coarser model grid results, through the use of companion pre-processors (ICBC and BOUNDER)." "Time-varying (e.g. hourly) or climatological concentrations at lateral and top boundaries. Prepared either from measurements or coarser model grid results, throught the use of companion pre-processors (ICBC and BOUNDER)." "Observational nudging and objective analysis of ground-based observed concentrations: optimal interpolation and successive correction method." "Most input data are in the form of hourly 2D/3D gridded fields, in netCDF or ADSO/bin format." "Concentrations Deposition fluxes Domain balances and processes contributions" "The code is embedded in a comprehensive regional atmospheric simulation system, including orography, land-use, meteo, emissions and IC/BC pre-processors, some of which have a GUI. In FARM, through a initialization file the user can manage modules activation, calculation and output options for each individual species. Post-processor for statistical analysis of modelled fields and data extraction as well as interface with visualization tools (AVISU, Savi3D, GrADS, Vis5D) help with the interpretation of model output." "Mostly Italian national and local authorities; research institutes (test and development). Users of FARM should have a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and experience in the use of complex numerical models." "Regional" "Reconstruction and analysis of severe photochemical and PM pollution episodes during winter and summer; among others: Milano, Torino, Rome. Performance: good reproduction of spatial patterns, peaks occurrence and magnitude, VOCs spectrum and PM total mass; PM speciation and small-scale urban features calling for improvements.
    Silibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Giudici A., Angelino E., Fossati G., Peroni E., Buganza E., Degiarde E. (2005) Modelling of PM10 concentrations over Milano urban area: validation and sensitivity analysis of different aerosol modules. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005.
    De Maria R., Cascone C. Motta F., Picollo M.E., Clemente M., Bande S., Muraro M., Lollobrigida F., Silibello C. (2005) Simulation of a summer ozone episode: influence of emission resolution and initial/boundary conditions. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005.
    Silibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Giudici A., Angelino E., Fossati G., Peroni E.; Buganza E. (2008) Modelling of PM10 Concentrations Over Milano Urban Area Using Two Aerosol Modules. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 333-343." "Urban" "Reconstruction and analysis of severe photochemical and PM pollution episodes during winter and summer; among others: Milano, Torino, Rome. Performance: good reproduction of spatial patterns, peaks occurrence and magnitude, VOCs spectrum and PM total mass; PM speciation and small-scale urban features calling for improvements.
    Silibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Giudici A., Angelino E., Fossati G., Peroni E., Buganza E., Degiarde E. (2005) Modelling of PM10 concentrations over Milano urban area: validation and sensitivity analysis of different aerosol modules. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005.
    De Maria R., Cascone C. Motta F., Picollo M.E., Clemente M., Bande S., Muraro M., Lollobrigida F., Silibello C. (2005) Simulation of a summer ozone episode: influence of emission resolution and initial/boundary conditions. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005.
    Silibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Giudici A., Angelino E., Fossati G., Peroni E.; Buganza E. (2008) Modelling of PM10 Concentrations Over Milano Urban Area Using Two Aerosol Modules. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 333-343." "Episodes" "Reconstruction and analysis of severe photochemical and PM pollution episodes during winter and summer; among others: Milano, Torino, Rome. Performance: good reproduction of spatial patterns, peaks occurrence and magnitude, VOCs spectrum and PM total mass; PM speciation and small-scale urban features calling for improvements.
    Silibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Giudici A., Angelino E., Fossati G., Peroni E., Buganza E., Degiarde E. (2005) Modelling of PM10 concentrations over Milano urban area: validation and sensitivity analysis of different aerosol modules. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005.
    De Maria R., Cascone C. Motta F., Picollo M.E., Clemente M., Bande S., Muraro M., Lollobrigida F., Silibello C. (2005) Simulation of a summer ozone episode: influence of emission resolution and initial/boundary conditions. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005.
    Silibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Giudici A., Angelino E., Fossati G., Peroni E.; Buganza E. (2008) Modelling of PM10 Concentrations Over Milano Urban Area Using Two Aerosol Modules. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 333-343." "Model formulation and user manual (Level 1-2, English)." "Level 2. On single model components (see references) and against monitoring data in real applications (see applications)." "Ongoing long-term model intercomparison exercise over Po Valley (Northern Italy), carried out by Regional Environmental Protection Agencies." "Standard Fortran90." "About 1.5 hours for each day of simulation on a 3 Ghz PC for a typical photochemical application on a 60*60*12 grid. About 50% more time if PM is considered." "A few hundreds of Mb, for a typical episodic application. Complex input processing may require more." "Available to selected users; please check with the specified contact persons." "Binkowski F. S. (1999) The aerosol portion of Models-3 CMAQ. In Science Algorithms of the EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System. Part II: Chapters 9-18. D.W. Byun, and J.K.S. Ching (Eds.). EPA-600/R-99/030, National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 10-1-10-16. Calori G., Finardi S., Nanni A., Radice P., Riccardo S., Bertello A., Pavone F. (2005) Long-term air quality modelling in Ivrea and Torino areas: sources contribution and scenario analysis. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005. Calori G., Silibello C., Volta M., Brusasca G., G. Carmichael (1998) Application of a photochemical modelling system to an intense ozone episode over Northern Italy, APMS conference, Paris, 26-29.10.98. Carmichael G.R., Peters L.K., Saylor R.D. (1990) The STEM-II regional scale acid deposition and photochemical oxidant model - I. An overview of model development and applications. Atmospheric Environment 25A, 2077-2090. Carter W.P.L. (1990) A detailed mechanism for the gas-phase atmospheric reactions of organic compounds. Atmospheric Environment 24A, 481-518. Carter W.P.L. (2000) Documentation of the SAPRC-99 Chemical Mechanism for VOC Reactivity Assessment. Final Report to California Air Resources Board, Contract 92-329 and 95-308, SAPRC, University of California, Riverside,CA. Daescu, D., Sandu, A., Carmichael, G. R. (2003) Direct and adjoint sensitivity analysis of chemical kinetic systems with KPP: II validation and numerical experiments. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 50975114. Damian, V. , Sandu, A., Damian, M., Potra, F., Carmichael, G. R. (2002). The kinetic preprocessor KPP a software environment for solving chemical kinetics. Computers and Chemical Engineering, 26, 15671579. De Maria R., Cascone C., Motta F., Picollo M.E., Clemente M., Bande S., Muraro M., Lollobrigida F., Silibello C. (2005) Simulation of a summer ozone episode: influence of emission resolution and initial/boundary conditions. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia, Spain, 29-31 March 2005. Finardi S., D´Allura A., Calori G., Silibello C., De Maria R., Cascone C., Lollobrigida F. (2005) Deterministic air quality forecasting system for Torino urban area: verification on winter and summer episodes. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005. Gusev, A., Mantseva, E., Shatalov, V., Strukov, B. (2005). Regional Multicompartment Model MSCE-POP. EMEP/MSC-E Technical Report 5/2005. Hov O., Eliassen A., Simpson D. (1988) Calculation of the distribution of NOx compounds in Europe. In Isaksen I.S.A. (ed.) Troposheric ozone. Regional and global scale interactions, pp.239-262, Dordrecht D. Reidel. Madronich, S. Photodissociation in the atmosphere: 1. Actinic flux and the effects of ground reflections and clouds. (1987) J. Geophysical Research, 92, 97409752. Radhakrishnan, K. and Hindmarsh (1993) A. Description and use of LSODE, the Livermore solver for differential equations, NASA reference publication 1327. Sandu, A., Verwer, J.G., Blom, J.G., Spee, E.J., Carmichael, G.R. (1997) Benchmarking stiff ODE solvers for atmospheric chemistry problems II: Rosenbrock solvers. Atmos. Environ., 31, 3459-3472, 1997. Sandu, A., Daescu, D., Carmichael, G. R. (2003) Direct and adjoint sensitivity analysis of chemical kinetic systems with KPP: I Theory and software tools. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 50835096. Sandu, A., Sander, R. Simulating Chemical Kinetic Systems in Fortran90 and Matlab with the Kinetic PreProcessor KPP-2.1. (2006) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6, 187195, SRef-ID: 1680-7324/acp/2006-6-187. Seigneur, C., H. Abeck, G. Chia, M. Reinhard, N.S. Bloom, E. Prestbo and P. Saxena. 1998. Mercury adsorption to elemental carbon (soot) particles and atmospheric particulate matter, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2649-2657. Silibello C., Calori G., Arduino G., Contardi C., Sordi F. (2005) Model based yearly air quality evaluation on Piemonte region. Accepted at 10th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Sissi (Malia), Crete, Greece 17-20 October, 2005. Silibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Giudici A., Angelino E., Fossati E., Peroni E., Buganza E., Degiarde E. (2005) Modelling of PM10 concentrations over Milano urban area: validation and sensitivity analysis of different aerosol modules. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia, Spain, 29-31 March 2005. Yamartino R.J. (1993) Nonnegative, conserved scalar transport using grid-cell-centered, spectrally constrained Blackman cubics for applications on a variable-thickness mesh. Mon. Wea. Rev. 121, 753-763. Yamartino R.J., Scire J.S., Carmichael G.R., Chang Y.S. (1992) The CALGRID mesoscale photochemical grid model - I. Model formulation. Atmospheric Environment 26A, 8, 1493-1512. Zanini G., Monforti F., Ornelli P., Pignatelli T., Vialetto G., Brusasca G., Calori G., Finardi S., Radice P., Silibello C. (2004) The MINNI project. 9th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 1-4/6/2004, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (D)." 3/29/2011 17:45:25 137 "CALINE4" "Michael Brady" "California Department of Transportation, DOTP-ORIP" "mike_brady@dot.ca.gov" "1120 N Street, MS 32 Sacramento, CA 95814 USA" "Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "1 to 24 hours" "PC" "CALINE4" "CAlifornia LINE Source Dispersion Model" "Version 4" 1998 "California Department of Transportation" "Eleonora Agostini" "unknown" "unknown" "unknown" "eleonora.agostini@docenti.ing.unipi.it" "http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/InfoSvcs/EngApps/" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Dispersion model for predicting air pollutant concentrations near roadways" "Bi-dimwnsional microscale model" "CALINE4 is a model based on the Gaussian diffusion equation and employs a mixing zone concept to characteriza pollutant dispersion over the roadway. The purpose of the model is to assess air quality impacts near transportation facilities. Given source strength, meteorology and site geometry, the model can predict pollutant concentrations for receptors located within 500 meters of the roadway. It also has special options for modeling air quality near intersections, street canyons and parking facilities." "Any validation for rainy situation." "Time step: 1 hour, simulated time period: 24 h." "domain dimension 500 m" "horizontally homogeneous wind flow" "uniform turbulence" "CALINE4 uses the \\\\\\\\\\\\\\'Discrete Parcel Method\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'to model NO2 concentrations " "CALINE4 divides individual highway links into a series of elements from which incremental concentrations are computed and then summed to form a total concentration estimate for a particular receptor location. Downwind concentrations from the element are modelled using the crosswind FLS (Finite Line Source) Gaussian formulation, but óy and óz are modified to consider the mechanical turbulence created by moving vehicles and the thermal turbulence created by hot vehicle exhaust in the region directly over the highway, region considered as a zone of uniform emissions and turbulence." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are provided by traffic volume (vehicles/h) and emission factor (gr/mile/vehicle) for each link" "Wind speed Wind direction Wind direction standard deviation Atmospheric stability Class Mixing Height Ambient Temperature" "The Gaussian formulation used is based on two somewhat restrictive assumptions: 1)horizontally homogeneous wind flow; 2)steady-state meteorological conditions. For these reasons CALINE4 needs a simple orography." "see meteorology" "see meteorology" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Link type: at-grade, fill, depressed, bridge, parking lot. no other input requirements" "Predicted concentration at the receptor, including ambient concentration; the incremental concentration contributed by each link at a receptor position; average 8-hour concentration predicted at the receptor." "Windows, MS-DOS" "Validated by US-EPA." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "CALINE4 manual (1989 research report)" "The model is verified using data from five separate field studies (see CALINE4 manual." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "unknown" "Portability Sufficient experience on a Celeron 1.8 GHz, 256 MB SDRAM " "few seconds" "for the typical case 167 kb" "The model is a public domain programme." "Caltrans (1989) CALINE4 A Dispersion Model for Predicting Air Pollutant Concentrations Near Roadways, Final Report prepared by the Caltrans Division of New Technology and Research (report No. FHWA/CA/TL-84/15)." 3/29/2011 18:16:19 136 "CPB3" "Marco Bedogni" "marco.bedogni@ama-mi.it" "Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Semi-empirical models" "Up to 10 minutes" "PC" "CPB3" "Canyon Plume Box Model" "Version 3 Release 6a" "October 1998" "Marco Bedogni " "marco.bedogni@ama-mi.it" "http://www.tfhrc.gov/structur/pubs/02036/intro.htm" "Basic" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." 3/29/2011 18:17:22 135 "SLP-2D" "Jose Luis Santiago" "jl.santiago@ciemat.es" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Lagrangian models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour" "PC" "SLP-2D" "Street Lagrangian Particles Model in 2D" "1 in checking status" "April 2004" "CIEMAT" "Jose Luis Santiago" "
    Dpto. Combustibles Fósiles. CIEMAT. Ed 70.
    Av. Complutense 22,
    28040. Madrid.
    Spain." "+34 913466063" "+34 913466121" "jl.santiago@ciemat.es" "Basic" "Pollutant dispersion in streets." "Lagrangian particles model and 2 dimensional simulations" "Pollution is simulated by means of a large number of particles released in flow. Traffic emissions are employed to assign mass corresponding to each particle. Particles are displaced in each time step by a deterministic term (wind flow) and a stochastic term (turbulence). Deposition process for particles and turbulence produced by traffic are included." "Pollutant dispersion in 2D. Model can be used for simulations in streets and open country with obstacles. Not suitable for gases and reactive pollutants." "0.1s" "0.5m" "0.5m" "
    Transport of particles is computed assuming two components:
    - Mean flow obtained from a meteorological CFD model.
    - Stochastic component related to the turbulence intensity." "Turbulence magnitudes are inputs to the model, but TPT(Turbulence Produced by Traffic) maximum value is centered in each traffic lane and is decreasing to minimum values in the street canyons walls and top. TPT is added to ambient turbulence." "
    Dynamic reduction of the mass of each particle to account deposition mass flux.
    Deposition velocity is calculated by an adaptation of the resistence scheme from Zhang et al.(2001)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Location of sources and rates." "
    - Wind fields.
    - TKE field." "It is solved as an obstacles." "No pollution. Background pollution is added to final results." "Obstacles are considered as combination of several walls. Particles are not allowed to go throught a wall." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "
    - Meteorological fields.
    - Emissions data.
    - Traffic characteristics (Number, type and speed of vehicles).
    - Location and dimensions of obstacles.
    - Background concentration." "
    - 2D concentration fields for several times.
    - Particle location for several times." "Not available." "CIEMAT" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Report in preparation" "Under validation and evaluation process." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "PC" "For example 1-hour simulation with 360000 particles lasts aprox. 3-4 hour in a PC with Pentium IV microprocessor." "For example 1-hour simulation with 360000 particles assuming outputs every 100 seconds period, the outputs files have a size of 51 Mb." "Not available until the validation and evaluation process finishs." "Documentation is under being prepared. -Zhang, L., Gong, S., Padro, J., Barrie, L., 2001. A size-segregated particle dry deposition scheme for an atmospheric aerosol module. Atmospheric Environment 35, 549-560." 3/29/2011 18:17:23 134 "ADMS-Roads" "Christine McHugh (CERC Principal Consultant)" "Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants Ltd. " "christine.mchugh@cerc.co.uk" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Plume-rise models, Gaussian models, Chemical models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC" "ADMS-Roads" "Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System - Roads" "Version 3.0" "October 2010" "Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants Ltd." "Christine McHugh" "Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants Ltd.,
    3 Kings Parade,
    Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK" "+44 1223 357773" "+44 1223 357492" "help@cerc.co.uk" "http://www.cerc.co.uk" "help@cerc.co.uk" "Basic" "Air quality assessment, regulatory purposes and compliance for small towns and rural road networks, policy support, scientific research. Contributes to EU Air Quality directive: compliance/assessment; planning and mitigation; source apportionment; public information and forecasting;" "Three dimensional quasi-Gaussian model." "ADMS-Roads is a PC based model of dispersion in the atmospheric of passive, buoyant or slightly dense, continuous releases from single or multiple sources which may be point, area, line, volume or road sources. The model uses an up to date parameterisation of the boundary layer structure based on the Monin Obukhov length LMO, and the boundary layer height h. The system has a number of distinct features which can be summarised as follows:
    (i) concentration distributions are Gaussian in stable and neutral conditions, but the vertical distribution is non-Gaussian in convective conditions to take account of the skewed structure of the vertical component of the turbulence.
    (ii) plume spread depends on the local wind speed and turbulence and thus depends on plume height. This contrasts with Pasquill-Gifford methods where plume spread is independent of height.
    (iii) a meteorological pre-processor which calculates the required boundary layer parameters from a variety of input data: eg wind speed, day time cloud cover or wind speed, surface heat flux and boundary layer height. Meteorological data may be raw, hourly averaged values or statistically analysed data.
    (iv) calculation of averages of mean concentration, deposition and radioactivity, and mean concentration percentiles for averaging times ranging from seconds to a year. For shorter averaging times (1 hour or less) estimates of fluctuations in the concentration, including peaks, are included.
    (v) integrated calculation of the effcet of street cnayons and noise barriers.
    (vi) explicit NOX chemistry scheme (NO, NO2, O3 and VOC) and sulphate chemistry
    (vii) a number of complex modules allow for the effects of plume rise, complex terrain and buildings (advanced version of the model only).
    (viii) Intelligent gridding: it is possible to use intelligence gridding to add gridpoints around streets " "Less accurate in calm wind conditions; rapidly changing weather conditions (less than 1 hour)" "Model is time independent so there are no time steps." "No limits to spatial resolution." "No limits to spatial resolution." "Advection by wind speed calculated at the mean plume height." "Turbulence profiles based on surface similarity and boundary layer scaling. Measured vertical profiles of turbulence can be utilized if available." "Deposition and scavenging based on deposition velocity (surface roughess, wind speed, species, particle size dependent) and washout coefficient." "Explicit chemistry scheme models NOX chemistry and sulphate chemistry." "No numerical methods required except Runge Kutta for plume rise model and adaptive time stepping scheme for chemistry." "Met data
    Met data can be obtained from national or international met services. Data will usually be hourly surface data comprising day, time, wind speed, wind direction, near surface temperature, precipitation, cloud cover or solar radiation as a minimum. The user enters the height(s) at which the wind speed was measured. Vertical profile data may also be utilized.
    Topographical data
    Topographical data can be obtained from national providers or the US Geographical Survey. For input to the model the user must construct a data set in a simple text format with the data (counter, X, Y, Z) .
    Emissions
    Input in units per second e.g. g/s for a point source or g/(km.s) for a road source.
    Time varying emission factors can be provided, diurnal and monthly profiles or a time series with hourly values for one day. " "Input in units per second.
    Time varying emission factors can be provided, diurnal and monthly profiles or a time series with hourly values for one day." "Time series of up to 5 years can be used." "Terrain height and/or surface roughness entered as a grid of values." "The model does not incorporate initial and boundary conditions." "The model does not incorporate initial and boundary conditions." "Met data
    Met data can be obtained from national or international met services. Data will usually be hourly surface data comprising day, time, wind speed, wind direction, near surface temperature, precipitation, cloud cover or solar radiation as a minimum. The user enters the height at which the wind speed was measured.

    Topographical data
    Topographical data can be obtained national providers or the US Geographical Survey. For input to the model the user must construct a data set in a simple text format with the data (counter, X, Y, Z).

    Emissions
    Input in units per second e.g. g/s for a point source or g/(km.s) for a road source. Time varying emission factors can be provided, diurnal and monthly profiles or a time series with hourly values for one day. " "Emissions, grid specifications, meteorology buildings and terrain if needed." "Mean concentration of pollutants for averaging times ranging from 10 minutes to 1 year (or more). Percentiles of concentration where required. Shorter averaging times treated with concentration fluctuation model. Dry and wet deposition." "Windows (XP, Vista, 7). User interface includes link to a Geographical Information System. (ArcGIS, MapInfo)" "Consultants, local government." "Urban" "Reference:
    CERC, Validation using UK data for M25 and M4 motorways,
    www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/assets/data/doc_validation/CERC_ADMS-Urban_ADMS-Roads_validation_M4_M25.pdf
    or CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK
    Short description:
    Comparison of predicted hourly concentrations at 2 roadside monitors using 1 years data.
    Model performance:
    For predictions of hourly NOX at the M4 monitor the correlation was 0.6, the fractional bias 0.15 and 56% of predictions were within a factor of 2." "Reference:
    CERC, Validation using UK data for M25 and M4 motorways,
    www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/assets/data/doc_validation/CERC_ADMS-Urban_ADMS-Roads_validation_M4_M25.pdf
    or CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK
    Short description:
    Comparison of predicted hourly concentrations at 2 roadside monitors using 1 years data.
    Model performance:
    For predictions of hourly NOX at the M4 monitor the correlation was 0.6, the fractional bias 0.15 and 56% of predictions were within a factor of 2." "Reference:
    CERC, Validation using UK data for M25 and M4 motorways,
    www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/assets/data/doc_validation/CERC_ADMS-Urban_ADMS-Roads_validation_M4_M25.pdf
    or CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK
    Short description:
    Comparison of predicted hourly concentrations at 2 roadside monitors using 1 years data.
    Model performance:
    For predictions of hourly NOX at the M4 monitor the correlation was 0.6, the fractional bias 0.15 and 56% of predictions were within a factor of 2." "Level 1. Documentation in English.
    The User Guide (manual)including worked examples is supplied with the model.
    A full Technical Specification describing model algorithms is available." "Reference:
    CERC, Validation using UK data for M25 and M4 motorways,
    www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/assets/data/doc_validation/CERC_ADMS-Urban_ADMS-Roads_validation_M4_M25.pdf
    or CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK
    Short description:
    Comparison of predicted hourly concentrations at 2 roadside monitors using 1 years data.
    Model performance:
    For predictions of hourly NOX at the M4 monitor the correlation was 0.6, the fractional bias 0.15 and 56% of predictions were within a factor of 2.

    Reference:
    CERC, Validation using US data for CALTRANS highway.
    www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/assets/data/doc_validation/CERC_ADMS-Roads_validation_Caltrans99.pdf
    or CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK
    Short description:
    Tracer experiment alongside a highway, carried out during the early morning during winter months. 10 receptors.
    Model performance:
    The ADMS-Roads results show a correlation of 0.84 and show that for most observed concentrations the calculated concentrations will be within the factor of two. ADMS-Roads showed a tendency to over predict low concentrations and under predict high concentrations." "Reference:
    K. Ellis, C. McHugh and S. Dyster. Comparison of ADMS-Roads, CALINE and UK DMRB model predictions for roads (2001), 7th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes.
    http://aqm.jrc.it/harmo7/
    Short description:
    Comparison of ADMS-Roads, CALINE4 and DMRB for a typical road, a highway in California and a motorway in the UK.
    Model performance:
    For the California highway-
    The ADMS-Roads results show a higher correlation than the CALINE4 results, 0.84 compared to 0.51 and show that for most observed concentrations the calculated concentrations will be within the factor of two envelope for both models. The ADMS-Roads line of best fit is closer to the target line, y=x, than the CALINE4 line of best fit. Both models show a tendency to over predict low concentrations and under predict high concentrations.
    For the typical road-
    Concentrations calculated using DMRB are independent of road orientation, since DMRB takes no account of meteorological conditions, and are also independent of road width. DMRB concentrations are much higher close to the road centre than those calculated using ADMS-Roads, and drop off quickly within 150m of the road." "Does the model link to a GIS? Yes to ArcGIS 9.3 and MapInfo (version 9 and 10)." "Easily installed on PCs under Windows XP, Vista or 7." "Seconds for one line of met data. Hours for specified receptor output of a small urban area." "~0.5Gb" "Available commercially. Contact enquiries@cerc.co.uk" "CERC (2001), Validation of ADMS-Roads Using the Caltrans 99 Highway Data Set, www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/assets/data/doc_validation/CERC_ADMS-Roads_validation_Caltrans99.pdf or from CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK CERC (2001), Validation of ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads against M4 and M25 Motorway Data, www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/assets/data/doc_validation/CERC_ADMS-Urban_ADMS-Roads_validation_M4_M25.pdf or from CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK" "CERC, ADMS-Roads User Guide (2006), from CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK CERC, ADMS-Roads Technical Specification (2006), from CERC, 3 Kings Parade, Cambridge, CB2 1SJ, UK K. Ellis, C. McHugh and S. Dyster. Comparison of ADMS-Roads, CALINE and UK DMRB model predictions for roads (2001), Poster at Seventh International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes. http://aqm.jrc.it/harmo7/" 3/29/2011 18:17:25 139 "SEP_SCAM" "Apostolos Papathanasiou" "tolis@aix.meng.auth.gr" "Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Source-receptor relationships" "Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Semi-empirical models" "10 minutes to 1 hour" "PC" "SEP_SCAM" "SEMI-EMPIRICAL PARAMETERIZED STREET CANYON MODEL" "Version 1" "Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LHTEE, AUT) " "Papathanassiou Apostolos" "
    Aristotle University Thessaloniki
    Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering
    Box 483, 54006 Thessaloniki, GREECE " "+30 2310 996060" "+30 2310 996012 " "tolis@aix.meng.auth.gr" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of air pollution from traffic in urban streets " "A combined plume and box model " "Concentrations of exhaust gases are primarily calculated along the leeward and windward sides of the street canyon at any specified height above the street level. For the direct contribution of vehicle emitted pollutants the model makes use of a combination of a plume model and an empirical algorithm. For the recirculation part of the pollutants in the street a box model is used. The distribution pattern of concentrations along both sides of the canyon when an intersection is present is computed with the implementation of a simplified empirical formula. Concentrations across the canyon are calculated with an empirically-derived algorithm based on a very simplified parameterization of flow and dispersion conditions.
    SEP-SCAM model estimates the direct contribution following two basic assumptions.
    The first assumption is that both the traffic and traffic emissions are uniformly distributed across the canyon. The emission field is treated as a number of infinitesimal line sources aligned perpendicular to the wind direction at the street level. The contribution to the concentration at each point along both sides of the canyon is then computed by the Gaussian plume equation which is integrated along the wind path at the street level considering an appropriate definition for the related dispersion parameters.
    The second assumption is that the emission field is alternately considered as a specific number of line sources at street level, equal to the number of traffic lanes, aligned along the canyon axis. Then an empirical algorithm is used in order to estimate an additional portion of pollutant concentration with respect to the distance from each traffic lane. This algorithm is modified, based on experimental results, in order to handle adequately in a simplified fashion the potential effect of varying canyon geometry, irregular traffic emissions distribution and street level turbulence on the advection and diffusion of pollutants across the canyon.
    The total concentration is made up of the direct and recirculation contributions. The contribution from the recirculation part is calculated assuming a simple box model. The concentrations along both sides of the canyon due to the recirculation contribution are calculated assuming that the inflow rate of the pollutants into the recirculation zone is equal to the outflow rate and that the pollutants are well mixed inside the zone.
    When an intersection is present the extension of the recirculation zone along the leeward side is weighted by a factor which is calculated by an empirical formula depending on wind speed and direction as well as on the distance of each point from the middle of the intersection. Following this approach the effect of winds blowing through an intersection to the depression of the formation of the recirculation vortex can be adequately depicted in the simplest fashion.
    The distribution pattern of concentrations across the street canyon is approximated by a simplified formula which basically consists of an aggregation of two empirically derived terms that reflect the flow and turbulence field behaviour within the canyon. The first term accounts for the case that a well established vortex flow regime governs the concentrations distribution, while the second holds when the distribution is governed by a non vortex flow regime. Both terms are computed for each point across the canyon depending on the geometrical characteristics of the canyon, speed and direction of the wind at roof level and turbulence parameters at street level taking also into account the residence time of the pollutant within the canyon.
    Due to the relatively short scale of the street canyon only the fastest chemical reactions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are taken into account. Therefore, pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) are considered as inert components of the street canyon air. " "The model can not take into consideration the turbulence due to thermal stratification as well as the thermal effects on the walls. The buildings porosity has also been neglected. It is advisable that the model should not be used for streets with irregular street-canyon configurations. " "The model is currently designed to work with input and output data series of hourly averages." "The current setting is to 1 m, but it depends mainly on the machine performance. " "The model calculates concentrations at any specified height above the street level." "Only NO-O3-NO2 chemistry" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions from the vehicles must be provided for each pollutant. Specific information about traffic flow and composition should also be provided. " "The meteorological data required are wind speed and direction, temperature and global radiation observed above roof level. " "Information should be provided about the average height, width, length and orientation of the canyon. If an itersection is present its location within the canyon should be defined in detail." "Hourly background concentrations of NOx, NO2, O3, CO and PM ,measured at the roof level of the canyon, are required. For special applications modelled concentrations calculated by urban mesoscale models can be used." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Street geometry information. Average daily variation or hourly values of traffic flow and emissions. Hourly values of urban background pollutants concentrations. Hourly meteorological data. Total number of the traffic lanes and detailed information about their spatial distribution." "Hourly spatial distribution of calculated concentrations at any level parallel to the street level. Various statistical parameters with respect to the calculated concentrations. " "Not yet available." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." 3/29/2011 18:17:26 138 "BoxSTREET" "Alexis Coppalle" "coppalle@coria.fr" "+02 32 95 97 73 " "+02 32 95 97 80" "UMR 6614 CORIA, INSA de Rouen, Campus du Madrillet" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Area - volume source" "Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Semi-empirical models" "Up to 10 minutes" "PC" "BoxSTREET" "Alexis Coppalle" "coppalle@coria.fr" "Basic" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." 3/29/2011 18:17:27 166 "BelEUROS" "Clemens Mensink" "VITO, Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Department of Integrated Environmental Studies" "clemens.mensink@vito.be" "Boeretang 200 B-2400 MOl Belgium" "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Summer smog, Winter smog" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "Workstation" "BelEUROS" "BELgian version of the EURopean Operational Smog model" "based on EUROS model version 4.6" "September 2010" "VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research" "Stijn Janssen, Felix Deutsch" "VITO
    Environmental Modelling Unit
    Boeretang 200
    BE-2400 Mol, Belgium" "+32 14336702; +32 14336750" "+32 14321185" "stijn.janssen@vito.be; felix.deutsch@vito.be" "http://www.vito.be/VITO/EN/HomepageAdmin/Home/WetenschappelijkOnderzoek/RuimtelijkeMilieuaspecten/" "Provided by contact person." "Intermediate" "Air Quality Modelling of different air pollutants, e.g. NO2, O3, PM2.5, PM10, ammonium, nitrates, sulfates. Assessment of source contributions, e.g. of economical sectors to pollutant levels in certain areas" "3-D Eulerian model covering large parts of Europe; base grid cells of 60 x 60 km, regional grid refinement to 15 x 15 km or 7.5 x 7.5 km; grid refinement of the complete model domain to 15 x 15 km possible" "The EUROS model has originally been developed by RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and Environment) in the Netherlands for the modelling of episodes of winter smog and summer smog. In 2000 this version was made operational for Belgium (BelEUROS). From 2004 on BelEUROS has been extended with algorithms for atmospheric particles. The Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (CACM, Griffin et al., 2002) and the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (MADRID, Zhang et al., 2004) have been implemented into BelEUROS. CACM is the first mechanism describing the formation of precursors of secondary organic aerosol in a mechanistic way. MADRID treats the formation of secondary particulate matter via equilibrium calculations of inorganic and organic compounds in the gas phase and in the solid phase. Alternatively, a 'light-version' of MADRID (without SOA chemistry) can be used together with the CB-IV-99 gas phase chemical mechanism. This model version needs significantly less CPU time. Currently, two size fractions (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5) are modelled. Their chemical composition is expressed in terms of nine chemical components: primary inorganic compounds, primary organic compounds, elementary carbon, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, secondary organic aerosols, sea salt and water.
    BelEUROS uses shifted pole coordinates with the equator located at 60 degrees northern latitude. The model domain is located between -8.25 and 20.35 degrees longitude and -23.1 and 7.15 degrees latitude (in shifted pole coordinates). The base grid contains 52 x 55 grid cells with a resolution of approximately 60 x 60 km. Grid refinement is possible down to a resolution of approximately 7.5 x 7.5 km. In the vertical direction, the atmosphere is represented in BelEUROS by 4 layers for the calculation of chemical reactions: the surface layer of 50 m height, the mixing layer with variable height in time and space, the reservoir layer, which serves as reservoir for e.g. ozone and the top layer, extending from the top of the reservoir layer to a height of 3000 m. For advection calculation a variable number of advection heights can be used, most often 10 to 14 vertical layers is an optimal value." "Simple ozone chemistry (a version of CB-IV and a version of CB-IV-99); coarse resolution of 60 x 60 km in the outer domain as 'default' value, however refinement of the complete model domain to 15x15 km is possible; one-way nesting; simple representation of the atmosphere by only four vertical layers for calculation of chemical transformations; vertical exchange of mass is calculated due to movement of the mixing layer height; 'default' model version uses climatological boundary conditions at the borders of the domain, however model version that can be nested into TM4 has been created also." "The model provides hourly concentration and deposition fields as well as time series for locations chosen by the user as output." "The base grid contains 52 x 55 grid cells with a resolution of approximately 60 x 60 km. Local grid refinement is possible down to a resolution of approximately 7.5 x 7.5 km. A refinement of the complete model domain to 15x15 km resolution is also possible." "In the vertical direction, the atmosphere is represented in BelEUROS by 4 layers: a surface layer of 50 m height, a mixing layer with variable height in time and space, a reservoir layer, which serves as reservoir for e.g. ozone for the following day and a top layer, extending from the top of the reservoir layer to a height of 3000 m. The lower three layers are used to calculate chemical transformations. However, the advection and diffusion steps are calculated on 14 vertical layers." "The scheme used in BelEUROS is the limited kappa = 1/3 scheme (van Leer, 1979). For the advection process in BelEUROS, an explicit Runge-Kutta method of order three or four is chosen. The time step is automatically chosen and is restricted by the ratio of mesh size and distance travelled by wind in one timestep (Courant number)." "Vertical diffusion using vertical diffusion coefficients (Kz) is calculated for the surface and the mixing layer. Fumigation and stratification (movement of the mixing layer height) induce mass exchange between mixing layer, reservoir layer and top layer. " "Dry deposition is calculated using deposition velocities, calculated from aerodynamic, boundary layer and surface resistance. Wet deposition by scavenging is calculated using component-specific wash-out coefficients. " "Ozone chemistry is calculated using a version of the CB-IV or the CB-IV-99 mechanism. For calculating secondary particulate matter, two modules were implemented into BelEUROS:
    The Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (CACM, Griffin et al., 2002) and the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (MADRID, Zhang et al., 2004).
    CACM is the first mechanism describing the formation of precursors of secondary organic aerosol in a mechanistic way. MADRID treats the formation of secondary particulate matter via equilibrium calculations of inorganic and organic compounds in the gas phase and in the solid phase. Currently, two size fractions (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5) are modelled. Their chemical composition is expressed in terms of nine components: primary inorganic compounds, primary organic compounds, elementary carbon, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, secondary organic aerosols, sea salt and water. Alternatively, a 'light-version' of MADRID (without SOA) can be used in combination with the CB-IV-99 gas phase chemistry. This version uses significantly less CPU time." "An operator splitting technique is used in BelEUROS in that way, that all relevant processes (e.g. advection, diffusion, chemistry and deposition) are treated in forward order during one time step and in reversed order in the following time step." "Meteorological input data (from ECMWF) such as temperatures were occasionally validated against ground based observations for some locations in Belgium. Emission input data (from EMEP) were compared to data from local emission inventories and checked for their plausibility." "Emissions are used from point sources and area sources for 6 anthropogenic pollutants: NOx, SO2, NMVOC, NH3, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5. Point source emissions are taken from EPER (currently updated to E-PRTR) for the European domain. For surface sources, national emission totals are taken per economical sector from EMEP or IIASA. Point source emissions are subtracted from the emission totals and the remaining emissions are allocated to surface emissions. Disaggregation of these emissions is done by means of surrogate variables such as population density, road maps, shipping lanes and land use data (see description of methodology in Maes et al. (2009) Spatial surrogates for the disaggregation of CORINAIR emission inventories, Atmos. Environ. 43, 1246-1254.) Resolution of the emissions is 7.5 km for the grid refinement area. Outside of the refined grid, gridded EMEP-emissions are taken as surrogate variable. In case of refinement of the complete BelEUROS grid disaggregation of emissions by surrogate variables is done for the whole domain. Annual emission totals are broken down to hourly emissions using time factors for the distribution of emissions over the months, the days of the week and the hours of a day. Biogenic isoprene emissions are calculated from meteorological data and land use data according to Simpson et al., 1995. The emissions of NOx are distributed for each sector between NO and NO2 and the ones of primary PM are distributed between the different primary aerosol components such as primary organic, primary inorganic and elementary carbon. VOC are also split up into the organic CB-IV components." "Meteorological input data is used in the form of 6-hourly reanalysed fields from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) in Reading, UK, for temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, wind direction, cloud cover and precipitation. Additionally, 6-hourly fields of the mixing layer height calculated (by the Belgian Interregional Environment Agency, IRCEL) from ECMWF data are used. " "The RIVM Pan European land use database with a resolution of approximately 60 x 60 km is currently used in BelEUROS. This database contains 10 land use classes such as grassland, deciduous trees, coniferous trees, arable crops, permanent crops, water and urban areas. " "Initial concentrations of pollutants are specified." "Climatological boundary conditions for the gaseous phase pollutants are specified for the northern, western, southern and eastern boundary of the model domain in function of latitude and month of the year as well as for the top layer based on Langner et al.,1998. Similarly, boundary conditions for the aerosol components are based on measurements at EMEP-stations near the 4 boundaries of the BelEUROS-domain.
    Alternatively, instead of the climatological boundary conditions, BelEUROS can be nested into concentration fields of the Chemical Transport Model TM4, e.g. daily or monthly mean concentration fields, in order to get actual boundary conditions for a specified period. Currently, nesting is carried out for the chemical components of the CB-IV mechanism." "The model does not include standard data assimilation procedures." "Chemical splits for NOx, NMVOC and primary PM" "BelEUROS produces hourly output fields for all calculated pollutants, e.g. NO, NO2, O3, PM2.5, PM10, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, secondary organic aerosols, elementary carbon, primary aerosols. Time series can be written for certain locations. Additionally, deposition fields are written for specified pollutants (dry deposition field, wet deposition field and total deposition field)." "The euros.in file specifies all required input data to carry out a calculation. Emission fields, meteorological fields and the generated concentration and deposition fields can be visualised by an IDL software developed by the Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL). This interface operates under Windows as operating system. It is not commercially available at the moment." "BelEUROS is operational on servers of the Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL) in Brussels. Results obtained by BelEUROS calculations are used by various Belgian and Flemish authorities, such as by IRCEL, by the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM) and by the Department of the Environment, Nature and Energy (LNE) of the Flemish Ministry of the Environment, Nature and Energy." "Regional" "Project title: Calculation of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 at various locations in Belgium
    Relevant reference:
    Deutsch F, Janssen L, Vankerkom J, Lefebre F, Mensink C, Fierens F, Dumont G, Roekens E (2008) Modelling changes of aerosol compositions over Belgium and Europe, Int. J. of Environment and Pollution, 32, 162-173.
    Short project description:
    The chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was calculated in terms of seven chemical components: elementary carbon, organic carbon, primary inorganic components, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and secondary organic components." "Regional" "Project title: Calculation of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 at various locations in Belgium
    Relevant reference:
    Deutsch F, Janssen L, Vankerkom J, Lefebre F, Mensink C, Fierens F, Dumont G, Roekens E (2008) Modelling changes of aerosol compositions over Belgium and Europe, Int. J. of Environment and Pollution, 32, 162-173.
    Short project description:
    The chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was calculated in terms of seven chemical components: elementary carbon, organic carbon, primary inorganic components, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and secondary organic components." "Regional" "Project title: Calculation of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 at various locations in Belgium
    Relevant reference:
    Deutsch F, Janssen L, Vankerkom J, Lefebre F, Mensink C, Fierens F, Dumont G, Roekens E (2008) Modelling changes of aerosol compositions over Belgium and Europe, Int. J. of Environment and Pollution, 32, 162-173.
    Short project description:
    The chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was calculated in terms of seven chemical components: elementary carbon, organic carbon, primary inorganic components, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and secondary organic components." "Mensink C, Delobbe L, Colles A (2002) A policy oriented model system for the assessment of long-term effects of emission reductions on ozone, in: C. Borrego, G. Schayes (Eds.), Air Pollution Modelling and Its Applications XV, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002, pp. 311. Deutsch F, Mensink C, Vankerkom J and Janssen L (2008) Application and validation of a comprehensive model for PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in Belgium and Europe, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 32, 1501-1510. Deutsch F., Janssen L., Vankerkom J, Lefebre F., Mensink C., Fierens F., Dumont G., Roekens E. (2008), Modelling changes of aerosol compositions over Belgium and Europe, Int. J. of Environment and Pollution, 32, 162-173. Felix Deutsch, Jean Vankerkom, Liliane Janssen, Stijn Janssen, László Bencs, René Van Grieken, Frans Fierens, Gerwin Dumont, Clemens Mensink (2008), Modelling concentrations of airborne primary and secondary PM10 and PM2.5 with the BelEUROS-model in Belgium, Ecological Modelling 217, 230239." "Modelled concentrations for the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007 were compared to observed PM10, PM2.5 and O3 concentrations from the measurement networks of the three Belgian regions. Results show that the trends in the PM10 and PM2.5 time series are well represented. However, the model has the tendency to underestimate the actual measured PM10 concentrations by approximately 20 %, similar to other models of its kind. The geographical pattern of PM10 as observed over Belgium is well reproduced by the model. O3 and NO2 are generally reproduced reasonably by BelEUROS when comparing to ground-based observations. The modeled chemical composition of PM10 had been compared to detailed measurements carried out by the Flemish Environment Agency (ChemKar-measurement campaign) and generally good agreement could be achieved for the components nitrate, sulphate, ammonium, EC, OC and other primary inorganic compounds. " "LINUX systems" "Depending on the chosen resolution and the size of the grid refinement area. Calculating ozone takes about 24 h CPU for 1 year simulation at 15 km grid refinement for Belgium and the Netherlands. Calculating PM10 and PM2.5 takes about 12 days CPU for 1 year simulation at 15 km grid refinement for Belgium and the Netherlands using the 'full version' of the model including SOA-chemistry. With the light-version of MADRID this calculation can be carried out in 4 days. Refinement of the complete grid to 15 km using CB-IV-99 and MADRID without SOA-chemistry needs approximately 25 days of CPU for PM." "Depends on resolution inside the grid refinement area and on the number of required output components. A typical ozone run (NO, NO2, O3) over one year needs around 3 GB disk storage for the concentration and deposition fields. A typical particulate matter run with PM10, PM2.5 and 8 aerosol chemical compounds for two size classes over one year needs around 12 GB disk storage." "Not publicly available" "Mensink C, Delobbe L, Colles A (2002) A policy oriented model system for the assessment of long-term effects of emission reductions on ozone, in: C. Borrego, G. Schayes (Eds.), Air Pollution Modelling and Its Applications XV, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002, pp. 311. Deutsch F, Mensink C, Vankerkom J and Janssen L (2008) Application and validation of a comprehensive model for PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in Belgium and Europe, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 32, 1501-1510. Deutsch F., Janssen L., Vankerkom J, Lefebre F., Mensink C., Fierens F., Dumont G., Roekens E. (2008), Modelling changes of aerosol compositions over Belgium and Europe, Int. J. of Environment and Pollution, 32, 162-173. Felix Deutsch, Jean Vankerkom, Liliane Janssen, Stijn Janssen, László Bencs, René Van Grieken, Frans Fierens, Gerwin Dumont, Clemens Mensink (2008), Modelling concentrations of airborne primary and secondary PM10 and PM2.5 with the BelEUROS-model in Belgium, Ecological Modelling 217, 230239." "Deutsch F, Adriaensen S, Lefebre F, Mensink C (2007) Sensitivity analysis of the EUROS model for the 2003 summer smog episode in Belgium, Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XVII, Part 6, doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-68854-1_56. Mensink C, Deutsch F, Janssen L, Torfs R, Vankerkom J (2007) Comprehensive modelling of PM10 and PM2.5 scenarios for Belgium and Europe in 2010, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4310: Numerical Methods and Applications, doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-70942-8_56. " 3/29/2011 18:17:29 24 "Hilatar" "Marke Hongisto" "Finnish Meteorological Institute" "marke.hongisto@fmi.fi" "+358 9 1929 1, +358 9 1929 3150 direct" "+358 9 1929 3146" "Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research Vuorikatu 19, P.O. Box 503 FIN-00101 Helsinki" "Acidification, Eutrophication, Air toxics" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Supercomputer" "Hilatar" "Hilatar, Grid Model for acid compounds and particles" "Hilatar-Eur, Hilatar-nord, Hilatar-scalar" "Autumn 2005" "Finnish Meteorological Institute " "Marke Hongisto" "FMI, Air Quality research
    Erik Palmenin aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki.
    P.O. BOX 503, FIN-00101 Helsinki" "+358 9 1929-1 operator, +358 50 539 8693 direct" "+358 9 1929 5403 " "marke.hongisto@fmi.fi" "http://www.fmi.fi/research_air/air_25.html, http://lib.hut.fi/Diss/2003/isbn9512264811/index.html" "Intermediate" "
    study the long-range transport of acid and eutrophifying air contaminants and some heavy metals
    - study long-time regional air pollution situation at Finnish background areas
    - on line monitoring of air pollutants (coming phase)" "
    Hilatar is a prognostic Eulerian 3D grid model. The different versions cover different geographical areas and might have different grid resolution and chemistry.
    Current version of the Hilatar.Eur has 0.2 degrees resolution (around 22 km grid distance) and 20 vertical layers up to 10 km. The simulation area can be extended to cover the whole FMI HIRLAM weather prediction model area; now in the applications mainly Europe is included and major parts covering Atlantic Ocean are not simulated.
    Hilatar.nord has 0.08 degrees resolution (around 9 km grid) and 20 vertical levels; the model area covers the Baltic Sea and its surroundings.
    Hilatar.scalar is an old model version with variable grid resolution for simulation of transport of scalar particles (e.g. heavy metals) in Europe or its subparts." "
    Hilatar is an Eulerian grid model in which concentrations are calculated by numerically solving the transport equation of advection, vertical diffusion, chemical transformation and deposition of pollutants.

    We use the 6-hour predictions of the HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) numerical weather model of the FMI (HIRLAM, 1996/2002). The model has 10-20 levels below 3 or 10 km (Hongisto, 1998, 1999).

    The chemistry module is a slightly modified EMEP-MSC-W acid deposition code (Iversen et al., 1989) simulating dispersion of sulphur, oxidized and reduced nitrogen or scalar compounds.

    Dry deposition id parameterized using resistance analogy and the resistances for dry deposition velocities are parameterized mainly using formulae of Voldner et al. (1986), Wesely (1989), Erisman (1994) over land areas, and Lindfors et al. (1991) over sea areas.

    We use nonlinear in- and below-cloud scavenging rates, depending on rain type and intensity, and vertical precipitation intensities of e.g. Chang (1984,1986), Asman & Janssen (1987) and Jonsen & Berge (1995).

    The main numerical methods are: Bott (1989) for the horizontal advection, the QSSA (quasi steady-state approximation) method (Hesstvedt et al., 1978) for the chemistry and the Crank-Nicholson differentiation algorithm (Tuovinen, 1992) for vertical diffusion.

    The present model covers either the Europe, the Baltic Sea with its surroundings or Finland, with a variable horizontal grid. The LRT background for the sub-areas is estimated by nesting the different scale models, in old applications by adding the concentrations calculated with the EMEP acid model (Berge, 1997) or ADOM heavy metal model to the air flowing through the boundaries." "
    - There is currently no estimate for real inter-continental (non-European) pollutant contribution at horizontal or vertical model boundaries (seasonal averages from old EMEP boundaries used)
    - limited number of chemical compounds,
    - simple cloud water transformation rate estimate for SO2 conversion,
    - status: at the moment can be installed in any unix environment.
    - updates: change of the meteorological data and model resolution to the most recent operating version of the FMI weather prediction model is made always when the new Hirlam version is released. Additionally the chemistry package will be updated in 2006, and the model will be taken into operational use." "
    time step of numerical algorithms is 225 s or shorter (advection, chemistry, mixing) time interval of meteorological input data is 1-6 hours " "
    HIRLAM rotated spherical grid, with grid distance of 0.2 - 0.08 degrees (~22 km-~9 km) covering the Europe or the Baltic Sea and its surroundings. " "
    hybrid terrain-following coordinates, vertical levels are on the height of ~30 m up to ~10 km; there are 17 levels below 3 km and 3 additional levels below 10 km" "
    The transport-diffusion equation is solved by the method of fractional steps in Yanenko (1971) and Marchuk (1975,1986) by solving each subproblem with suitable numerical algorithms. The Advection algorithm is the positive definitive, area preserving flux-form algorithm of Bott 1989." "
    MABL and ABL preprocessors: adapted Karppinen at al, (1997)and Lindfors et al., (1991) before 1999,
    since 2000 Monin-Obukhov length, friction velocity, temperature and humidity scales are calculated directly from HIRLAM accumulated momentum, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the surface.
    The turbulent diffusion is solved bu the gradient transport (K) theory.
    the numerical algorithm is the Crank-Nicholson differentiation algorithm with a staggered grid (Tuovinen, 1992; Press et al., 1986).
    the eddy diffusivity coefficients Kz are parameterized according to Holtslag & Nieuwstadt 1986 and Hass 1991 (references can be found at the www-pages)" "
    The resistance analogy is used in estimating dry deposition velocities (vd): the flux F = vd*c, where c is the concentration at a reference height and vd = (ra+rb+rc)-1, where ra is the aerodynamic, rb is molecular and rc is the surface resistance, and the resistances are parameterized over land areas: mainly using formulae of Voldner et al. (1986), Wesely (1989), Padro et.al. (1991, 1992) and Padro (1993), and Erisman (1994). Over sea areas Lindfors et al. (1991), Slinn et al., 1978; Slinn & Slinn, 1980 and Williams, 1982
    We use nonlinear in- and below-cloud scavenging rates, depending on rain type, intensity and and vertical variation of the precipitation intensities, following parameterizations of Chang (1984, 1986), Scott (1982), Asman & Janssen (1987) and Jonsen & Berge (1995)." "The chemistry module is a slightly modified EMEP-MSC-W acid deposition code (Iversen et al., 1989) simulating dispersion of sulphur, oxidized and reduced nitrogen or scalar compounds. The gaseous (g) and particulate (p) compounds are: NO(g), NO2(g), HNO3(g), NO3(p), PAN(g), NH4NO3(p), NH3(g), SO2(g), SO4(p) and (NH4)1.5SO4(p).
    Additionally inert compounds which have been used to simulate transport of dust and selected heavy metals.
    A photochemistry model is under construction." "numerically: Bott (1989) for the horizontal advection, QSSA (Hesstvedt et al., 1978) for the chemistry Crank-Nicholson (Tuovinen, 1992) for vertical diffusion forward differentation for vertical transport" "
    The FMI HIRLAM group is mainly responsible for the verification of the weather predictions and this work has been carried out in various projects. Currently HIRLAM forecast is also validated on-line against mast data.
    Validation of the HIRLAM meteorological fields and atmospheric boundary layer parameters has also been made by Hongisto since the beginning of the collection of the meteorological data base; results are published only in Hongisto 2005. The differences between different HIRLAM versions are also presented. Additionally, the suitability of HIRLAM fields to air quality model calculations have been evaluated at the FMI in several projects. There are rather high differences with the mixing height estimated from HIRLAM and the soundings, and in some cases it is difficult to estimate the surface inversions (Rantam£_ki et al., 2005).
    The European emissions are taken from the EMEP data base; in case of Finnish, Estonian and Russian emissions they are complemented with stack inventory made by co-operative institutes (H£_kkinen et al., 1995). " "
    Stack inventory for Finland, Estonia, St. Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast and South Carelia
    Gridded EMEP emissions in the other European areas
    GENEMIS or from Finnish traffic-inventories derived time-coefficients" "FMI operational Hirlam (of 0.2 - 0.08 degrees horizontal resolution) and 40 vertical layers" "Topography is taken from the respective meteorological model of the current resolution" "Old simulation results (last time step); zero time 1993 January" "Climatological or small values at the European borders" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "3D meteorological fields with 1-6 h time interval
    emissions: annual emissions, time variation is calculated inside the model each hour depending on the local time
    background concentrations at the boundaries: The models with different resolution and simulation area are nested with each other
    no non-european background Surface classification (from the respective meteorological model with the resolution of the current application)" "Time series of gridded average concentrations and depositions of acid compounds (gaseous and particulate substances, oxidized + reduced nitrogen + sulphur) with the resolution of the respective model used and the time resolution required.
    - monthly and annual deposition and concentration averages.
    - various statistical measures,
    - deposition sums to Baltic Sea subareas, various postprocessed parameters
    - 1 h concentrations and depositions at some grids where a measuremenst station is known to be located" "There is no specific user interface; The model is used with batch jobs queuing system on several alternative Unix workstations, the heavy metal model simulations can be run on PC. The model can be started by any terminal program with X Windows from PC.
    Output, now 6h time series of gridded deposition and concentration values can be visualized with Grads. Shorter time-resolution of the output fields is possible. " "FMI scientific use" "Regional" "
    Heavy metals and dust simulations.
    The Baltic Sea area model has also been used in simulating the transport and deposition of Pb, Cd and Zn over the Baltic Sea region for the two BASYS Network field experiment periods (Sofiev et al., 2001; Schneider et al., 1999), with parameterisation partly taken from the EMEP-MSC-E heavy metal model (Galperin et al., 1994). In these heavy metal studies the Europe-wide calculations were made with the GKSS Research Centre model ADOM (Petersen, 1998; Petersen at al., 1998).
    The model-measurement inter-comparison results of Pb, Cd and Zn concentrations in aerosol and in precipitation during two 2-month BASYS network studies at four coastal stations and during two 2-week periods of Lagrange studies at two research vessels, are reported in Sofiev et al., 2001, 1999; Schulz et al., 1999a, b and 1998; Schneider et al., 1999; Plate et al., 1999; Plate 2000.
    The particle model has also been used to quantify the origin of high concentrations of dust or alcalic compounds detected in the surroundings of the Gulf of Finland (Tervahattu et al., 2004; Sofiev et al., 2003). In the first case anthropogenic emissions could not explain the origin of the dust concentrations of even 150-200 ΅g m-3 detected on both sides of the Gulf of Finland and in Stockholm. When a soil dust emission formula was included to Hilatar, the dust was found to be originated from a desert in Kazachstan. In the second case the aim was to estimate what is the role of high Estonian power plant alcalic dust emission in Finland; the model was verified against Estonian measurements. " "Regional" "
    Heavy metals and dust simulations.
    The Baltic Sea area model has also been used in simulating the transport and deposition of Pb, Cd and Zn over the Baltic Sea region for the two BASYS Network field experiment periods (Sofiev et al., 2001; Schneider et al., 1999), with parameterisation partly taken from the EMEP-MSC-E heavy metal model (Galperin et al., 1994). In these heavy metal studies the Europe-wide calculations were made with the GKSS Research Centre model ADOM (Petersen, 1998; Petersen at al., 1998).
    The model-measurement inter-comparison results of Pb, Cd and Zn concentrations in aerosol and in precipitation during two 2-month BASYS network studies at four coastal stations and during two 2-week periods of Lagrange studies at two research vessels, are reported in Sofiev et al., 2001, 1999; Schulz et al., 1999a, b and 1998; Schneider et al., 1999; Plate et al., 1999; Plate 2000.
    The particle model has also been used to quantify the origin of high concentrations of dust or alcalic compounds detected in the surroundings of the Gulf of Finland (Tervahattu et al., 2004; Sofiev et al., 2003). In the first case anthropogenic emissions could not explain the origin of the dust concentrations of even 150-200 ΅g m-3 detected on both sides of the Gulf of Finland and in Stockholm. When a soil dust emission formula was included to Hilatar, the dust was found to be originated from a desert in Kazachstan. In the second case the aim was to estimate what is the role of high Estonian power plant alcalic dust emission in Finland; the model was verified against Estonian measurements. " "Regional" "
    Heavy metals and dust simulations.
    The Baltic Sea area model has also been used in simulating the transport and deposition of Pb, Cd and Zn over the Baltic Sea region for the two BASYS Network field experiment periods (Sofiev et al., 2001; Schneider et al., 1999), with parameterisation partly taken from the EMEP-MSC-E heavy metal model (Galperin et al., 1994). In these heavy metal studies the Europe-wide calculations were made with the GKSS Research Centre model ADOM (Petersen, 1998; Petersen at al., 1998).
    The model-measurement inter-comparison results of Pb, Cd and Zn concentrations in aerosol and in precipitation during two 2-month BASYS network studies at four coastal stations and during two 2-week periods of Lagrange studies at two research vessels, are reported in Sofiev et al., 2001, 1999; Schulz et al., 1999a, b and 1998; Schneider et al., 1999; Plate et al., 1999; Plate 2000.
    The particle model has also been used to quantify the origin of high concentrations of dust or alcalic compounds detected in the surroundings of the Gulf of Finland (Tervahattu et al., 2004; Sofiev et al., 2003). In the first case anthropogenic emissions could not explain the origin of the dust concentrations of even 150-200 ΅g m-3 detected on both sides of the Gulf of Finland and in Stockholm. When a soil dust emission formula was included to Hilatar, the dust was found to be originated from a desert in Kazachstan. In the second case the aim was to estimate what is the role of high Estonian power plant alcalic dust emission in Finland; the model was verified against Estonian measurements. " "
    The model parameterization is documented in reports Hongisto 1998 and 2003, which are available on the FMI and Helsinki University of Technology public web pages:
    http://www.fmi.fi/research_air/air_25.html;
    http://lib.hut.fi/Diss/2003/isbn9512264811/index.html
    Model documentation status: The Hilatar code has been partly documented, and the documentation will be completed by the end of August 2006 before a new scientist starts to work with the model and put it into operational use. No explicit user manual exist, intructions to use the model system and its meteorological data preprocessors at various computer environments exists." "
    - Modelled daily concentrations of SO2, NO2, NH3, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, HNO3+NO3- and NH3+NH4+ in air, and monthly mean wet depositions of SO4=, NO3- and NH4+ have been verified against the measurements extracted from the EMEP/NILU data base (www.emep.int). The grid averages of the European scale model were compared with measurements at around 90 European EMEP stations over the period June 1995 – September 1999 and the Nordic model results with 29 EMEP stations over the years 1993 and 1996-1998 (Hongisto 2000; Hongisto et al., 2000; Hongisto 1998). The model-measurement inter-comparison has been carried out independently for the two sets of model results. The statistical package of Sofiev (1999) has been used in the European model domain, while the Hilatar post-processing routines have been employed for the Nordic model results. All stations located inside the model domains were included in the comparison with no a-priori filtering of the data. For almost all sulphur species, the EUR model demonstrated quite good agreement with measurements over Central and Northern Europe, while for Southern Europe the results were usually not so encouraging. The model overestimates wet sulphate deposition in general in Central Europe, but usually by not more than 30 % of the mean value. This might be caused by overestimated low-intensity precipitation predicted by HIRLAM. The NOx concentrations were somewhat underestimated (by less than 0.5 ƒÝg m-3) over Scandinavia, Germany and the UK but at some stations the modelled and measured concentrations were almost equal. Nitrogen wet deposition was overestimated by 30 % over most of the European domain, mainly during small deposition events, and underestimated at a few stations spread out over Europe.
    - Old model-measurement inter-comparison of Nitrogen compounds for the years 1985, 1988 and 1993 are presented in Hongisto, 1992 and 1998.
    - Inter-comparison of measured and modelled Pb, Cd and Zn and various nitrogen species concentrations in aerosol and in precipitation during two 2-month BASYS (Baltic Sea System Study) network studies at four coastal stations and during two 2-week periods of Lagrange studies at two research vessels, have been performed (Sofiev et al., 2001, 1999; Schulz et al., 1999a, b and 1998; Schneider et al., 1999; Plate et al., 1999; Plate 2000).
    - Comparison of measured pollutants with modelled concentrations during the episodes are presented e.g. in Hongisto (1998), Tervahattu et al. (2002) and Hongisto (1992b).
    - Technical test of the performance and mass conservation of each numerical algorithm have been performed; examples are documented in Hongisto 1992, 1993 and 1998, and similar tests have been made for each model version. The development and testing of the model is continuous work at the FMI to ensure quality control of the model use in various projects." "
    - Inter-comparison with other Scandinavian models and with measurements for the 1997 reference period in the Nordic model-model inter-comparison study (Studying sensitivity of air pollution levels caused by variations of different key parameters) are presented in Zlatev et al. (2001), and with the EMEP model and measurements in Hongisto (1992a). " "The model can be used with computers of standard Fortran compiles and enough disk space; Currently the FMI codes are not public-domain programs; in common research projects model availability can be negotiated. The input and output fields are in Grads-format (direct access files with 2D fields) readable by Fortran." "A typical simulation of one month deposition and concentrations over Europe, using a grid of 212*200*20 (number of grid cells in x-y and z direction) and NOx, NH3 and S-chemistry, takes 12 hour wall clock time with the CSC Corona (www.csc.fi) computer, 6 hours with the FMI linux server Jumbo (www.fmi.fi). " "The deposition and concentration fields with 6-h time results have been store at the FMI computers since 1993;

    - The storage requirement of the Baltic Sea area model with 0.25 o resolution, period 1993-1999 and NOx- SOx- and NHx-compounds are:
    - for 3D concentrations with dt= 6 h, around 250 Mb/month
    - for deposition fields with 6h dt, around 36 Mb / month

    The storage requirement of the old European model with 0.5 degrees resolution, simulated over the period 1996 - 1999, are
    - 3D concentrations, dt= 6 h, 400 Mb/month
    - 2D depositions, dt = 6h, 60 Mb / month

    The storage requirement of the intermediate 0.4/0.3 degrees resolution are slightly larger. 0.4 o resolution has been used since November 1999.

    The storage requirements of the current European model, with 0.2 o resolution are:
    - for concentrations 2.5-2.7 G/month
    - for deposition around 400 M/month" "Gridded model results and met data since the year 1993 are available for research purposes.

    The model code is property of the FMI " "Technical references on the parameterization and old reports and articles: see http://www.fmi.fi/research_air/air_25.html Hongisto, M., 1997. Nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea. Simulation results with the model HILATAR. In Pacyna J.M., Broman D. and Lipiatou E. (eds) Sea-Air exchange, processes and modelling. European Commission - DG12 - MAST: EUR 17660 EN, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications for the European Communities, p. 247-256. Hongisto M., 1998 HILATAR, a regional scale grid model for the transport of sulphur and nitrogen compounds. Description of the model and simulation results for the year 1993. Finnish Meteorol. Inst.Contributions No. 21, Yliopistopaino, Helsinki, 152 p. http://www.fmi.fi/research_air/air_25.html Hongisto M., 2003a. Modelling of the transport of nitrogen and sulphur contaminants to the Baltic Sea Region. FMI Contributions No- 40, Helsinki 2003, 188 p. In http://lib.hut.fi/Diss/2003/isbn9512264811/index.html Hongisto, M., 2003b. Hilatar, a limited area simulation model for acid contaminants. Part I. Model description and verification, Atmospheric Environment 37/11 pp. 1535-1547. Hongisto, M. and Joffre, S. 2005. 6-year simulations of dispersion of acid contaminants over Fennoscandia and Baltic Sea area. Boreal Environment Research No. 10, p.1-17. Hongisto, M., Sofiev, M. and Joffre S., 2003. Hilatar, a limited area simulation model for acid contaminants. Part II. Long-term simulations results, Atmospheric Environment 37/11 pp. 1549-1560. Hongisto M. & Sofiev M., 2003. Long-Range Transport of Dust to the Baltic Sea Region. International Journal of Environment and Pollution,2004, Vol. 22, No.1/2 pp. 72 £]€“ 86. Hongisto M., 2005. Uncertainties in the meteorological input of the Chemistry-Transport Models and some examples of their consequences. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 24, Nos 1/2/3/4, p. 127-153. Petersen and Krόger 1993. Untersuchung und Bewertung des Schadstoffeintrags όber die Atmosphare im Rahmen von PARCOM (Nordsee) and HELCOM (Ostsee) – Teilvorhaben: Modelierung des grossr£_umgen Transports von Spurenmetallen. GKSS-Forshungszentral Geestacht GmbH, 1993, 111 p. Plate E., 2000. Variabilit£_t der Zusammensetzung anorganischer Aerosole – insbesondere der reaktiven Stickstoffverbindungen – in kόstennahen Gebieten der Nordsee und Ostsee. Dissertation zur Erlangung des Dortorgrades des Fachbereichs Chemie der Universit£_t Hamburg. Schriftenreihe Angewandte Analytik. Institut fόr Anorganische und Angewandte Analytik Nr 37, Universit£_t Hamburg, 215 p. Plate E., Schulz M. Ferm M., Hongisto M., Jylh£_ K. and Sofiev M., 1999: Variation of nitrogen aerosols in Baltic Sea regions - a comparision of modelled and measured data, In Zuelicke C., (ed.) Proc. of the Third Basys Annual Sci. Conf. IOW Warnemunde, 20-22 Sep 1999, p.70. Poikolainen J., Lippo H., Hongisto M., Kubin E. & Mikkola K., 1998. On the abundance of epiphytic green algae in relation to the nitrogen concentrations of biomonitors and nitrogen deposition in Finland. Environmental Pollution 102, S1, 85-92. Rantam£_ki M., Pohjola M.A., Tisler P., Bremer P., Kukkonen J., Karppinen A., 2005. Evaluation of two versions of the HIRLAM numerical weather prediction model during an air pollution episode in southern Finland. Atmospheric Environment 39 p. 2775-2789. Schulz M., Ferm M. Hongisto M., Jylh£_ K., de Leeuw G., Marks R., Nadstazik A., Plate E., Tamm S., Sopauskiene D. and. Ulevicus V., 1999a. Atmospheric nitrogen input to the Baltic Sea In Zuelicke C., (ed.) Proc. of the Third Basys Annual Sci. Conf., IOW Warnemunde, 20-22 Sep 1999 a, p. 60-67. Schulz M., H. Cachier, R. Ebinghaus, M. Ferm, M. Hongisto, A. Iverfeldt, K. Jylha, O. Krueger, J. Kusmierczyk-Michulec, G. de Leeuw, R. Marks, M. Moermann, J. Munthe, A. Nadstazik, S. Ruellan, G. Petersen, E. Plate, V. Ulevicius, B. Schneider, S. Schmolke, D. Sopauskiene, 1999b. Evolution of the aerosol composition in the BASYS Network study and Lagrangian experiments in summer 1997 and winter 1998. J. Aerosol. Sci. Vol. 30, Suppl 1., pp. S97-S98. Schulz, M. and M. Hongisto, 1998. Improving the Atmospheric Nitrogen Load Assessment for the Baltic Sea. BASYS Newsletter Number 9, November 1998 p. 28-36. Schneider B., Wangberg, I., Munthe J., Iverfeld A., Petersen G., Krόger O., Schmolke S., Ebinghaus R., Czeburnis D., Hongisto M. and Sofiev M., (1999). Coast-to-sea gradients of atmospheric trace element fluxes. Ext. abstr. in Zuelicke C., (ed.) Proc. of the Third Basys Annual Sci. Conf , IOW Warnemunde, 20-22 Sep 1999. pp.105-108. Sofiev M., Petersen G., Krόger O., Hongisto M. and Jylh£_ K., 1999. Nested simulations of the heavy metal distribution over the Baltic Sea area. In Zuelicke C., (ed.) Proc. of the Third Basys Annual Sci. Conf.,IOW Warnemunde, 20-22 Sep 1999, p.70-71. Sofiev M. G. Petersen, O. Krόger, B. Schneider, M. Hongisto and K. Jylha, 2001. Model simulations of the atmospheric trace metals, concentrations and depositions over the Baltic Sea. Atmospheric Environment 35 (2001) 1395-1409. Sofiev, M. Kaasik, M., Hongisto,M., 2003. Model simulations of the alkaline dust distribution from Estonian sources over the Baltic Sea basin. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 146: 211-223, 2003. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Tervahattu H., Hongisto M., Aarnio P., Kupiainen K. and Sillanp£FÈV£FÈV M., 2004. Identification of trans-border particle pollutant episode in Finland. Boreal Environment Research No. 4, p.335-346. Zlatev Z., Bergstr£jΏ½n R., Brandt J., Hongisto M., Jonson J.E., Lagner J. and Sofiev M., 2001. Studying sensitivity of air pollution levels caused by variations of different key parameters. TemaNord 2001:569. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen 2001. 47 p." 3/29/2011 18:17:30 25 "ADREA" "John G. Bartzis" "NCSR 'Demokritos'" "bartzis@ipta.demokritos.gr" "+30 1 6525004" "+30 1 6525004" "National Center for Scientific Research 'Demokritos', Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, Environmental Research Laboratory, http://www.ipta.demokritos.gr/" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "ADREA" "ADREA" "Last update: September 2006" "September 2006" "Environmental Research Laboratory (EREL), Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR" "John G. Bartzis, Spyros Andronopoulos" "NCSR Demokritos Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection Environmental Research Laboratory GR-15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki" "+30 2106503426" "+30 2106525004" "bartzis@ipta.demokritos.gr, sandron@ipta.demokritos.gr" "http://ipta.demokritos.gr/" "Provided by contact person." "Advanced" "Simulation of wind field and of inert / radioactive pollutant dispersion at the local-to-regional scale over complex topography." "The model includes the following modules:
    ADREA-I: Three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic prognostic mesoscale model.
    ADREA-D: Three-dimensional, Eulerian dispersion model.
    It is connected to the following models as pre-processors:
    DELTA: description of the topography and land-cover with triangular surfaces.
    FILMAKER: preparation of the meteorological input data files from observations.
    ADREA-diagn: Diagnostic meteorological model." "The mesoscale prognostic model ADREA-I is a 3-D non-hydrostatic, fully compressible model, utilising the conservation laws of mass, momentum, energy, humidity and in-ground heat conduction. The turbulence closure is obtained through a one-equation k-l scheme. Zero or two-equation schemes are also available. The model takes into account air/ground energy and mass interactions. ADREA-I utilizes a finite volumes methodology for the numerical solution of the conservation equations, with a staggered grid for the velocities. It is fully implicit in time while it uses the upwind scheme for the convective terms. The SIMPLER/ADREA algorithm is adopted, which consists of transforming the mixture mass conservation equation into a full pressure equation, overall solution per time step by an iterative procedure, solution per variable by the Gauss-Seidel point iteration method and automatic time step selection based on convergence error bands. The equations are solved on a Cartesian, non equidistant grid. The topography is described by triangular surfaces (code DELTA) which are allowed to cross the computational cells (volume porosity and surface permeability concepts). The boundary conditions for the variables can be either fixed value, zero gradient or zero flux at the boundary surfaces.
    ADREA-D is a Eulerian dispersion model for describing the dispersion of inert and radioactive pollutants over complex topography. Multiple sources (point and area) and multiple species can be taken into account. The code allows nesting. Effects due to the condensation and evaporation of the water contained in the air (scavenging and wet deposition) are taken into account. The conservation equations for the total species mass and the species mass in the liquid phase are solved within ADREA-D. The necessary meteorological parameters (wind field, temperature, diffusion coefficients, pressure, humidity) are provided by the prognostic model ADREA-I." "No icing." "Time step: 1 - 20 seconds, simulated time period: days." "Grid size: 500 - 10 000 m, domain dimension: 10 - 500 km." "Cell height: 10 - 500 m (varying with height), total height: up to 10 000 m." "Upwind differences" "The ADREA-I mesoscale prognostic model uses optionally a zero, one or two-equations scheme." "Deposition of gases based on the model of Waleck et al (1986), deposition of particles based on the model of Giorgi (1986)." "???" "ADREA utilizes a finite volumes methodology for the numerical solution of the conservation equations, with a staggered grid for the velocities. It is fully implicit in time while it uses the upwind scheme for the convective terms and second-order differences for the diffusion term. The SIMPLER/ADREA algorithm is adopted, based on the SIMPLER algorithm proposed by Patankar, 1980. It consists of transforming the mixture mass conservation equation into a full pressure equation, overall solution per time step by an iterative procedure, solution per variable by the Gauss-Seidel point iteration method and automatic time step selection based on convergence error bands." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are provided in kg/h/m2 for area sources and in kg/h for point sources." "One-dimensional wind speed and temperature profiles are provided to be used as initial and boundary conditions. Models are also available for providing the meteorological input data. These are the code FILMAKER which provides meteorological three-dimensional fields from sparse observations and the code ADREA-diagn, a diagnostic meteorological model which provides mass-conserving three-dimensional wind fields." "The topography is described by surfaces with the actual area and arbitrary orientation which are allowed to cross the rectangular computational cells (volume porosity and surface permeability concepts). Each surface is assigned specified properties depending on the specific land cover. The pre-processor code DELTA performs the description of the topography by triangular surfaces and prepares the necessary input files for ADREA." "See meteorology. Concentration initial values can be provided as gridded data." "See meteorology and model description." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "A file with control run data or other user supplied options is read." "Three-dimensional wind velocities, temperature, pressure, humidity, turbulence parameters concentrations of inert or radioactive pollutants for each grid cell." "Windows user interface under construction. Post-processing graphical package based on NCAR package." "Users of ADREA should be meteorologists or engineers with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models." "Urban" "The mesoscale prognostic meteorological model ADREA-I has been used to calculate meteorological fields used for urban air quality simulations by photochemistry models (e.g., in Attiki or greater Athens area in Greece and in the mediterranean eastern coast of Spain - see references)" "The mesoscale prognostic meteorological model ADREA-I has been used to calculate meteorological fields used for urban air quality simulations by photochemistry models (e.g., in Attiki or greater Athens area in Greece and in the mediterranean eastern coast of Spain - see references)" "The mesoscale prognostic meteorological model ADREA-I has been used to calculate meteorological fields used for urban air quality simulations by photochemistry models (e.g., in Attiki or greater Athens area in Greece and in the mediterranean eastern coast of Spain - see references)" "Level 1, model descriptions and user manual" "Level 2: In all applications ADREA has been found capable of successfully reproducing mesoscale flow features like the sea breeze circulation, mountain and valley wind systems." "The ADREA-I mesoscale prognostic meteorological model has participated in the MESOCOM exercise (mesoscale models intercomparison - see references)" "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? By applying appropriate statistical tools." "Extensive use on HP workstation platforms. Experience on IBM/RISC, DEC Alpha and Convex supercomputer. The codes are written in Standard FORTRAN 77 with the extensions of INCLUDE and NAMELIST statements. The model runs also on PC." "For a case of a 36x36x24 grid size and 1 inert pollutant, the ratio between real time and computing time is about 1:1 (meteorology and dispersion) on an HP735." "For the same typical case: 50 Mbytes RAM. Disk space: 50-150 Mbytes needed for the output files." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining ADREA can be provided by the contact person." "Bartzis J.G., Varvayanni, M., Venetsanos, A., Catsaros, N., Housiadas, C., Horsch, G., Statharas, J., Amanatidis, G.T., Megaritou, A., Konte, K., (1993) ADREA-I: A three-dimensional finite volume transport code for mesoscale atmospheric transport (the Cartesian version), Part I: The model description, Report DEMO 93/2 pt.1, Part II: Code Structure and Users Manual DEMO 93/2, pt.2. Bartzis, J.G., Venetsanos, A., Varvayanni, M., Catsaros, N., Megaritou, A. (1991) ADREA-I, A transient three-dimensional transport code for complex terrain and other applications, Nuclear Technology 94, 135-148. Varvayanni, M., Catsaros, N., Bartzis, J.G., Konte, K., Horsch, G.M. (1995) Wind Flow Simulation over the Greater Athens Area with a Highly Resolved Topography, Atmospheric Environment 29, 3593-3604. S. Andronopoulos, J.G. Bartzis, M. Varvayanni & N. Catsaros (1997) ADREA-I predictions on NOx concentrations over the Greater Athens Area, International Scientific Workshop Athens 2004 Air Quality Study, Athens, February 1997. M. Varvayanni, J.G. Bartzis, N. Catsaros, P. Deligiannis, C.E. Elderkin (1997) Simulation of Nocturnal Drainage Flows Enhanced by Deep Canyons: The Rocky Flats Case, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 36, 775-791. M. Varvayanni, J.G. Bartzis, N. Catsaros, G.Graziani, P. Deligiannis (1998), Numerical simulation of daytime mesoscale flow over highly complex terrain: the Alps case, Atmospheric Environment, 32, pp. 1301-1316. M. Varvayanni, N. Catsaros, P.Conte, J. Statharas, J.G. Bartzis. Developmentand interaction of thermally driven flows over Attiki peninsula under northerly background wind - a case study. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 2291-2311 P. Thunis, S. Galmarini, A. Martilli, A. Clappier, S. Andronopoulos, J. Bartzis, D. Vlachogiannis, K. De Ridder, N. Moussiopoulos, P. Sahm, R. Almbauer, P. Sturm, D. Oettl, S. Dierer, K.H. Schlunzen (2003) An inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation. Atmospheric Environment 37, 363382 S. Andronopoulos, J.G. Bartzis, P. Kalabokas, A. Passamichali (1997) Computational simula-tion of a photochemical air-pollution episode in Athens. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 7, No. 3a/4a, 299306 S. Andronopoulos, A. Passamichali, N. Gounaris and J.G. Bartzis (2000) Evolution and trans-port of pollutants over a Mediterranean coastal area and Biogenic VOC emissions influence on ozone levels. Journal of Applied Meteorology 39, Íï.4, 526545 D. Vlachogiannis, S. Andronopoulos, A. Passamichali, N. Gounaris and J.G. Bartzis (2000) A three-dimensional model study of the impact of AVOC and BVOC emissions on ozone in an urban area of the Eastern Spain. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 65, 4148 R.E.P. Sotiropoulou, E. Tagaris, C. Pilinis, S. Andronopoulos, A. Sfetsos, J.G. Bartzis (2004) The BOND project: biogenic aerosols and air quality in Athens and Marseille greater areas, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D05205, doi:10.1029/2003JD003955" 3/29/2011 18:17:32 26 "AIPOC" "George Ch. Bergeles" "bergeles@fluid.mech.ntua.gr" "Summer smog, Winter smog, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Ozone (O3)" "Stochastic models" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "AIPOC" "Air Pollutants Concentrations (AIPOC)" "Version 1.0" "February 1997" "Laboratory of Aerodynamics Department of Mechanical Engineering National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)" "Prof. George Ch. Bergeles" "National Technical University of Athens Laboratory of Aerodynamics - Fluids Section 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave.Mbr> 157 73 ZOGRAFOU ATHENS GREECE" "+301 7721072 / +301 7721058" "+301 7721057" "bergeles@fluid.mech.ntua.gr" "http://www.fluid.mech.ntua.gr/" "Provided by contact persons" "Basic" "Stochastic simulation and prediction of the air pollutants concentrations at locations where air quality monitoring stations, or networks, are installed. The predictions are characterized by short (some hours) and middle (2-3 days) horizon and they concern averaged values of concentrations." "Statistical model which describes the time evolution of the air pollutant concentrations. To this purpose the model makes use of Box-Jenkins Univariate Stochastic models. The model can be implemented at locations where air quality monitoring stations, or networks, are installed." "AIPOC is a predictive model which allows to describe the time evolutions of the air pollutants concentrations. This evolution is described using Box-Jenkins Univariate Stochastic Models of discrete time. These models (one for each air pollutant and location) are incorporated in a user friendly computer code, operating under windows environment. Using this code a no skilled person can perform predictions for the future hourly mean values of concentrations for the selected, without any limitations, horizon. The predictions are performed on a real time basis. The Univariate Box-Jenkins Stochastic Models are Multiplicative Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Models (SARIMA Models). The model parameters are estimated using the exact maximum likelihhod method and the stochastic models are validated using the Box-Jenkins validation rules [3-6]. These stochastic models describe the current and the future values of the air pollutants concentrations as a function of: a) the past values of concentrations and b) the differences between the predicted values of concentrations and the observed values, in previous time periods. In order to predict future values of concentrations only few past observed values are needed. This values are available from the local air quality monitoring station, or network. Only for the estimation of the parameters of the predictive models the data of 6 months, in the case of hourly predictions, and 2 years, in the case of mean daily predictions, are required. Since the parameters of the models are estimated then the past data mentioned above are required " "This model can be used in any area, or location, where air quality monitoring networks, or stations, are installed. These networks, or stations, have to be in operation at least for 6 months. The model makes use of the available time series of concentrations and performs predictions of future values for the air pollutants monitored by the network, or station. The predictions are on a real time basis and they represent mean values in compatibility with the averaged time period used by the monitoring network, or station. The predictions concern only certain locations, into urban areas or not." "The temporal resolution depends on the time period which is used by the networks, or stations, in order to calculate average values for the concentrations of the continously monitored air pollutants. If e.g. the monitored concentrations are averaged over an hour and the mean hourly values are reported, then the predictions concern hourly mean values of concentrations." "The predictions obtained with this model concern certain locations where the instruments of the networks (stations) are taking and analysing a sample of air in order to determine the air pollutants concentrations. Thus, giving horizontal and vertical resolution for this model is meaningless." "See above" "Multiplicative Univariate Seasonal AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) stochastic models of discrete time are used. The models are identified, estimated and validated using the Box-Jenkins methodology of time series analysis [3-6]." "Using the constructed Box-Jenkins stochastic models the future values of concentrations are predicted using only few past values of concentrations, already stored in a data base. The stochastic models express the future values of concentrations as a function of the past values of concentrations. In order to perform predictions with horizon more than one hour the rules of the conditional expectation method are implemented [4]. It is assumed that the concentration value for the next hour is predicted exactly and thus the difference between the measured and the predicted value of concentration is 0. Afterwards the concentration for the very next hour is predicted, assuming that the difference between the observed and the predicted value for the previous hour is 0. This assumption is made until the prediction for the last hour of the prediction." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The input requirements for this model are in the case of predictions of hourly mean values of concentrations the data of the past 3 days are required and in the case of predictions of daily mean values of concentrations the data of the past 3 weeks are required in order to use the predictive models, measured at the certain locations where the predictions are referred. Since this model implements, at the current status of operation, univariate stochastic models, there is no need for any meteorological inputs. It is worth mentioning that there are no input requirements regarding the emissions, the topography etc." "The output of this model are the future values of concentrations for the selected, by the user, air pollutants and locations. The horizon for the predictions is selected by the user without any limitations." "The model is implemented within a user friendly computer programme, running under Windows environment. Many graphical capabilities, for the comprehensive representation of the predictions, are provided by this programme. The is no need for specialised personnel to use this programme. The programme predicts the future values of concentrations on a real time basis. The programme runs on a PC without strong computational power." "The model has been developed and used by the Laboratory of Aerodynamics at the National Technical University of Athens. The model has been implemented in the real case of Athens, Greece and predictions for three different locations and three different air pollutants were performed. The results, concerning the accuracy of the predictions and the advantages raising for an air quality monitoring network thanks to this predictive model, were announced to International Conferences [3-12]. Potential users of the developed model should be all the air quality monitoring networks, or stations, were the measured values of concentrations are averaged over a time period (hour, half-hour, day etc.) and are stored in data banks. The potential users of the model is not necessary to be skilled persons with a scientific background." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 1, manuals available in two languages. " "Level 2: The model is validated against the real cases of three air quality monitoring stations in Attica peninsula. The predictions obtained from the model were compared against the measured, by the stations, values of concentrations and the values of certain accuracy criteria were calculated. In this way it was found that the model predictions accuracy is reasonably good, in all the cases [1-2]. It was found that the level of the predictions accuracy was enough, in order this predictive model to be considered as an extremely useful predictive and decision making tool for the local environmental authorities. " "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Is this model directly applicable to every air quality monitoring network, or station? Yes. The only limitation is that the network/station must be in operation for a time period in order some past values of concentrations for the considered air pollutants to be available. Does this model have any practical use? Yes. Providing a network/station with this model we can use and exploit the recorded data in order to predict future values of concentrations. In this way we can provide useful information to the public, we can propose certain steps to the authorities and we can evaluate the effectiveness of already undertaken steps. Which are the direct advantages for the network, or the station, raising from the use of this model? The exploitation, for the purpose of prediction, of the data which are anyway measured and recorded by the network/station. The network/station investment on devices, data loggers, statistical software etc. can be exploited in a better way, the network/station can play a more important social role and the network/station will have an advantage in order to establish with the local environmental authorities a collaboration in a better basis." "Sufficient experience on a Pentium PC. There is no need for more computational power and there is no problem for using the model on other computer platforms." "In order to predict future mean values of concentrations for four air pollutants at 4 different locations (where monitoring stations are installed) only few seconds are needed (few minutes at maximum) regardless how long is the horizon of the predictions. (On a 486 PC at 33 MHz)" "4 Mbytes of RAM are the minimum requirements for the programme to " "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining AIPOC can be provided by the contact person." "Polydoras, G. and Bergeles, G. (1997) A Stochastic Model for Predicting Air Pollutant Concentrations in Cities, presented to Florence World Energy Research Symposium, FLOWERS 97, July 30 - August 1, 1997. Polydoras, G., Anagnostopoulos, J. and Bergeles G., Air Quality Predictions; Dispersion Model vs. Box-Jenkins Stochastic Models. An Implementation and Comparison for Athens, Greece, presented to the International Conference on Energy and the Environment, Efficient Utilization of Energy and Water Resourses, Lemessol, Cyprous, Octomber 1997. Hoff, J. C., 1983, A Practical Guide to Box-Jenkins Forecasting, Lifetime Learning Publications. Pandit, S. M., and Wu, S. M., 1983, Time Series and System Analysis with Applications, John Wiley. Vandaele, W., 1983, Applied Time Series and Box-Jenkins Models, Academic Press, Inc. Melard, G. (1984) A fast algorithm for the exact likelihood of autoregressive-moving average models. Applied Statistics 33(1): 104-119 McCollister G. M. and Wilson K. R. (1978) Linear stochastic models for forecasting daily maxima and hourly concentrations of air pollutants. Atmospheric Environment 9, 417-423. Merz P. H., Painter L. G. and Ryason P. R. (1972) Aerometric data analysis. Time series analysis and forecast and an atmospheric smog diagram. Atmospheric Environment 6, 319-342. Milionis A. E. and Davies T. D. (1994) Regression and stochastic models for air pollution. I. Review, comments and suggestions. Atmospheric Environment 28, 2801-2810. Milionis A. E. and Davies T. D. (1994) Regression and stochastic models for air pollution. II. Application of stochastic models to examine the links between ground-level smoke concentrations and temperature inversions. Atmospheric Environment 28, 2811-2822. Roch R. and Pellerin J. (1982) On long term air quality trends and intervention analysis. Atmospheric Environment 16, 161-169. Simpson R. W. and Layton A. P. (1983) Forecasting peak ozone levels. Atmospheric Environment 17, 1649-1654." 3/29/2011 18:17:34 167 "AURORA" "Clemens Mensink" "VITO, Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Department of Integrated Environmental Studies" "clemens.mensink@vito.be" "Boeretang 200 B-2400 MOl Belgium" "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "Workstation" "AURORA" "Air quality modelling in Urban Regions using an Optimal Resolution Approach" "AUR-200911" "September 2010" "VITO, Flemish Institute for Technological Research" "Peter Viaene, Koen De Ridder" "VITO
    Department of Integrated Environmental Studies
    Boeretang 200
    B-2400 MOl, Belgium" "0032 14 33 67 44" "0032 14 32 27 95" "peter.viaene@vito.be" "http://www.vito.be/english/environment/environmentalstudy9d.htm" "lisa.blyth@vito.be " "Advanced" "The current version of the model is in fortran 90, with hierarchical Data Format (HDF)
    Output data format. Pre-processing and post-processing tools are written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) " "The air quality modelling system AURORA is designed to simulate the transport, chemical transformations and depositions of atmospheric constituents, at the urban to regional scale. It can be applied both in hindcasting and forecasting mode. AURORA can evaluate the effects of emission reduction scenarios, scenarios related to spatial urban structure, mobility, .. on air quality. " "AURORA is a three-dimensional Eulerian model. Regional applications with typical grid cell sizes ranging from 500 m to 30km, over domains 30 by 30 to 3000 by 3000 km typically. " "The AURORA model consists of several modules. The emission generator of AURORA calculates hourly pollutant emissions at the desired resolution, based on available emission data, and proxy data to allow for proper downscaling of coarse data. Vehicle emissions can be generated by coupling the MIMOSA road traffic emission model (Mensink et al., 2000) to the emission generator. The actual Chemistry Transport Model then uses the hourly meteorological input data and emission data to predict the dynamic behaviour of air pollutants (both gaseous and particulate) in the model region. This results in hourly three-dimensional concentration and two-dimensional deposition fields for all species of interest. Concentrations at the street level can be calculated by implementing VITOs Street Box module (Mensink et al., 2006). In most applications het AURORA model is driven by meteorological output provided by the ARPS model (University of Oklahoma), ARPS was adapted at VITO in order to better represent urban surface characteristics. The AURORA model has nesting capacities, i.e., it allows to specify lateral boundary conditions from output fields generated by large-scale atmospheric models. Beside the operational application of the model, there is a continuous model development going on. " "AURORA being an urban- to regional-scale model, lateral boundary conditions are required to nest the model in. " "time integration steps typically 5-300s, results stored hourly" "30km down to 500m; application of sequential nesting " "Model intended for tropospehere (upper boundary around 20km); vertical spacing variable, lowest level above ground extends to approx 20m. " "Walcek monotonous advection in x,y and z directions" "semi-implicit Cranck-Nicholson diffusion scheme with damping of oscuillations in the vertical direction" "Dry deposition is parameterized as a downward flux F(d,i)= -v(d,i) c(i) out of the lowest model layer with c(i) being the concentration of species i. The deposition velocity is described through a resistance analogy and hence depends on land use type. Wet deposition is modeled using species-dependent washout coefficients and allows for accumulation to 'saturation' in the rain drops during the washout process (evaporation of rain droplets is not considered)" "The chemical gas phase chemistry in AURORA is based on the CB-IV 99 mechanism, extended with isoprene to account for natural emissions.
    For the calculation of secondary particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) two options are foreseen.
    The first option is to use empirical relations for the formation of sulfate, ammonium and nitrate (Van Egmond and Kesseboom (1985), Calvert et al. (1978) and de Leeuw et al. (1990)).
    The second option is an aerosol module based on the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionisation and Dissolution 2 (MADRID 2). MADRID 2 treats the formation of secondary aerosols by means of equilibrium calculations between the gas phase and the aerosol phase. Also dynamic processes (e.g., nucleation of particles) are included in MADRID 2. The module for particulate matter is capable of calculating the mass concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, as well as its chemical composition (ammonium, nitrate, sulphate, primary inorganic components, elementary carbon, primary organic components). Currently we are developing code in which an improved gas phase chemistry is combined with code for secondary aerosol formation." "Operator splitting following Marchuk (Marchuk (1975), needed for temporal discretization
    Vertical diffusion solved using the Thomas algorithm (Press et al. (1992).
    The CBIV-99 chemical mechanism is solved with a Rosenbrock solver. The solver is implemented using the KPP preprocessor (Damian et al. 2002)" "Terrain input data :
    Depending on the application region, the following global (or European schale) datasets are being used :
    Digital Elevation Model :
    GTOPO30 http://edc.usgs.gov/products/elevation/gtopo30/gtopo30.html
    Land use :
    CORINE land cover http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/dataservice/metadetails.asp?id=759
    GLC2000 http://www-gvm.jrc.it/glc2000/
    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
    SPOT-VEGETATION http://www.vgt.vito.be/
    starting from ten-day composite images available on website, we deduce monthly averages
    The input data used are level-2 products and hence a proper QA is guaranteed. The spatial resolution is dependent on the sensor employed, we refer to the URLs mentioned above. All data are interpolated (bi-linearly) to the AURORA model grid.
    By using such detailed terrain data, the AURORA model is capable fo reproducing nicely urban and regional effects such as the influence of green space in urban areas on air quality. " "The emission data required depend on the pollutants one wants to model : NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds, isoprene, CO, aerosols (PM10 and PM2.5 fractions), SO2, NH3, benzene, lead, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (total or individual species).
    The emission generator of the AURORA Model allows to combine several emission sources such as EMEP (yearly totals), EDGAR (yearly totals), national inventories, …. When using coarse emission data, the data are downscaled to the desired resolution by employing satellite-derived, and ancillary information, including land cover, vegetation indices, road characteristics, and population density.
    The road traffic emission model MIMOSA (using emission functions from the Copert-IV approach) can be coupled to the emission generator of AURORA. It calculates geographically and temporally distributed traffic emissions using fluxes of vehicles and their speeds calculated by a traffic flow model. " "AURORA can be driven by any meteorological model, but users should provide their own interface. Currently the meteorology input is normally calculated with the ARPS model (Univ. Of Oklahoma, US)or ECMWF data is interpolated to the model grid " "Height inferred from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS GTOPO30, or Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data for high-resolution applications)" "AURORA being a regional-scale model, it takes its initial and boundary conditions either from a larger-scale model or from coarse-grid results in a nesting run. AURORA has been imbedded in several larger-scale models such as Chimere, Eurad, TM4, TM5, EUROS, EMEP, …" "AURORA being a regional-scale model, it takes its initial and boundary conditions either from a larger-scale model or from coarse-grid AURORA results in a nesting run. AURORA has been imbedded in several larger-scale models such as Chimere, Eurad, TM4, TM5, EUROS, EMEP, …" "Model execution can be controlled by an external process allowing for interaction with e.g. optimisation or data assimilation programs that through the file system can obtain and update the model state. Also optimal interpolation on model results using ground base measurement station data is available in post-processing step. " "Initialization: terrain data
    Hourly input data: meteorological fields, emission data, initial and boundary conditions
    The spatial resolution is dependent on the application vegetation abundance, land cover, and surface temperature." "Four-dimensional (x-y-z-t) and three (x-y-t) dimensional ground surface concentration fields for a subset as requested by the user selection.
    Dry and wet deposition fluxes (x-y-t). " "Most of the pre-processing and post-processing tools are written in IDL (Interactive Data Language)" "Currently no external users " "Episodes" "Project title :
    BUGS - Benefits of Urban Green Space
    Relevant reference :
    http://www.vito.be/BUGS/)
    Description :
    The project focused, a.o., on regional- and urban-scale modelling within Flanders and the Ruhr area. Sensitivity simulations have been conducted to evaluate the impact of urban morphology and urban vegetation abundance on air quality.
    AURORA performance :
    The AURORA model was capable of reproducing the effects of urban sprawl (compared to the present situation) on air quality. Namely the exposure of the population to PM10 decreases. " "Regional" "Project title :
    BUGS - Benefits of Urban Green Space
    Relevant reference :
    http://www.vito.be/BUGS/)
    Description :
    The project focused, a.o., on regional- and urban-scale modelling within Flanders and the Ruhr area. Sensitivity simulations have been conducted to evaluate the impact of urban morphology and urban vegetation abundance on air quality.
    AURORA performance :
    The AURORA model was capable of reproducing the effects of urban sprawl (compared to the present situation) on air quality. Namely the exposure of the population to PM10 decreases. " "Urban" "Project title :
    BUGS - Benefits of Urban Green Space
    Relevant reference :
    http://www.vito.be/BUGS/)
    Description :
    The project focused, a.o., on regional- and urban-scale modelling within Flanders and the Ruhr area. Sensitivity simulations have been conducted to evaluate the impact of urban morphology and urban vegetation abundance on air quality.
    AURORA performance :
    The AURORA model was capable of reproducing the effects of urban sprawl (compared to the present situation) on air quality. Namely the exposure of the population to PM10 decreases. " "Level 2, language English " "Level 2. The AURORA model has been evaluated and validated through the studies mentioned in the references. It concerns simulations performed for domains within Europe, both for episodes and longer-term simulations. Currently we are applying the AURORA model outside Europe, evaluation and validation of the models performance is ongoing " "AURORA is currently being compard to other models in the POMI model study (http://aqm.jrc.it/POMI/)" "linux platform. Code is in fortran 90 and c. " "Depending on resolution and application.
    E.g. 60x60x35 grid at 2km horizontal resolution, 1 month : 70 hours on Intel Xeon 2GHz " "Depending on resolution and application.
    E.g. 60x60x35 grid at 2km horizontal resolution, 1 month : 16Gb " "standard version is available to selected groups for scientific purposes. " "Mensink C., De Ridder K., Lewyckyj N., Delobbe L., Janssen L. and Van Haver Ph. (2001) Computational aspects of Air quality modelling in Urban Regions using an Optimal Resolution Approach, in: S. Margenov, J. Wasniewski and P. Yamalov (Eds.) Large-Scale Scientific Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2179, 299-308. F. Lefebre, K. De Ridder, N. Lewyckyj, L. Janssen, J. Cornelis, F. Geyskens, C. Mensink (2004) Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications XVI, C. Borrego and S. Incecik Eds. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2004), 511-519. De Ridder, K., F. Lefebre, A. Bañuelos, J.M. Pérez-Lacorzana, J.Dufek, V. Adamec, O. Damsgaard, A. Thierry, M. Bruse, M. Bürger, C. Weber, and J. Hirsch (2004) An integrated methodology to assess the benefits of urban green space. The Science of the Total Environment, 334-335, 489-497. Mensink, C., F. Lefebre, L. Janssen and J. Cornelis (2006) A comparison of three street canyon models with measurements at an urban station in Antwerp, Belgium. Environmental Modelling and Software, 21, 514-519. " "De Ridder, K., and G. Schayes (1997) The IAGL land surface model. Journal of Applied Meteorology 36, 167-182. Mensink, C., F. Lefebre, L. Janssen and J. Cornelis (2006) A comparison of three street canyon models with measurements at an urban station in Antwerp, Belgium. Environmental Modelling and Software, 21, 514-519. Mensink, C., De Vlieger, I. and Nys, J. (2000) An urban transport emission model for the Antwerp area. Atmospheric Environment 34, 4595-4602 Van Egmond N.D. and Kesseboom H. (1985) A numerical mesoscale model for long-term average Nox and NO2-concentration. Atmospheric Environment 19, 587-595 Calvert J.G., Su F., Bottenheim J.W. and Strausz O.P. (1978) Mechanism of the homogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the troposphere. Atmospheric Environment 12, 197-226 De Leeuw F.A.A.M., Rheineck Leyssius H.J. and Builtjes P.J.H. (1990) Calculation of long term averaged ground level ozone concentrations. Atmospheric Environment 241, 185-193 Griffin R.J., Dabdub D. and Seinfeld J.H. (2002) Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production of molecular constituents, J. Geophys. Res. 107(D17), 4332, doi:10.1029/2001JD000541. Zhang Y., Pun B., Vijayaraghavan K., Wu S.-Y., Seigneur C., Pandis S.N., Jacobson M.Z., Nenes A. and Seinfeld J.H. (2004) Development and application of the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID), J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01202, doi:10.1029/2003JD003501. Marchuk G.I. (1975). Methods of numerical mathematics. Springer-Verlag. Press W.H. Teukolsky S.A., Vetterling W.T. and Flannery B.P. (1992) Numerical recipes in Fortran 77, Cambridge University Press. Damian,V., A. Sandu, M. Damian, F. Potra, and G.R. Carmichael: ``The Kinetic PreProcessor KPP -- A Software Environment for Solving Chemical Kinetics'', Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 11, p. 1567-1579, 2002. Thunis, P., S. Galmarini, A. Martilli, A. Clappier, S. Andronopoulos, J. Bartzis, M Vlachogianni, K. De Ridder, N. Moussiopoulos, P. Sahm, R. Almbauer, P. Sturm, D. Oettl, S. Dierer, H. Schluenzen (2003) Mesocom: an inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation. Atmospheric Environment 37, 363-382. " 3/29/2011 18:17:35 20 "MEMO" "Laboratory of Heat Tranfer & Environ. Engineering " "Aristotle University Thessaloniki" "moussio@vergina.eng.auth.gr, jdouros@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 2310 996011" "+30 2310 996012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "MEMO" "Mesoscale Model" "Version 6.2" "September 2005" "Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Aristotle University Thessaloniki (AUT)." "Professor, Dr.-Ing. habil Nicolas Moussiopoulos" "Aristotle University Thessaloniki
    Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering
    P.O.Box 483
    GR-54124 Thessaloniki, GREECE" "+30 2310 996011" "+30 2310 996012" "moussio@vergina.eng.auth.gr" "http://aix.meng.auth.gr/lhtee/projects/" "Provided by contact person." "Basic" "There is no general remarks." "Simulation of mesoscale air motion and inert pollutant dispersion at the local-to-regional scale." "Three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, prognostic mesoscale model." "MEMO is a prognostic mesoscale model which allows describing the air motion and the dispersion of inert pollutants over complex terrain. The code allows one way nesting. Within MEMO, the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved. The governing equations are solved in terrain-influenced co-ordinates. Non-equidistant grid spacing is allowed in all directions. The numerical solution is based on second-order discretization applied on a staggered grid. Conservative properties are fully preserved within the discrete model equations. The discrete pressure equations are solved with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. Advective terms are treated with the TVD scheme. Turbulent diffusion can be described with either a zero-, one- or two-equation turbulence model. At roughness height similarity theory is applied. The radiative heating / cooling rate in the atmosphere is calculated with an implicit multilayer method for shortwave radiation. The surface layer over land is computed from the surface heat budget equation. The soil temperature and moisture content are calculated by solving an one dimensional heat conduction equation and moisture flux equation respectively. At lateral boundaries and for scalar quantities Neumann or Dirichlet conditions are applied. At lateral boundaries generalized radiation conditions are implemented." "Any dry high pressure situation, no icing, clouds only diagnostically." "Time step: 5-30 seconds
    Simulated time period: several weeks" "Domain size: 1-500 km
    Grid cell size: 500-10000 m" "Domain height: up to 10 km
    Grid cell height: 20-500 m (varying with height)" "TVD scheme; FCT scheme also implemented." "Optionally zero-, one- and two-equation shemes." "Big-leaf model." "No chemistry is used, only dispersion of inert pollutants." "The discretized equations are solved numerically on a staggered grid. Temporal discretization of the prognostic equations is based on the explicit second order Adams-Bashforth scheme, with two deviations, the first refering to the implicit treatment of the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation. To ensure non-divergence of the flow field an elliptic equation is solved. The elliptic equation is derived from the continuity equation wherein velocity components are expressed in terms of the mesoscale pressure perturbation. It should be noted that since the elliptic equation is derived from the discrete form of the continuity equation and the discrete form of the pressure gradient, conservativity is guaranteed. The discrete pressure equation is solved numerically with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. The fast elliptic solver is based on fast Fourier analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in the vertical direction. The second deviation from the explicit treatment is related to the turbulent diffusion in vertical direction. In case of an explicit treatment of this term, the stability requirement may necessitate an unacceptable abridgement of the time increment. To avoid this, vertical turbulent diffusion is treated using the second order Crank-Nicolson method. On principle, advective terms can be computed using any suitable advection scheme. In the present version of MEMO a 3-D second-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme is used which is based on the 1-D scheme (proposed by Harten). It achieves a fair reduction of numerical diffusion, the solution being independent of the magnitude of the scalar (i.e. preserving transportivity)." "Support for satellite-derived input data is introduced on the current version of MEMO model for albedo, surface roughness and initial soil moisture. In the mean time, tests are carried out to examine the improvement of model results due to introducing more accurate input data." "Emissions of inert pollutans are provided in kg/h/cell area for each grid location." "One dimensional profile of temperature and wind data are provided to be used either for the initial state or time-dependant boundary conditions. Meteorological input is restricted to the large-scale information (i.e. synoptic conditions). Gridded precipitation data can optionally be provided for calculating soil infiltration and moisture profiles." "Orography height, surface type are to be provided for each grid location; thermophysical data (albedo, volumetric heat capacity, heat conductivity) are needed for each surface type." "See meteorology." "See meteorology." "There is no general data assimilation options." "There is no general requirements. A control file with run options is used." "Wind velocity components, potential temperature, pressure, turbulence data soil moisture profile and optionally concentrations of inert pollutants for each grid location." "Users interface is under construction." "Several Institutions and Laboratories have formed a user community (not formal) that works on development and testing of the model. The model is being used by various governmental and local authorities in several European countries. Users of MEMO should be meteorologists or engineers with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models." "Urban" "Assessment of Policy Instruments for Efficient Ozone Abatement Strategies in Europe
    Relevant reference:
    - Friedrich R, Reis S (eds) (2000) Tropospheric Ozone Abatement Developing Efficient Strategies for the Reduction of Ozone Precursor Emissions in Europe. Springer Publishers, ISBN 3-540-66614-1
    - Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Azad A.K. and Papalexiou S. (2000), Tropospheric ozone and urban air quality, in Tropospheric Ozone Abatement in Europe Developing Efficient Strategies to Reduce Ozone Precursor Emissions, (R. Friedrich and S. Reis, eds.), Springer, Heidelberg, 121-150.
    - Tourlou P.M., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Integrated assessment of air pollution abatement strategies in urban areas: Application to the greater Athens area, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 731-744.
    - Assessment of policy instruments for efficient ozone abatement strategies in Europe, Coordinator: Universitat Stuttgart, Institut fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung - R. Friedrich, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: CEC, Environment and Climate Programme, 1996-1998.
    - URL: http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/espr/Pdf/aId/3026
    Description:
    EZM system was applied to three mesoscale European urban areas (Stuttgart, Athens and Milan) for simulating ozone levels considering the emission situation at two time horizons, namely 1990 and 2010. For the latter, three emission reduction scenarios were adopted. In a first stage, the business as usual scenario was investigated. Consecutively, two local scale 50% reductions of NOx and VOC emissions, respectively, were applied on top of the business as usual scenario. In order to assess the impact of all proposed emission interventions on ozone exposure, the EZM system was applied for a multi-month period over the areas of interest. Model results showed that although the situation is expected to ameliorate with the implementation of the future scenarios, exceedances of the ozone threshold values are still predicted for both the urban and the non-urban sites of the areas considered. This indicates that more efficient measures are necessary in order to achieve the targets defined in the Framework Directive of the EU with regard to ozone." "Urban" "Assessment of Policy Instruments for Efficient Ozone Abatement Strategies in Europe
    Relevant reference:
    - Friedrich R, Reis S (eds) (2000) Tropospheric Ozone Abatement Developing Efficient Strategies for the Reduction of Ozone Precursor Emissions in Europe. Springer Publishers, ISBN 3-540-66614-1
    - Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Azad A.K. and Papalexiou S. (2000), Tropospheric ozone and urban air quality, in Tropospheric Ozone Abatement in Europe Developing Efficient Strategies to Reduce Ozone Precursor Emissions, (R. Friedrich and S. Reis, eds.), Springer, Heidelberg, 121-150.
    - Tourlou P.M., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Integrated assessment of air pollution abatement strategies in urban areas: Application to the greater Athens area, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 731-744.
    - Assessment of policy instruments for efficient ozone abatement strategies in Europe, Coordinator: Universitat Stuttgart, Institut fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung - R. Friedrich, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: CEC, Environment and Climate Programme, 1996-1998.
    - URL: http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/espr/Pdf/aId/3026
    Description:
    EZM system was applied to three mesoscale European urban areas (Stuttgart, Athens and Milan) for simulating ozone levels considering the emission situation at two time horizons, namely 1990 and 2010. For the latter, three emission reduction scenarios were adopted. In a first stage, the business as usual scenario was investigated. Consecutively, two local scale 50% reductions of NOx and VOC emissions, respectively, were applied on top of the business as usual scenario. In order to assess the impact of all proposed emission interventions on ozone exposure, the EZM system was applied for a multi-month period over the areas of interest. Model results showed that although the situation is expected to ameliorate with the implementation of the future scenarios, exceedances of the ozone threshold values are still predicted for both the urban and the non-urban sites of the areas considered. This indicates that more efficient measures are necessary in order to achieve the targets defined in the Framework Directive of the EU with regard to ozone." "Regional" "Assessment of Policy Instruments for Efficient Ozone Abatement Strategies in Europe
    Relevant reference:
    - Friedrich R, Reis S (eds) (2000) Tropospheric Ozone Abatement Developing Efficient Strategies for the Reduction of Ozone Precursor Emissions in Europe. Springer Publishers, ISBN 3-540-66614-1
    - Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Azad A.K. and Papalexiou S. (2000), Tropospheric ozone and urban air quality, in Tropospheric Ozone Abatement in Europe Developing Efficient Strategies to Reduce Ozone Precursor Emissions, (R. Friedrich and S. Reis, eds.), Springer, Heidelberg, 121-150.
    - Tourlou P.M., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Integrated assessment of air pollution abatement strategies in urban areas: Application to the greater Athens area, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 731-744.
    - Assessment of policy instruments for efficient ozone abatement strategies in Europe, Coordinator: Universitat Stuttgart, Institut fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung - R. Friedrich, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: CEC, Environment and Climate Programme, 1996-1998.
    - URL: http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/espr/Pdf/aId/3026
    Description:
    EZM system was applied to three mesoscale European urban areas (Stuttgart, Athens and Milan) for simulating ozone levels considering the emission situation at two time horizons, namely 1990 and 2010. For the latter, three emission reduction scenarios were adopted. In a first stage, the business as usual scenario was investigated. Consecutively, two local scale 50% reductions of NOx and VOC emissions, respectively, were applied on top of the business as usual scenario. In order to assess the impact of all proposed emission interventions on ozone exposure, the EZM system was applied for a multi-month period over the areas of interest. Model results showed that although the situation is expected to ameliorate with the implementation of the future scenarios, exceedances of the ozone threshold values are still predicted for both the urban and the non-urban sites of the areas considered. This indicates that more efficient measures are necessary in order to achieve the targets defined in the Framework Directive of the EU with regard to ozone." "
    Level 1: Complete documentations available in three languages, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals and interace documentation with details on the machine code." "Level 2: Individual modules validated against analytical solutions; model participated successfully at model intercomparison activities (see references); through multiple applications MEMO has been found capable of sucessfully reproducing mesoscale flow features like the sea breeze circulation, mountain and valley wind systems and the heat island phenomenon. " "Athens 2004 Air Quality Study
    Relevant reference:
    - Moussiopoulos N. and Papagrigoriou S., eds (1997), Athens 2004 Air Quality, International Scientific Workshop Athens 2004 Air Quality Study, Athens, February 1997, 183 pp.
    - Moussiopoulos N. and Papagrigoriou S., eds (1998), Athens 2004 Air Quality, CD-ROM edition, FiatLux Publications, e-mail: FiatLuxPub@aik.com, http://envirocomp.org/html/publish/CDROM/Athens/flyer.pdf.
    - Moussiopoulos N. Papagrigoriou S., Bartzis J.G., Nester K., Van den Bergh H. and Theodoridis G. (2000), Forecasting air quality in the greater Athens area for the year 2004: An intercomparison of the results of four different dispersion models, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 14, 343-353.
    - URL: http://aix.meng.auth.gr/lhtee/projects/athens2004/athens.html
    Description:
    In September 1997 the International Olympic Committee decided that the XXVIII Olympic Games in 2004 was to be held in Athens. One of the major issues raised during the evaluation of the Athens bid was the level of air pollution in the city. In view of the planned and ongoing infrastructure changes in the Greater Athens area, the bid Committee Athens 2004 initiated an international scientific activity aiming at forecasting the evolution of air quality in Athens until 2004. Within the framework of the Athens 2004 Air Quality Study the impact of all major infrastructure changes currently under construction on future air quality in Athens was investigated with the aid of four different dispersion models. Simulations were also carried out for the emission situation in 1990, both as a basis for comparison and in order to illustrate that the model results reproduce satisfactorily the observed 1990 air pollution patterns.
    The nested version of the prognostic mesoscale model MEMO, one of the core models of the European Zooming Model, was applied to predict the current and future NOx concentration levels in the Greater Athens area. Two emission scenarios are considered in the simulations corresponding to the years 1990, representing the present emission situation, and 2004, taking into account the foreseeable infrastructure changes in Athens until the year 2004. Calculations are performed for two days, 25.5.1990 and 7.7.1994, representing worst and typical meteorological conditions concerning air quality, respectively. Simulation results are presented in comparison with observations. Results show a good agreement between predictions and observations for the present situation and give clear evidence for a decrease of NOx concentration levels for the year 2004 compared to the ones for 1990.

    ESCOMPTE pre-campaign
    Relevant reference:
    - Moussiopoulos N. and Douros I. (2003), Evaluation and sensitivity tests of MEMO using the ESCOMPTE pre-campaign dataset, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 20, 55-63.
    - Moussiopoulos N., Douros I., Louka P., Simonidis C. and Arvanitis A. (2002), Evaluation of MEMO using the ESCOMPTE pre-campaign dataset, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes (E. Batchvarova and D. Syrakov eds), Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October, 87-91.
    Description:
    MEMO was applied to the Greater Marseille area (GMA) in order to simulate airflow patterns observed during the ESCOMPTE pre-campaign period. The main objective was the evaluation of the mesoscale model MEMO as until now a correlation between the modelled and measured variables for the particular area has not been examined. At the same time the output of MEMO is compared with the output of other mesoscale models (cf. Galmarini & Peuch, 2002) in the frame of an intercomparison exercise. The selected case-study was the period between 29/6/2000 and 1/7/2000, i.e. a summer period for which, depending on the meteorological conditions, the formation of photochemical smog may be favoured. The numerical grids used for the simulations covered an area of 648×324 km2. In order to assess the sensitivity of the model results to the grid resolution two different cell sizes were used, namely 4×4 km2 and 2×2 km2. In all cases 25 vertical layers were assumed allowing for the finer resolution at lower altitudes. The depth of the lowermost (shallowest) layer was set to 20m, while model top was fixed at 6 km above the sea level. Soundings performed during the pre-campaign period were used for deriving the initial and boundary conditions of MEMO simulations. The weather situation during the selected period was characterised by relatively light winds. As far as stability is concerned, the conditions of the atmosphere over the GMA could be characterised as unstable." "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? By applying appropriate statistical tools (see Kunz and Moussiopoulos, 1997)." "Sufficient experience on Pentium PC and POWERPC; extensive use on various workstation platforms (IBM/RISC, but also Hewlett Packard, DEC Alpha and Linux based PCs); enough experience on IBM SP2, Siemens VP400EX, several CRAYs and VPP5000 Fujitsu." "For the typical case of a 50x50 grid size and 4 inert pollutants, the simulation of 1 day needs 90 min of computing (real) time. (On an IBM RS/6000 3BT, specfp95~ 7.5)." "For the same typical case: 20 Mbytes RAM. Disk space: 50-120 Mbytes needed for the output files. Data files from nested runs can occupy an additional 400 Mbytes." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining MEMO can be provided by the contact person." "Kunz R. and Moussiopoulos N. (1995) Simulation of the wind field in Athens using refined boundary conditions, Atmos. Environ. 29, 3575-3591. Moussiopoulos, N. (1987) An efficient scheme to calculate radiative transfer in mesoscale models. Environmental software 2/4, 172-191. Moussiopoulos, N. (1989) Mathematische Modellierung mesoskaliger Ausbreitung in der Atmosphaere, Fortschr.-Ber, VDI, Reihe 15, Nr. 64, pp. 307. Moussiopoulos N., Flassak Th., Sahm P. and Berlowitz D. (1993), Simulations of the wind field in Athens with the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO, Environmental Software 8, 29-42. Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Kunz R., Vögele T., Schneider Ch. and Kessler Ch. (1997), High resolution simulations of the wind flow and the ozone formation during the Heilbronn ozone Experiment, Atmos. Environ. 31, 3177-3186." "Deigner M. (1995), Eindimensionale Simulation der planetaren Grenzschicht unter Berücksichtigung der Vegetation und des Feuchtetransports im Erdboden. Diplomarbeit am Institut für Wärmeübertragung und Umwelttechnik, Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Aristoteles Universität Thessaloniki. Helmis C.G., Moussiopoulos N., Flocas H.A., Sahm P., Assimakopoulos V.D. Naneris C. and Maheras P. (2003), Estimation of transboundary air pollution on the basis of synoptic-scale weather types, International Journal of Climatology 23, 405-416. Karatzas K., Arvanitis A., Fleck C., Douros I. and Moussiopoulos N. (2003), Atmospheric flow and air quality modelling experiments for the Siberian city of Tomsk, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Urban Air Quality (R.S. Sokhi and J. Brechler eds), Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, 25-27 March, 66-69. Karatzas K., Moussiopoulos N. and Arvanitis Th. (2002), On the influence of sea-surface temperature on mesoscale flows: an example from the city of Athens, Greece, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 8, 85-90. Klaic Z.B., Nitis T., Kos I. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Modification of the local winds due to hypothetical urbanization of the Zagreb surroundings, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 79, 1-12. Kunz R. and Moussiopoulos N. (1997), Implementation and assessment of an one-way nesting technique for high resolution wind flow simulations, Atmos. Environ. 31, 3167-3176. Moussiopoulos N., Douros I., Tsegas G. and Kleanthous S. (2009), An air quality management system for Cyprus, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Environment Science and Technology (CEST 09) (T.D. Lekkas, ed), Chania, Crete, Greece, 3-5 September, Vol. 1, 969-973, CD-ROM edition. Moussiopoulos N., Tsegas G., Douros I., Hourdakis L. and Kleantous S. (2009), Development of an air quality management system for Cyprus, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference of Aristotle Universitys Environmental Council on Climate change, sustainable development and renewable energy sources (S.E. Tsiouris and M. Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou eds), Thessaloniki, Greece, 15-17 October, 31-37 (in Greek). Moussiopoulos N., Karagiannidis A., Douros I., Tsegas G. and Tsatsarelis Th. (2008), On the impact of PCDD/Fs emitted from a 2006 landfill fire near Thessaloniki, Proceedings of the 3rd Environmental Conference of Macedonia (K. Nikolaou, ed), Thessaloniki, Greece, 14-17 March, 47, CD-ROM edition (in Greek). Moussiopoulos N., Karagiannidis A., Tsatsarelis Th., Douros I. and Tsegas G. (2006), Atmospheric Dispersion and Deposition Of Pcdd/Fs from a landfill fire in Tagarades, Greece, Proceedings of the Biomass and Waste To Energy Symposium (Venice 06) (Eurowaste, ed), Venice, Italy, 29 November1 December, CD-ROM edition. Moussiopoulos N. and Douros I. (2003), Evaluation and sensitivity tests of MEMO using the ESCOMPTE pre-campaign dataset, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 20, 55-63. Moussiopoulos N., Douros I., Louka P., Simonidis C. and Arvanitis A. (2002), Evaluation of memo using the escompte pre-campaign dataset, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes (E. Batchvarova and D. Syrakov eds), Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October, 87-91. Moussiopoulos N., Ernst G., Flassak Th., Kessler Ch., Sahm P., Kunz R., Schneider Ch., Voegele T., Karatzas K., Megariti V. and Papalexiou S. (1997), The EUMAC Zooming Model, a tool supporting environmental policy decisions in the local to regional scale, in Tropospheric Modelling and Emission Estimation (Ebel A., Friedrich R. and Rodhe H., eds), Transport and Chemical Transformation of Pollutants in the Troposphere, Vol. 7, Springer, Heidelberg, 81-96. Moussiopoulos, N. and Flassak, Th. (1989) A fully vectorized fast direct solver of the Helmholtz equation, in: Applications of supercomputers in engineering: Algorithms, computer systems and user experience (Brebbia, C.A. and Peters A., eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam 67-77. Moussiopoulos N., Flocas H.A., Sahm P., Naneris C., Assimakopoulos V.D., Helmis C.G. and Louka P. (2002), A modelling method for estimating transboundary air pollution in south-eastern Europe, Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution, Graz, Austria, 19-21 June, Vol. 1, 117-124. Moussiopoulos N., Helmis C.G., Flocas H.A., Louka P., Assimakopoulos V.D., Naneris C. and Sahm P. (2003), A modelling method for estimating transboundary air pollution in South-eastern Europe, Environmental Modelling and Software 19, 549-558. Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Karatzas K., Papalexiou S. and Karagiannidis A. (1997), Assessing the impact of the new Athens airport to urban air quality with air pollution models, Atmos. Environ. 31, 1497-1511. Nitis Th., Klaic Z.B., Kitsiou D. and Moussiopoulos N. (2010), Meteorological simulations with use of satellite data for assessing urban heat island under summertime anticyclonic conditions, International Journal Environment and Pollution 40, 123-135. Nitis T., Prtenjak M.T., Klaic Z.B., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2003), Anatomy of the sea breeze in a complex coastal environment, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Urban Air Quality (R.S. Sokhi and J. Brechler eds), Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, 25-27 March, 400-403. Sahm P., Cremades L., Toro M.V., Klaic Z.B. and Moussiopoulos N. (2001), Numerical investigation of meteorological conditions leading to elevated ozone concentrations in Medellin, Collombia, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Air Quality, Loutraki, Greece, 19-23 March, CD-ROM edition. Schneider Ch., Kessler Ch. and Moussiopoulos N. (1997), Influence of emission input data on ozone level predictions for the upper Rhine valley, Atmos. Environ. 31, 3187-3205. Thunis P., Galmarini S., Martilli A., Clappier A., Andronopoulos S., Bartzis J., Vlachogiannis D., De Ridder K., Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Almbauer R., Sturm P., Oettl D., Dierer S. and Schlünzen K.H. (2003), An inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation, Atmospheric Environment 37, 363-382. Tourlou P.M., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Integrated assessment of air pollution abatement strategies in urban areas: Application to the greater Athens area, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 731-744. Tsegas G., Barmpas Ph., Douros I. and Moussiopoulos N (2009), Implementation of efficient two-way mesoscale-microscale coupling using interpolating metamodels, Proceedings of the 30th NATO/SPS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application (ITM 09), San Francisco, USA, 18-22 May, CD-ROM edition. Tsegas G., Barmpas Ph., Douros I. and Moussiopoulos N. (2008), A metamodelling implementation of a two-way coupled mesoscale-microscale flow model for urban area simulations, Hrvatski Meteoroloski Casopis 43, 181-186. Wortmann-Vierthaler M. and Moussiopoulos N. (1995), Numerical tests of a refined flux corrected transport advection scheme, Environmental Software 10, 157-175." 3/29/2011 18:17:36 21 "MUSE" "Laboratory of Heat Tranfer & Environ. Engineering " "Aristotle University Thessaloniki" "moussio@vergina.eng.auth.gr, jdouros@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 2310 996011" "+30 2310 996012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "More than 24 hours" "Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "MUSE" "Multilayer Dispersion Model" "Version 2.0" "March 2005" "Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Aristotle University Thessaloniki (AUT)." "Professor, Dr.-Ing. habil Nicolas Moussiopoulos" "Aristotle University Thessaloniki
    Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering
    P.O.Box 483
    GR-54124 Thessaloniki, GREECE" "+30 2310 996011" "+30 2310 996012" "moussio@vergina.eng.auth.gr" "http://aix.meng.auth.gr/lhtee/projects/" "Provided by contact person." "Basic" "Photosmog formation in urban areas and assessment of control strategies." "MUSE is a multilayer Eulerian photochemical dispersion model. Equations solved: atmospheric-diffusion-reaction equations." "MUSE is a multilayer dispersion model for reactive species in the local-to-regional scale. The atmospheric boundary layer is divided into individual layers (at least three) the thickness of which is allowed to vary in the course of the day. This variation reflects adequately the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer. The upper layer serves as a reservoir layer located just above the boundary layer. A shallow layer adjacent to the ground is used for simulating dry deposition (with the resistance model concept) and other sub grid phenomena. Thanks to the modular structure of MUSE, chemical transformations can be treated using any suitable chemical reaction mechanism." "Any dry high pressure situation, no icing, clouds only diagnostically." "Time step: 5-30 seconds
    Simulated time period: several weeks" "Domain size: 1-500 km
    Grid cell size: 100-5000 m" "Multilayer, at least three (upper layer is located just above the boundary layer)
    Surface layer: 20 m" "Scheme of Smolarkiewicz." "One-equation model (conservation equation for the Turbulent Kinetic Energy-TKE and algebraic stability dependent equation for the mixing length." "Dry deposition is calculated following the resistance model concept." "Pollutants transformation can be treated using any suitable chemical reaction mechanism. Therefore, for that purpose various schemes may be used:
    KOREM, 20 species, 39 reactions
    EMEP, 66 species, 139 reactions
    RADM2, 56 species, 156 reactions
    RACM, 72 species, 234 reactions
    SORGAM, 8 organic aerosol species, 16 oxidation reactions (ammended to RACM model)" "A BDF2 (second order backward difference) with Gauss-Seidel iteration technique is used." "The emissions are provided in kg/h/cell area for each grid location. It is appropriate that such data are organised in an emission inventory." "Meteorological data such as wind speed in x- and y-direction as well as turbulent kinetic energy, surface roughness, Monin-Obukhov length and friction velocity are required." "For calculation with MUSE a file must be provided which contains orography height for each grid location. Landuse (for each grid location), the latter serving as a basis for calculating biogenic emissions." "Regional background concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and all other species included in the chemical reaction mechanism either from measurements of from large scale model application." "A control file with run options is used." "Concentrations of chemically reacting pollutants for each grid location. The MUSE model calculates concentrations in the unit ppb whereas the emissions should be compiled in kg/(km2h). The values are converted internally to ppb/s for the computational grid." "Not yet available." "Several Institutions and Laboratories have formed a user community (not formal) that works on development and testing of the model. The model is being used by various governmental and local authorities in several European countries. Users of MUSE should be engineers with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models. " "Urban" "Technical Expertise in the Context of Honda Corporate Environmental Identity in Europe
    Relevant reference:
    - Moussiopoulos N., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Sahm P. and Yamamoto Y. (2000), Impact of advanced vehicle technology on urban air quality in Europe: Application of the EZM to Athens, Proceedings of the EUROTRAC-2 Symposium 2000 (P. Midgley et al., eds), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 27-31 March, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, CD-ROM edition.
    - Moussiopoulos N., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Sahm P. and Yamamoto Y. (2000), Impact of advanced vehicle technology on urban air quality in Europe: Application of the EZM to Athens, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Transport and Air Pollution, Avignon, France, 5-8 June, 87-94.
    - Technical expertise in the context of Honda`s Corporate environmental identity in Europe, Coordinator: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: HONDA R&D Department, 1999-2000.
    Description:
    The objective of this research activity is to assist Honda to strengthen its corporate environmental identity in Europe by assessing the impact of the Honda engine technology, designed for gasoline vehicles, on the ozone and NOx levels in major European cities as well as conducting comparative analysis of different airshed models. Although a thorough analysis of the impact of vehicles equipped with advanced engine technology on air quality requires the application of a comprehensive and validated model system for numerous European cities, at this stage, simulations have been carried out solely for the city of Athens. Athens is a typical Southern European city severely impacted by photochemical smog episodes, due in part of its location, local meteorology and dense emissions. Because of these characteristics (i.e. isolated location and pronounced local circulation systems), it can be expected that regional scale transport phenomena will have a smaller influence on the local scale pollutant burden. The influence of local emission interventions may therefore be very important in this airshed.
    In order to analyse the impact of advanced vehicle technology on air pollution levels in Athens, the European Zooming Model system was applied for a multi-day period. Simulations were performed considering the emission situation at two time horizons, namely 1990 and 2004. For the latter year, three emission reduction scenarios were adopted: In a first stage, the 2004 reference case, corresponding to the expected emission situation in the specific year, was investigated. Consecutively, two local scale emission scenarios which assume the total and fractional replacement of the gasoline powered vehicles with vehicles equipped with advanced engine technology (100% clean fleet and 50% clean fleet, respectively) were applied on top of the 2004 reference case." "Regional" "Technical Expertise in the Context of Honda Corporate Environmental Identity in Europe
    Relevant reference:
    - Moussiopoulos N., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Sahm P. and Yamamoto Y. (2000), Impact of advanced vehicle technology on urban air quality in Europe: Application of the EZM to Athens, Proceedings of the EUROTRAC-2 Symposium 2000 (P. Midgley et al., eds), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 27-31 March, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, CD-ROM edition.
    - Moussiopoulos N., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Sahm P. and Yamamoto Y. (2000), Impact of advanced vehicle technology on urban air quality in Europe: Application of the EZM to Athens, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Transport and Air Pollution, Avignon, France, 5-8 June, 87-94.
    - Technical expertise in the context of Honda`s Corporate environmental identity in Europe, Coordinator: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: HONDA R&D Department, 1999-2000.
    Description:
    The objective of this research activity is to assist Honda to strengthen its corporate environmental identity in Europe by assessing the impact of the Honda engine technology, designed for gasoline vehicles, on the ozone and NOx levels in major European cities as well as conducting comparative analysis of different airshed models. Although a thorough analysis of the impact of vehicles equipped with advanced engine technology on air quality requires the application of a comprehensive and validated model system for numerous European cities, at this stage, simulations have been carried out solely for the city of Athens. Athens is a typical Southern European city severely impacted by photochemical smog episodes, due in part of its location, local meteorology and dense emissions. Because of these characteristics (i.e. isolated location and pronounced local circulation systems), it can be expected that regional scale transport phenomena will have a smaller influence on the local scale pollutant burden. The influence of local emission interventions may therefore be very important in this airshed.
    In order to analyse the impact of advanced vehicle technology on air pollution levels in Athens, the European Zooming Model system was applied for a multi-day period. Simulations were performed considering the emission situation at two time horizons, namely 1990 and 2004. For the latter year, three emission reduction scenarios were adopted: In a first stage, the 2004 reference case, corresponding to the expected emission situation in the specific year, was investigated. Consecutively, two local scale emission scenarios which assume the total and fractional replacement of the gasoline powered vehicles with vehicles equipped with advanced engine technology (100% clean fleet and 50% clean fleet, respectively) were applied on top of the 2004 reference case." "Regional" "Technical Expertise in the Context of Honda Corporate Environmental Identity in Europe
    Relevant reference:
    - Moussiopoulos N., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Sahm P. and Yamamoto Y. (2000), Impact of advanced vehicle technology on urban air quality in Europe: Application of the EZM to Athens, Proceedings of the EUROTRAC-2 Symposium 2000 (P. Midgley et al., eds), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 27-31 March, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, CD-ROM edition.
    - Moussiopoulos N., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Sahm P. and Yamamoto Y. (2000), Impact of advanced vehicle technology on urban air quality in Europe: Application of the EZM to Athens, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Transport and Air Pollution, Avignon, France, 5-8 June, 87-94.
    - Technical expertise in the context of Honda`s Corporate environmental identity in Europe, Coordinator: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: HONDA R&D Department, 1999-2000.
    Description:
    The objective of this research activity is to assist Honda to strengthen its corporate environmental identity in Europe by assessing the impact of the Honda engine technology, designed for gasoline vehicles, on the ozone and NOx levels in major European cities as well as conducting comparative analysis of different airshed models. Although a thorough analysis of the impact of vehicles equipped with advanced engine technology on air quality requires the application of a comprehensive and validated model system for numerous European cities, at this stage, simulations have been carried out solely for the city of Athens. Athens is a typical Southern European city severely impacted by photochemical smog episodes, due in part of its location, local meteorology and dense emissions. Because of these characteristics (i.e. isolated location and pronounced local circulation systems), it can be expected that regional scale transport phenomena will have a smaller influence on the local scale pollutant burden. The influence of local emission interventions may therefore be very important in this airshed.
    In order to analyse the impact of advanced vehicle technology on air pollution levels in Athens, the European Zooming Model system was applied for a multi-day period. Simulations were performed considering the emission situation at two time horizons, namely 1990 and 2004. For the latter year, three emission reduction scenarios were adopted: In a first stage, the 2004 reference case, corresponding to the expected emission situation in the specific year, was investigated. Consecutively, two local scale emission scenarios which assume the total and fractional replacement of the gasoline powered vehicles with vehicles equipped with advanced engine technology (100% clean fleet and 50% clean fleet, respectively) were applied on top of the 2004 reference case." "Level 1: Manuals available in three languages." "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data." "Athens 2004 Air Quality Study
    Relevant reference:
    - Moussiopoulos N. and Papagrigoriou S., eds (1997), Athens 2004 Air Quality, International Scientific Workshop Athens 2004 Air Quality Study, Athens, February 1997, 183 pp.
    - Moussiopoulos N. and Papagrigoriou S., eds (1998), Athens 2004 Air Quality, CD-ROM edition, FiatLux Publications, e-mail: FiatLuxPub@aik.com, http://envirocomp.org/html/publish/CDROM/Athens/flyer.pdf.
    - Moussiopoulos N. Papagrigoriou S., Bartzis J.G., Nester K., Van den Bergh H. and Theodoridis G. (2000), Forecasting air quality in the greater Athens area for the year 2004: An intercomparison of the results of four different dispersion models, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 14, 343-353.
    - URL: http://aix.meng.auth.gr/lhtee/projects/athens2004/athens.html
    Description:
    In September 1997 the International Olympic Committee decided that the XXVIII Olympic Games in 2004 was to be held in Athens. One of the major issues raised during the evaluation of the Athens bid was the level of air pollution in the city. In view of the planned and ongoing infrastructure changes in the Greater Athens area, the bid Committee Athens 2004 initiated an international scientific activity aiming at forecasting the evolution of air quality in Athens until 2004. Within the framework of the Athens 2004 Air Quality Study the impact of all major infrastructure changes currently under construction on future air quality in Athens was investigated with the aid of four different dispersion models. Simulations were also carried out for the emission situation in 1990, both as a basis for comparison and in order to illustrate that the model results reproduce satisfactorily the observed 1990 air pollution patterns. The comparative study of all model results indicated that air quality will be significantly improved in Athens until 2004.
    As an additional task, a number of possible interventions were examined, the adoption of which might lead to further improvement of the air quality in the area of interest. Most of these interventions proved to be of major importance in terms of improving air quality. Among them, a thorough renewal of the Athenian vehicle fleet appears to be the most appropriate means towards further improvement of air quality in Athens. Prohibiting the circulation of the most polluting passenger cars in the interior of the outer city ring seems to have a significant beneficial influence on air pollution levels. On the contrary, the establishment of pedestrian zones in the city centre is rather unlikely to result in considerable changes concerning air pollution levels. Given the gradually increasing contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the NOx concentration levels in Athens, interventions to the usage of these vehicles may become a main subject of the future air quality management.

    CITY-DELTA European Modelling Exercise - An inter-comparison of long-term model responses to urban-scale emission-reduction scenarios
    Relevant reference:
    - Moussiopoulos N. and Douros I. (2004), Application and development of the OFIS model within the framework of CITY-DELTA, 9th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 1-4 June.
    - Arvanitis A., Moussiopoulos N. and Kephalopoulos S. (2002), Development and testing of an aerosol module for regional/urban scales, Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Air Pollution Modelling and Simulation, APMS 01, (B. Sportisse, ed), Champs-sur-Marne, France, 9-12 April 2001, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 277-288.
    URL: http://rea.ei.jrc.it/netshare/thunis/citydelta/
    Description:
    Comparisons are conducted for a number of European cities with distinct differences in climatic conditions (e.g., Northern and Southern Europe), the vicinity of the sea, differences in meteorological situations, and emission densities. Practical considerations included the availability of suitable models, of emission inventories for gaseous and particulate pollutants, of sufficient meteorological information, and monitoring data. Eight cities have been selected: Berlin, Copenhagen, Katowice, London, Marseille, Milan, Paris and Prague.
    The main objectives of the CITY-DELTA exercise are:
    - Model inter-comparisons in order to assess the performance of available models and compare them against available observational data
    - To assist air-quality managers in quantifying the contribution of regional versus local sources and in identifying and assessing the most effective emission controls and
    - To provide quantitative information in relation to legal obligations, e.g. whether a certain trend in emissions will achieve air quality limit values.
    AUT/LHTEE participated in this inter-comparison exercise with the models OFIS and MUSE. From the results, OFIS clearly achieves its goal, i.e., it succeeds in refining regional scale model results, while its effectiveness is highest near the city and diminishes with distance. The performance of OFIS is comparable to that of complex 3D model MUSE. However, it is by more than 1 order of magnitude faster. The combination of a regional scale model and OFIS is an adequate tool for satisfying the needs of the EU Air Quality Framework Directive.
    The CITY-DELTA conclusions are expected to provide guidance on how urban air-quality could be included in a Europe-wide evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of emission control strategies. CAFE expects information from integrated assessment models on the optimal (cost-effective) balance between emission control measures that should be taken at the European/Community level and measures that should be best left to cities. " "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? By applying appropriate statistical tools (see Kunz and Moussiopoulos, 1997)." "Sufficient experience on a Pentium II PC and on POWERPC; extensive use on various workstation platforms (mainly IBM/RISC, but also Hewlett Packard and DEC Alpha); enough experience on IBM SP2, Siemens VP400EX and several CRAYs." "For a typical case of 3800 gridpoints: with KOREM 25 times faster than reality, on an IBM RS/6000 3BT (specfp95~7.5)." "Same machine, same case: with KOREM 13 Mbytes RAM. Disk space 10-100 Mbytes according to output required." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining MUSE can be provided by the contact person." "Sahm P. (1997), Kopplung eines nicht-hydrostatischen prognostischen Grenzschichtmodells und eines mesoskaligen Ausbreitungsmodells fuer reaktive Stoffe, PhD Thesis. Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (1995), MUSE - a multilayer dispersion model for reactive pollutants, in Air Pollution III (H. Power, N. Moussiopoulos and C.A. Brebbia, eds), Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, Vol. 1, 359-368. Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (1996), MUSE - A new three layer photochemical dispersion model, Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium 96, Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, 553-557. Sahm P., Kirchner F. and Moussiopoulos N. (1997), Development and Validation of the Multilayer Model MUSE - The Impact of the Chemical Reaction Mechanism on Air Quality Predictions, Proceedings of the 22nd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, Clermont-Ferrand, France, June 2-6, 1997." "Karatzas K., Arvanitis A., Fleck C., Douros I. and Moussiopoulos N. (2003), Atmospheric flow and air quality modelling experiments for the Siberian city of Tomsk, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Urban Air Quality (R.S. Sokhi and J. Brechler eds), Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, 25-27 March, 66-69. Moussiopoulos N., Douros I., Tsegas G. and Kleanthous S. (2009), An air quality management system for Cyprus, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Environment Science and Technology (CEST 09) (T.D. Lekkas, ed), Chania, Crete, Greece, 3-5 September, Vol. 1, 969-973, CD-ROM edition. Moussiopoulos N., Tsegas G., Douros I., Hourdakis L. and Kleantous S. (2009), Development of an air quality management system for Cyprus, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference of Aristotle Universitys Environmental Council on Climate change, sustainable development and renewable energy sources (S.E. Tsiouris and M. Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou eds), Thessaloniki, Greece, 15-17 October, 31-37 (in Greek). Moussiopoulos N., Karagiannidis A., Douros I., Tsegas G. and Tsatsarelis Th. (2008), On the impact of PCDD/Fs emitted from a 2006 landfill fire near Thessaloniki, Proceedings of the 3rd Environmental Conference of Macedonia (K. Nikolaou, ed), Thessaloniki, Greece, 14-17 March, 47, CD-ROM edition (in Greek). Moussiopoulos N., Karagiannidis A., Tsatsarelis Th., Douros I. and Tsegas G. (2006), Atmospheric Dispersion and Deposition Of Pcdd/Fs from a landfill fire in Tagarades, Greece, Proceedings of the Biomass and Waste To Energy Symposium (Venice 06) (Eurowaste, ed), Venice, Italy, 29 November1 December, CD-ROM edition. Moussiopoulos N. and Papagrigoriou S., eds. (1997), Athens 2004 Air Quality, Proceedings of the International Scientific Workshop Athens 2004 Air Quality Study, Athens, 18-19 February 1997, 183 pp. Available also as a CD-ROM from http://www.envirocomp.org/ Moussiopoulos N. Papagrigoriou S., Bartzis J.G., Nester K., Van den Bergh H. and Theodoridis G. (2000), Forecasting air quality in the greater Athens area for the year 2004: An intercomparison of the results of four different dispersion models, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 14, 343-353. Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Karatzas K., Papalexiou S. and Karagiannidis A. (1997), Analysis of the impact of the new Athens airport to urban air quality with contemporary air pollution models, Int. J. Environment and Pollution 7, Nos. 3-6, 427-435. Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Tourlou P.M., Friedrich R., Simpson D. and Lutz M. (2000), Assessing ozone abatement strategies in terms of their effectiveness on the regional and urban scales, Atmospheric Environment 34, 4691-4699. Sahm P., Cremades L., Toro M.V., Klaic Z.B. and Moussiopoulos N. (2001), Numerical investigation of meteorological conditions leading to elevated ozone concentrations in Medellin, Collombia, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Air Quality, Loutraki, Greece, 19-23 March, CD-ROM edition. Schell B., Ackermann I.J., Hass H., Binkowski F.S. and Ebel A. (2001), Modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol within a comprehensive air quality model system. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(D22):2827528293. Tourlou P.M., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Integrated assessment of air pollution abatement strategies in urban areas: Application to the greater Athens area, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 731-744. Tourlou P.M., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2001), Integrated assessment of air pollution abatement strategies in urban areas: Application to the greater Athens area, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Air Quality, Loutraki, Greece, 19-23 March, CD-ROM edition, 731-744." 3/29/2011 18:17:38 22 "ADREA-HF" "John G. Bartzis" "NCSR 'Demokritos'" "bartzis@ipta.demokritos.gr" "+30 1 6525004" "+30 1 6525004" "National Center for Scientific Research 'Demokritos', Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, Environmental Research Laboratory, http://www.ipta.demokritos.gr/" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Buoyant, Dense" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Eulerian models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "ADREA-HF" "ADREA-HF " "Version 5.0" "November 2009" "Environmental Research Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection, National Centre for Scientific Research DEMOKRITOS" "Dr. Alexandros G. Venetsanos" "Environmental Research Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, National Centre for Scientific Research DEMOKRITOS 15310 Aghia Paraskevi-Attikis, Athens Greece " "+30 210 6503402 " "+30 210 6525004 " "venets@ipta.demokritos.gr" "http://www2.ipta.demokritos.gr/" "Provided by contact person." "Intermediate" "Prediction of flow and pollutant dispersion in complex terrain, including two-phase releases." "CFD transient, three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, prognostic local-scale model" "ADREA-HF is a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code, to be applied for dispersion calculations in complex terrain. The working fluid is in general a multi-component mixture, where each component can be in two-phase conditions. Thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed for the mixture components. The model solves the mass, momentum and enthalpy (or internal energy) conservation equations for the mixture and the mass conservation equations for the mixture components, in Cartesian form. The liquid part of a component is obtained using Raoults Law. The slip velocity between liquid droplets and air is taken into account in the conservation equations. Air/ground interaction is also taken into account, by solving the transient one-dimensional temperature equation inside the ground. Turbulence is modelled using models of variable complexity (zero, one, two equations). The spatial discretisation of the equations is based on the control volume approach. The computational grid is Cartesian. The momentum equations are solved on staggered grids. Complex 3d geometrical structures crossing the control volumes/surfaces of the grid are treated using the porosity approach. Time integration is based on the fully implicit scheme (1rst or 2nd order). The convective terms are discretised using the 1rst order upwind scheme or higher order schemes with flux limiters. The pressure is obtained from the continuity equation. The BI-CGSTAB and/or GMRES methods with various preconditioners are used for the fast and efficient solution of matrix equations." "Only Cartesian grids with porosity approach. Does not handle unstructured and/or terrain following grids." "Setup automatically by the code. The user can provide maximum convective Courant or maximum time step." "Typical horizontal cell size: 0.1-10m" "Typical vertical cell size: 0.1-5m" "First order upwind (default). Higher order schemes (Linear upwind, Fromm, Cubic upwind, QUICK) using flux limiters (Van Leer, Van Albada, OSPRE, MinMod, Super-B, MUSCL, Smart, Umist) formulated for non-equidistant grids." "Standard k-epsilon (default) RNG k-epsilon Anisotropic one equation model (Bartzis) Isotropic one equation model (Bartzis) Generalized mixing length LVEL model" "Deposition velocity model" "Combustion of methane and hydrogen using the eddy dissipation model" "First or second order time integration using the fully implicit scheme. The pressure is obtained from the fully compressible continuity equation. Matrix solvers: Gauss-Seidel, Line Gauss-Seidel, BI-CGSTAB, GMRES with various preconditioners (ILU(0), ILU(1), MILU(0), MILU(1)) Overall solution per time step using an iterative procedure. Automatic step increase/decrease." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "For jet releases given are the jet area, velocity, temperature, pressure, pollutant mass fraction and the void fraction. Time dependent jet releases can be handled. For instantaneous releases given are the temperature, pressure, contaminant mass fraction and the void fraction at specified grid cells." "One dimensional profile of temperature and wind data representing the undisturbed meteorological conditions are either provided or calculated by applying the model in one-dimensional form in the vertical direction, with proper boundary conditions." "Geometry can be constructed or imported through the code's input/output interface (EDes)." "Initialization of a problem can be done either directly or through interpolation from a previous problem, which can have a different domain and grid. " "Neumann or Dirichlet or both (in case of input planes). Transient Dirichlet boundary conditions. Constant pressure boundary planes. Periodic boundary conditions." "Not available" "All the input is done through the graphical user interface EDes. EDes generates all the files necessary to run the code." "Optionally mixture velocity components, temperature, pressure, pollutant mass fraction, pollutant liquid fraction, turbulent viscosity, turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, turbulent length scale at user specified planes." "Graphical user interface for both input and output processing is available under Windows, based on OpenCascade technology." "The ADREA-HF code is used by Universities, Research Centres, and Industry. Users of ADREA-HF should have a sufficient background on computational fluid mechanics." "Urban" "Papanikolaou, E. A., Venetsanos, A. G., CFD Modelling for Slow Hydrogen Releases in a Private Garage without Forced Ventilation, International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September, 2005 " "Urban" "Papanikolaou, E. A., Venetsanos, A. G., CFD Modelling for Slow Hydrogen Releases in a Private Garage without Forced Ventilation, International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September, 2005 " "Urban" "Papanikolaou, E. A., Venetsanos, A. G., CFD Modelling for Slow Hydrogen Releases in a Private Garage without Forced Ventilation, International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September, 2005 " "Level 2 manuals " "Level 2 Simulation of the Thorney Island 8 and 21 large scale trials. Instantaneous isothermal releases of Nitrogen/Freon mixture on flat ground, without and with a semicircular fence obstacle. Simulation of the EEC-55 large scale experiment. A transient release of flashing propane on flat ground, with and without a fence. Simulation of the Desert Tortoise 1 large scale experiment. A continuous release of flashing ammonia on flat ground without obstacle. Considerable liquid effects. Simulation of the FLADIS-T16 large scale experiment. A continuous release of flashing ammonia on flat ground without obstacle. Simulation of the EMU-A1 wind tunnel experiment. A continuous release of a passive pollutant from the door of an L-shaped building. Simulation of the EMU-C1 wind tunnel experiment. A continuous release of chlorine in a complex industrial site on irregular terrain, close to the sea. ADREA-HF has been included in the work of the Model Evaluation Group (MEG), Commission of the European Community, DGXII, Contact K.E.Petersen, System Analysis Department, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000, Roskilde, Denmark. ADREA-HF has been validated during the EC Project SMEDIS (Scientific Model Evaluation of Dense Gas Dispersion Models) 1996-1999. From 1999 and on focus has been given to the prediction of hydrogen dispersion for both cryogenic and compressed H2 releases. ADREA-HF has been significantly validated and intercompared with other CFD codes against hydrogen dispersion data within the EC projects EIHP, EIHP-2, HySafe (Safety of Hydrogen as an Energy carrier, 2004-2009), HyPer and HyApproval. " "Gallego, E., Migoya, E., Martin-Valdepenas, J. M., Garcia, J., Crespo, A., Venetsanos, A., Papanikolaou, E., Kumar, S., Studer, E., Hansen, O. R., Dagba, Y., Jordan, T., Jahn, W., Oíste, S., Makarov, D., An Intercomparison Exercise on the Capabilities of CFD, International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September, 2005" "What guidelines to use to construct the grid. Grid refinement close to the source. For jet source cell size equal to one jet nozzle diameter For supersonic jets fictitious Birch approaches to calculate the fictitious nozzle diameter. Grid expansion far from the source. Grid expansion ratios less than 1.2 (usually 1.12) Grid as equidistant as possible. Free domain boundaries far enough from geometry to avoid effects of boundary conditions. " "Windows version. Linux versions can also be provided." "A few hours - a few days, depending on the simulated period and the type of machine." "64-128 Mbytes RAM. 200 Mbytes disk space" "The model is an in-house/commercial CFD code. Information for obtaining ADREA-HF can be provided by the contact person." "See below" "Venetsanos A.G., Papanikolaou E., Delichatsios M., Garcia J., Hansen O.R., Heitsch M., Huser A., Jahn W., Jordan T., Lacome J-M., Ledin H.S., Makarov D., Middha P., Studer E., Tchouvelev A.V., Teodorczyk A., Verbecke F., Van der Voort M.M., An Inter-Comparison Exercise On the Capabilities of CFD Models to Predict the Short and Long Term Distribution and Mixing of Hydrogen in a Garage, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 34, Issue 14, July 2009, Pages 5912-5923. Baraldi D., Venetsanos A.G., Papanikolaou E., Heitsch M., Dallas V., Numerical Analysis of Release, Dispersion and Combustion of Liquid Hydrogen in a Mock-up Hydrogen Re-Fuelling Station, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 22 (2009) 303315 Venetsanos A.G., Baraldi D., Adams P., Heggem P.S., Wilkening H. (2008), CFD Modelling of Hydrogen Release, Dispersion and Combustion for Automotive Scenarios, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 21, 162-184. Gallego E., Migoya E., Martin-Valdepenas J.M., Crespo A., Garcia J., Venetsanos A.G., Papanikolaou E., Kumar S., Studer E., Dagba Y., Jordan T., Jahn W., Oíset S., Makarov D., An Intercomparison Exercise on the Capabilities of CFD Models to Predict Distribution and Mixing of H2 in a Closed Vessel, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 32, No 13, 2007, pp. 2235-2245. Venetsanos A.G., Bartzis J.G. (2007), CFD modelling of large-scale LH2 spills in open environment, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 32, 2171-2177. Neofytou, P., Venetsanos, A.G., Rafailidis, S., Bartzis, J.G., Numerical investigation of the pollution dispersion in an urban street canyon, (2006) Environ. Model. Softw., 21 (4): 525-531. Neofytou, P., Venetsanos, A.G., Vlachogiannis, D., Bartzis, J.G., Scaperdas, A., CFD simulations of the wind environment around an airport terminal building, (2006) Environ. Model. Softw., 21 (4): 520-524. Koutsourakis, N., Bartzis, J.G., Venetsanos, A.G., Rafailidis, S., Computation of pollutant dispersion during an airplane take-off, (2006) Environ. Model. Softw., 21 (4): 486-493. Koutsourakis, N., Neofytou, P., Venetsanos, A.G., Bartzis, J.G., Parametric study of the dispersion aspects in a street-canyon area, (2005) Int. J. Environ. Pollut. 25 (1-4): 155-163. Venetsanos, A.G., Bartzis, J.G., Andronopoulos, S., One Equation Turbulence Modeling for Atmospheric and Engineering Applications, (2004) Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 113: 321-346 Venetsanos, A.G., Huld, T., Adams, P., Bartzis, J.G., Source, dispersion and combustion modeling of an accidental release of hydrogen in an urban environment, (2003) Journal of Hazardous Materials, A105, 1-25. Venetsanos, A.G., Vlachogiannis, D., Papadopoulos, A., Bartzis, J.G., Andronopoulos, S., Studies on pollutant dispersion from moving vehicles, (2002) Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus, Vol 2, pp 325-337. Vlachogiannis, D., Rafailidis, S., Bartzis, J.G., Andronopoulos, S., Venetsanos, A.G., Modelling of Flow and Pollution Dispersion in Different Urban Canyon Geometries, (2002) Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus, Vol 2, pp 405-417. Andronopoulos, S., Grigoriadis, D., Robins, A., Venetsanos, A.G., Rafailidis, S., Bartzis, J.G., Three dimensional modelling of concentration fluctuations in complicated geometries, (2001) Environmental Fluid Mechanics I, pp 415-440. Statharas, J.C., Venetsanos, A.G., Bartzis, J.G., Wuertz, J., Schmidtchen, U., Analysis of data from spilling experiments performed with liquid hydrogen, (2000) Journal of Hazardous Materials A77 (1-3), pp 57-75. Venetsanos, A.G., Bartzis, J.G., Würtz, J., Papailiou D.D., Comparative modeling of a passive release from an L-shaped building using one, two and three-dimensional dispersion models, (2000) International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol 14, Nos. 1-6, pp. 324-333. J.G. Bartzis, A.G. Venetsanos, M. Varvayanni, S. Andronopoulos, S. Davakis, J. Statharas, N. Catsaros, P. Deligiannis. Wind flow and dispersion modelling over terrain of high complexity. Proceedings of the AIR POLLUTION 97 International Conference, Bologna, Italy, 16-18 Sept. 97. Wuertz, J.G. Bartzis, A.G. Venetsanos, S. Andronopoulos, J. Statharas, R. Nijsing. A Dense Vapour Dispersion Code Package for Applications in the Chemical and Process Industry. Journal of Hazardous Materials 46, 273-284, 1996. Andronopoulos, S., Bartzis, J.G., Wurtz, J., Asimakopoulos D. Modelling the effects of obstacles on the dispersion of denser-than-air gases, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 1994, 37, 327-352. Statharas, J.C., Bartzis, J.G., Venetsanos, A.G., Wuertz, J., Prediction of Ammonia Releases using the ADREA-HF code, (1993) Process Safety Progress, 12 pp 118-122. S. Andronopoulos, J.G. Bartzis, J. Statharas. Three dimensional modelling of dense gas dispersion. ERCOFTAC Bulletin 16, pp 18-21, March 1993. J.G. Bartzis, ADREA-HF: A three-dimensional finite volume code for vapour cloud dispersion in complex terrain. Report EUR 13580 EN, 1991. " 3/29/2011 18:17:40 23 "DISPLAY-2" "John G. Bartzis" "NCSR 'Demokritos'" "bartzis@ipta.demokritos.gr" "+30 1 6525004" "+30 1 6525004" "National Center for Scientific Research 'Demokritos', Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, Environmental Research Laboratory, http://www.ipta.demokritos.gr/" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Area - volume source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Dense" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Workstation" "DISPLAY-2" "DISPLAY-2 " "Updated November 97" "Updated November 97" "Environmental Research Laboratory,Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection,National Centre for Scientific Research DEMOKRITOS,15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens Greece. Institute for Systems Informatics and Safety Joint Research Centre ISPRA I-" "Alexander G. Venetsanos (DEMOKRITOS), Jorgen Wurtz (JRC-Ispra) " "Environmental Research Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, National Centre for Scientific Research DEMOKRITOS 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens Greece" "+30 210 6525004" "+30 210 6525004" "venets@ipta.demokritos.gr , jorgen.wuertz@jrc.it" "http://ipta.demokritos.gr/" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Vapour cloud dispersion in complex terrain, including two-phase releases." "Two-dimensional shallow layer, local model. Developed based on the full three dimensional model ADREA-HF and the one-dimensional shallow layer model DISPLAY-1." "DISPLAY-2 is a two-dimensional shallow layer model, to be applied for vapour cloud dispersion in complex terrain. The working fluid is considered to be an ideal mixture of two components, the pollutant and the air The pollutant can be in two phase conditions. Thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed for the mixture components. The model solves the mass, momentum in two horizontal directions and internal energy conservation equations for the mixture and the mass conservation equation for the pollutant, in Cartesian form. The conservation equations solved are integrated in the vertical from ground to cloud top The liquid part of the pollutant is obtained using Raoults Law. The slip velocity between liquid droplets and air is taken into account in the conservation equations. Air/ground interaction is also taken into account, by solving the transient one-dimensional temperature equation inside the ground. Turbulence is modelled using the entrainment velocity concept. The entrainment velocities depend on the local cloud velocities and on the ambient wind field, through a simple algebraic relation. Obstacles are modelled by adding flow resistance terms in the momentum equations. The spatial discretisation of the equations is based on the control volume approach. The computational grid is terrain following. The momentum equations are solved on staggered grids. Obstacles can be added on top of the irregular ground. The obstacles crossing the control volumes/surfaces of the grid are treated using the notions of control volume porosity and area permeability. This approach, inherited from the three dimensional model ADREA-HF, is particularly attractive because an increase in ground complexity does not increase the overall model complexity The necessary geometrical data are either given by hand or can be generated using the geometrical input processor DELTA_B. Time integration is based on the fully implicit scheme. The convective terms are discretised using the Upwind scheme. The pressure is hydrostatic. The Gauss-Seidel method is used for the solution of the discretised equations." "The pressure is assumed hydrostatic.
    The working fluid is assumed an ideal mixture of the carrier gas (air) and only one pollutant, which can be in two-phase conditions." "Time step: 0.001-1 seconds." "Grid size: 1-10m" "Equations integrated in the vertical." "Upwind" "Turbulence is modelled using the entrainment velocity concept. The entrainment velocities depend on the local cloud velocities and on the ambient wind field, through a simple algebraic relation." "Time integration is based on the fully implicit scheme. The convective terms are discretised using the Upwind scheme. The Gauss-Seidel method is used for the solution of the discretised equations per variable. Overall solution per time step using an iterative procedure. Automatic time step selection. Maximum Courant number is 0.5. No underrelaxation." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "For jet releases given are the jet area, velocity, temperature, contaminant mass fraction and the void fraction (pressure is assumed equal to the environmental). Time dependent jet releases can be handled. For instantaneous releases given are the temperature, contaminant mass fraction, mixture void fraction and cloud height at specified grid cells." "One dimensional universal vertical profiles of temperature and wind, representing the undisturbed meteorological conditions, are used. These profiles are assumed unaffected by the presence of the cloud and by the presence of obstacles." "Ground heights are given at specified grid cells. Obstacles (3d buildings or 2d fences) can be added on top of the irregular ground. The obstacles crossing the control volumes/surfaces of the grid are treated using the notions of control volume porosity and area permeability. The necessary geometrical data are either given by hand or can be generated using the geometrical input processor DELTA_B." "See meteorology" "Neumann or Dirichlet or both (in case of input planes). Transient boundary conditions available " "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "A file with control run data is read.
    Two files containing the air and contaminant physical properties.
    A file containing the maximum arrays dimensions." "Optionally cloud velocity components, temperature, pressure, contaminant mass fraction, contaminant liquid fraction, mixture void fraction at user specified planes." "Graphical User Interface under construction, based on MOTIF." "The DISPLAY-2 code is being used by Universities and Research Centres. Users of DISPLAY-2 should have a sufficient background on computational fluid mechanics." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2 manuals" "Level 2:
    Simulation of the Thorney Island 8 and 21 large scale trials. Instantaneous isothermal releases of Nitrogen/Freon mixture on flat ground, without and with a semicircular fence obstacle. Simulation of the EEC-55 large scale experiment. A transient release of flashing propane on flat ground, with and without a fence. Simulation of the Desert Tortoise 4 large scale experiment. A continuous release of flashing ammonia on flat ground without obstacle. Considerable liquid effects. Simulation of the BA-Hamburg-University wind-tunnel experiments. Instantaneous isothermal releases of SF6 on slopes. Simulation of the EMU-A1 wind tunnel experiment. A continuous release of a passive pollutant from the door of an L-shaped building.
    DISPLAY-2 has been included in the work of the Model Evaluation Group (MEG), Commission of the European Community, DGXII, Contact K.E.Petersen, System Analysis Department, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000, Roskilde, Denmark.
    DISPLAY-2 is currently under evaluation in the European Commission Project SMEDIS (Scientific Model Evaluation of Dense Gas Dispersion Models), co-ordinated by the UK Health and Safety Executive." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Extensive use on HP and DEC workstations." "One or a few hours, depending on the simulated period and the type of machine." "40 Mbytes RAM. 100 Mbytes disk space" "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining DISPLAY-2 can be provided by the contact person." "J.G. Bartzis, ADREA-HF: A three-dimensional finite volume code for vapour cloud dispersion in complex terrain. Report EUR 13580 EN, 1991. J. Wuertz, A Transient One-Dimensional Shallow Layer Model for Dispersion of Denser-Than-Air Gases in Obstructed Terrains Under Non-Isothermal Conditions. Report EUR 15343 EN, 1993. J. Wuertz, J.G. Bartzis, A.G. Venetsanos, S. Andronopoulos, R. Nijsing, The FLADIS Project Final Report. The JRC Ispra Contribution. Report EUR 16268 EN, 1995 A.G. Venetsanos, N. Catsaros, J. Wurtz, J Bartzis, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'The DELTA_B code. A computer code for the simulation of the geometry of three dimensional buildings. Code structure and users manual.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\', Report EUR 16326 EN, 1995. A.G. Venetsanos, J. Wurtz, J.G. Bartzis,. J. Statharas, Modelling the effects of obstacles on dense gas dispersion in shallow layer models. Proceedings of the Third International Conference AIR-POLLUTION 95, Porto Carras, Greece, September 26-29, 1995. J. Wuertz, J.G. Bartzis, A.G. Venetsanos, S. Andronopoulos, R. Nijsing, The FLADIS Project Final Report. The JRC Ispra Contribution. Report EUR 16268 EN, 1995 J. Wuertz, J.G. Bartzis, A.G. Venetsanos, S. Andronopoulos, J. Statharas, R. Nijsing. A Dense Vapour Dispersion Code Package for Applications in the Chemical and Process Industry. Journal of Hazardous Materials 46, 273-284, 1996. A.G. Venetsanos, J.G. Bartzis, Further development of a two-dimensional shallow layer model for dense gas dispersion in obstructed irregular terrain including two phase jets. European Commission-TMR Return Grant Final Report, November 1997." 3/29/2011 18:17:41 28 "CALGRID" "Robert J. Yamartino, Joseph S. Scire" "rjy@maine.rr.com, jscire@trcsolutions.com" "Tropospheric ozone, Summer smog, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Buoyant" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "PC, Workstation" "CALGRID" "CALGRID (California Grid Model)" "Version 1.6c, last update: 11.03.98, available. Version 1.8 , last update: 01.09.98, not released" "11.03.98, available. 01.09.98, not released" "Atmospheric Studies Group, Earth Tech., Concord MA 01742, USA (formerly Sigma Research Corporation)" "Dr. Robert J. Yamartino, Mr. Joseph S. Scire" "Earth Tech 196 Baker Avenue Concord, MA USA 01742-2167" "978-371-4265" "978-371-2468" "rjy@maine.rr.com, jscire@trcsolutions.com" "http://mercator.src.com" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of reactive pollutants dispersion and transformation on mesoscale (Version 1.6c) and on regional scale (Version 1.8)" "Three-dimensional, Eulerian, photochemical model" "This model was designed to correct errors in and limitations of the UAM-IV (Urban Airshed Model-IV). Specifically, it contains state-of-the-science improvements including:
    - A horizontal advection scheme based on spectrally-constrained cubics (Yamartino, 1993) that conserves mass exactly, prohibits negative concentrations, and exhibits a level of numerical diffusion that is intermediate between class E and F (PGT class) dispersion.
    - A vertical transport and diffusion scheme that incorporates recent boundary layer formulations.
    - A choice of several vertical level spacing schemes including dynamic, semilogarithmic and arbitrary level spacing. These schemes account for all vertical flux components with moving or stationary levels without use of spurious w components.
    - A full resistance based model for the computation of dry deposition rates as a function of geophysical parameters, meteorological conditions and pollutant characteristics.
    - A chemical integration solver based on an adaptive time-step implementation of the quasi-steady-state method of Hesstvedt et al. (1978) and Lamb (1984). This solver can efficiently and accurately handle the stiffest of modern schemes.
    - Incorporation of more modern photochemical reaction schemes, such as the SAPRC mechanisms, that can more accurately address the roles of biogenics and intermediate chemical products formed over multiday episodes. In the current version of the model, the user can select between the SAPRC-90 and CB-IV chemical mechanisms.
    - New, structured ANSI 77 FORTRAN code that is highly modular, machine independent and designed to facilitate a high degree of vectorisation.
    CALGRID essentially utilises the same dynamical equations as UAM-IV with the important exception that density variation with height is accounted for in order to ensure exact mass conservation during all of the transport and diffusion operations. Other improvements over UAM include use of operator reversal to ensure second-order temporal accuracy; use of three-dimensional (3-d) space and time varying values of meteorological parameters such as photolysis coefficients, humidity, diffusivity, pressure, and temperature; and on-the-fly computation of plume rise and entrainment for more precise vertical distribution of plume material.
    CALGRID (Version 1.8) has also been upgraded for regional and multi-day applications (Yamartino et al., 1996) through:
    - estimation of photolysis rates at each grid cell to correct for variation in solar angle across the modelling domain;
    - ability to include photolysis attenuation due to clouds, columnar haze, and ozone via input of hourly 3D, UV extinction field;
    - inclusion of map factors to account for wind rotations from true north (e,g,, Lambert conformal projections);
    - 1-way nesting to smaller sub-domains; and,
    finer time resolution of meteorology." "Only homogenous gas phase chemical reactions, no in-cloud or liquid-phase chemistry. Constant horizontal grid size. No 2-way nesting. Dry deposition only - no wet removal." "Time step: 10-20 min., results at multiples of 1 hour, and episodes of days-weeks." "Grid size: 500 - 20,000 m, domain dimension: 20-1000 km" "Cell height: 20 - 2000 m (varying with height), total height: up to 10,000 m" "Finite difference scheme based on cubic splines Stability dependent, Smagorinsky, or both schemes for turbulent diffusion coefficients" "Similarity theory for stable and convective boundary layer Diffusion coefficients based on PBL scaling regimes" "Three layer, full-resistance model" "The advection and diffusion of a mass concentration field C is described by a partial differential equation (PDE). This PDE is solved via operator splitting and reversal. Horizontal advection involves an explicit procedure in time whereas vertical dispersion employs either a fully-implicit or Crank-Nicolson time integration. Numerical schemes used in the model also prevent negative concentrations in the results. In order to retain maximum flexibility, the modelling system has been designed to operate in terrain adjusted coordinates, Z = z - h(x,y). Also, winds are presented in this adjusted frame. Vertical diffusion algorithms in CALGRID are updated to reflect current knowledge scaling in the convective, neutral and stable boundary layers. Various 2-d fields of micrometeorological parameters and 3-d fields of winds are made available by the CALMET meteorological model. The deposition velocity for gases can be expressed as the inverse of a sum of three resistances: the atmospheric resistance through the surface layer, the deposition layer resistance and the vegetation layer resistance. Because particulate matter does not interact with vegetation in the same way as gaseous pollutants, particle deposition velocities are expressed in terms of aerodynamic, deposition and gravitational settling components.
    To treat chemical reactions, the user can select either the Hybrid-Solver or the Quasi Steady State Analysis (QSSA). These techniques write the chemistry equations to be integrated in the form:

    dCi
    ----- = Pi(C) - Di(C)·Ci i=1,...,N
    dt

    where Ci is the concentration of the i-th species, Pi and Di are the production and loss terms for the i-th species, and N is the total number of non constant species included in the chemical analysis. The integration time step dt is assigned on the basis of concentration values, production and destruction terms in the previous time step, to speed up the computation if there is not much variation in concentration values. Moreover, when Di and Pi terms are assumed constants over the time step dt, the equations can be solved analytically, and they immediately give the concentration values:
    Ci = Pi/Di·[1 - exp(-Di·dt)] + Ci·exp(-Di·dt)
    Even with fast chemical integration techniques, such as those described above, the cost to solve the chemistry remains high. Another procedure to decrease computational time is to approximate the very short-lived species with their equilibrium values, reducing the number of chemical species which are treated in the model and reducing the stiffness of the remaining system of equations, and thus allowing a larger time step to be used in the integration.
    To improve usage flexibility, the chemical mechanism is read as an input file to CALGRID. This file contains the details of chemical mechanism: species included, specific reactions, rate constants, which species are to be transported or treated as pseudo steady-state, etc.. The thermal reactions are treated by taking into account their kinetic constants, which are dependent on ambient temperature and activation energy. The rate constants for the photolysis reactions are calculated using the intensity and spectral distribution of the actinic flux. " "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Emissions are provided, for each emitted species, as mass per time unit for every grid cell for the area sources and for every stack for point sources" "Hourly 3-d wind and temperature fields. Hourly 2-d fields of Mixing height, Monin-Obukhov length (L), PGT class, friction velocity (u*), convective scale velocity (w*). Meteorological fields are supplied by the CALMET meteorological model." "Orography height, roughness length, leaf area index, and land use for each grid cell" "Constant or 3-d matrix of values for each chemical species" "Values for each chemical species have to be provided and three options are available: space and time constant boundary conditions set equal to I.C. time independent vertical profiles mapped to side boundaries space and time variable boundary conditions" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Input control file
    specifies most of the characteristics of the run
    Chemical module
    chemical reaction schemes (CB-IV and SAPRC-90 provided) kinetic and mechanistic parameters of reactions (CB-IV and SAPRC-90 provided)
    Dry deposition
    the user can supply values of parameters that define the resistance models (vegetation characteristics, particle size distribution,...) or directly input hourly values of deposition velocity for each species." "Hourly 3-d concentration fields and hourly 2-d fields of deposition fluxes for species selected by the user in the control file." "Emission processor able to compute parameters required by chemical mechanism. Processors to shift concentration and emission input between SAPRC90 and CB-IV. Processors for dynamic visualisation of model inputs/outputs on PC and workstations. A set of model result postprocessing programs (CALPOST)" "Numerous users in the Australia, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the U.S." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 1, technical description, Users Guide and details on source code available in English " "Has been evaluated against episodes on New England, MOCA, OTAG, and SCAQS domains." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Runs on PCs, NT-Alpha, and UNIX workstations (e.g., HP, Sun, Silicon Graphics)" "Varies with application" "Can be reduced/enlarged for specific domain applications." "Available from Earth Tech on request. Also available from California ARB web site." "Kumar N., Russell A. G., Tesche T. W., McNally D. E. (1994): Evaluation of Calgrid using two different Ozone Episodes and Comparison to UAM Results. Atmospheric Environment 28 (17): 2823-2845. Hedley M., McLaren R., Jiang W., Singleton D.L. (1996): Initial modelling of a future year emission control strategy for the Lower Fraser Valley: relative impacts of selected gasoline and natural gas vehicle techonologies, Report No. PET-1362-96S, March 21, 1996, National Research Council, Canada. Pilinis C., Kassomenos P., Kallos G. (1993): Modeling of Photochemical Pollution in Athens, Greece. Application of the RAMS-CALGRID Modeling System. Atmospheric Environment, 27B (4): 353-370. Scire J.S., Hanna S.R., Carmichael G.R., and Chang Y.S. (1989): CALGRID: A Mesoscale Photochemical Grid Model. Volume 2: User�s Guide. California ARB Report, Sacramento, CA. Silibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Catenacci G., Finzi G. (1998): Application of a photochemical grid model to Milan metropolitan area. Atmospheric Environment 32, 2025-2038. Stern, R., Scherer, B., Fath, J. (1997): Ermittlung und Bewertung der Wirkung von Ozonminderungsmaßnahmen im Rhein-Main-Gebiet mit Hilfe des photochemischen Ausbreitungsmodells CALGRID. Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Meteorologie. Abschlußbericht zum Teilvorhaben B-3.1 Kleinräumige Ozon-Ausbreitungs-rechnungen im Rahmen des FE-Vorhabens 10402812/01 Aktionsprogramm und Maßnahmenplan Ozon des Umweltbundesamts. Im Auftrag der Prognos AG Yamartino, R.J., Scire J., Moore G., McNaughton D., Fernau M., 1996: Development of the Regional CALGRID Ozone Model. AWMA Annual Meeting Paper 96-TA23A.04. Yamartino, R.J., 1993: Nonnegative, conserved scalar transport using grid-cell-centered, spectrally constrained Blackman cubics for applications on a variable-thickness mesh. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 753-763. Yamartino R.J., Scire J.S., Carmichael G.R., and Chang Y.S., (1992) The CALGRID mesoscale photochemical grid model-I: Model formulation. Atmospheric Environment 26A, p.1493-1512 Yamartino R.J., Scire J.S., Hanna S.R., Carmichael G.R., and Chang Y.S. (1989): CALGRID: A Mesoscale Photochemical Grid Model. Volume 1: Model Formulation Document. California ARB Report, Sacramento, CA." 3/29/2011 18:17:42 4 "OLD NAN AIR MODEL" "Christos Naneris" "Aristotle University Thessaloniki, LHTEE" "chris@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 310 996060" "+30 310 996012" "P.O. Box 483, 540 06 Thessaloniki, Greece " "Climate change, Ozone depletion, Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Eutrophication, Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km), Global (hemispheric to global scale)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant, Dense" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Plume-rise models, Gaussian models, Semi-empirical models, Eulerian models, Lagrangian models, Chemical models, Receptor models, Stochastic models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "OLD NAN AIR MODEL" "Model Test Case from Naneris TEST" "Version 12345" "June 2006" "Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LHTEE, AUT)" "Professor, Dr.-Ing. habil Nicolas Moussiopoulos" "Aristotle University Thessaloniki
    Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering
    P.O.Box 483
    GR-54124 Thessaloniki, GREECE" "+30 2310 996011" "+30 2310 996012" "moussio@vergina.eng.auth.gr" "http://aix.meng.auth.gr/" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "XXXukfuitfyutfd
    adfbasfhbadfnbadfb
    xi bCIKSBDVIFBVIDFNBG " "XXX" "XXX" "

    XXX
    XXX " "XXX" "
    Time step: 5-30 seconds
    Simulated time period: several weeks" "
    Domain size: 1-500 km
    Grid cell size: 500-10000 m

    ......Does the model use receptors or grid…?" "
    Domain height: up to 10 km
    Grid cell height: 20-500 m (varying with height)

    ......and in which height?" ".....Please, can you write a short description of this scheme?" ".....Please, can you write a short description of this scheme?" ".....Please, can you write a short description of this scheme?" ".....Please, can you write a short description of this scheme?

    ......If the model doesnt use chemistry, please write, The model does not use chemistry." "XXX" "......IS THIS A DESCRIPTION FOR VALIDATING INPUT DATA ? " "XXX

    ......Does the model simulate pollutant dispersion from sources, such as point, line, area, etc.?" "XXX

    ......Please, provide information, such as, ECMWF (URL) or ALADIN (URL) model level data either, time series of hourly values of wind speed, wind direction, stability class, mixing height, ambient air temperature, or 3-D hourly flow fields, which contains u-, v- & w-wind components, potential temperature, pressure, turbulent kinetic energy, Monin-Obukov length, friction velocity, mixing height, etc." "XXX

    ......Is the model applicable only for flat terrain?" ".....Please, specify if any, or write Not available or The model does not incorporate initial and boundary conditions." ".....Please, specify if any, or write Not available or The model does not incorporate initial and boundary conditions." ".....Please, specify if any, or write Not available or The model does not include standard data assimilation procedures." "XXX XXX" "XXX" ".....Please, specify if any, or write User interface is not available. or User interface is under construction. The interface works under which operation system. Is it commercial?" "XXX" "Regional" "Title
    Relevant reference:
    XXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX
    Description:
    XXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX" "Urban" "Title
    Relevant reference:
    XXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX
    Description:
    XXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX" "Episodes" "Title
    Relevant reference:
    XXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX
    Description:
    XXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX" "....Please provide Documentation status level according to the appropriate help box and more details, such as language of documentation, sources etc.

    Specify the level, such as:
    Level 1: Complete documentations available, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals with details on the machine code.
    Level 2: Rather good scientific documentation and less complete users manuals.
    Level 3: Worse scientific documentation as compared to 2
    Level 4: Generally, incomplete or messy documentation.
    Level 5: No documentation at all.
    …and make comments." "....Please provide Validation and evaluation level according to the appropriate help box:
    Level 1: This level of evaluation is hard to achieve because of either still pending work on evaluation, or minor limitations in the measurements available (quality, representativeness, coverage etc.), or both.
    Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data.
    Level 3: Considerable uncertainties because of both lack of measurements and an inadequate evaluation procedure.
    Level 4: Only first attempts towards evaluation
    Level 5: No evaluation at all.
    …and make comments." "Title
    Relevant reference:
    XXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX
    Description:
    XXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX
    .......Please, provide more information, using the format: 1) Project title, 2) Relevant references (max 3), 3) Projects short description and 4) more details on Model performance (see as example model MEMO: http://pandora.meng.auth.gr/mds/showlong.php?id=20#d_42)." "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? By applying appropriate statistical tools (see Kunz and Moussiopoulos, 1997) ......Please, provide questions/answers that could help future model users." "…..Please, provide info, such as, Sufficient experience on Pentium PC and POWERPC; extensive use on various workstation platforms (IBM/RISC, but also Hewlett Packard, DEC Alpha and Linux based PCs); enough experience on IBM SP2, Siemens VP400EX, several CRAYs " "…..Please, provide info, such as, For the typical case of a 50x50 grid size and 4 inert pollutants, the simulation of 1 day needs 90 min of computing (real) time. (On an IBM RS/6000 3BT, specfp95~ 7.5)." "…..Please, provide info, such as, For the same typical case: 20 Mbytes RAM. Disk space: 50-120 Mbytes needed for the output files. Data files from nested runs can occupy an additional 400 Mbytes." ".....Please, specify info, such as: The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining the model can be provided by the contact person." "XXX XXX .....PLEASE, FILL IN THIS FIELD WITH FULL REFERENCES." "XXX XXX .....PLEASE, FILL IN THIS FIELD WITH FULL REFERENCES." 3/29/2011 18:17:45 119 "SYMOS97" "Jiri Bubnik" "bubnik@chmi.cz" "Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support" "Concentrations, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "PC, Workstation" "SYMOS97" "SYMOS97 (System for Modelling of Stationary Sources)" "Version 1.0" "Czech Hydrometeorological Institute" "Jiri Bubnik, Jan Macoun" "
    Czech Hydrometeorological Institute
    Dpt. of Air Quality Protection
    Na Sabatce 17
    CZ-146 03 Prague 4
    Czech Republic" "+420 2 44032409, (2410)" "+420 2 44032468" "macoun@chmi.cz" "http://www.chmi.cz/uoco/indexe.html" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Regulatory purposes and compliance for industrial sources (used by Environment Agencies in the Czech Republic and by industry), policy support (Ministry of Environment, local authorities)" "Gaussian plume model." "SYMOS97 is model for calculations of dispersion of passive or buoyant, continuos release from single or multiple sources which may be point, area or line sources. The model uses stability classification by Bubnik and Koldovsky (Czech national stability scheme based on routine observations from synoptic meteorological stations 5 classes: 3 stabil, 1 neutral, 1 labil).
    The model system capabilities:
    concentration distributions (Gaussian dispersion)
    calculation of averages of mean year concentration, maximal half-hour concentration, deposition of particulate
    estimates of concentration under inversion in valleys
    influence of complex terrain effects
    dispersion from cooling towers" "Calm wind conditions (special module can be used in valleys, case studies)." "The model is designed to work with input and output data in the form of 1 hour or 30 minute averages (Gaussian plume model)." "Gaussian plume model grid distance 50 m (minimum)" "Gaussian plume model (mixing depth can be taken into account)" "Deposition term is function of decay coefficient" "Gaussian plume model" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Source location, emission rate, volume flow rate, temperature of stack emissions and height geometry of source" "Source location, emission rate, volume flow rate, temperature of stack emissions and height geometry of source" "Terrain height" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Mean year concentration of pollutants, maximal half-hour concentration, deposition of particulate, duration of episodes with concentration exceeded some limits, contribution of individual sources to total concentration" "Windows (95, NT) user interface, link to a Geographical Information System (GIS ArcView, MapInfo)." "Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and other environmental agencies, Ministry of Environment, local authorities, industry" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2, manuals available only in Czech (at present)" "Level 3: Model validated against air pollution measurements in Czech Republic, some validations against standard datasets." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Sufficient experience on a Pentium PC and on SunSparc workstation. Code will adapted for NEC SX4" "For the typical case of a 25x25 grid size and 300 sources the calculation needs 6 hours on PC (Windows 95) and 1 hour 30 minutes on SunSparc (Ultra 1) workstation" "Full installation needs about 20 Mbytes of hard disk space. Data files (mainly topography) can occupy an additional 100 Mbytes." "Available commercially. Contact persons see above" "Bubnik J, Keder J., Macoun J., Manak J. (1998) SYMOS97 Model Description, CHMI, Prague (only in Czech at present time) Srnensky R., SYMOS97 User Guide, Idea-Envi, 1998, Prague" 3/29/2011 18:17:46 120 "TAPM" "Bill Physick" "CSIRO Atmospheric Research" "bill.physick@csiro.au" "61 3 9239 4400" "61 3 9239 4444" "CSIRO Atmospheric Research PB 1 Aspendale Victoria 3195 Australia" "Tropospheric ozone, Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Plume-rise models, Eulerian models, Lagrangian models, Chemical models, Stochastic models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC" "TAPM" "The Air Pollution Model" "Version 4.0" "December 2009" "CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research" "Dr Peter Hurley" "CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research
    PMB 1
    Aspendale
    Victoria 3195
    Australia" "61 3 9239 4400" "61 3 9239 4444" "peter.hurley@csiro.au" "http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm/" "mary.edwards@csiro.au" "Basic" "Simulation of meteorological fields, including in complex terrain. Dispersion of reactive and non-reactive pollutants from point, line, volume and area sources over local, urban and regional scales. Urban Airshed Modelling. Environmental Impact Assessments. " "A three-dimensional prognostic meteorological and chemical transport integrated modelling system, with a Lagrangian particle model option for point source dispersion." "TAPM is a user-friendly PC-based model driven by a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows selection of all model input and configuration options (including access to supplied databases of surface information and synoptic analyses). TAPM predicts space- and time-varying local-scale meteorology and turbulence that is used to disperse and react air pollutants emitted from various sources, and predict ground-level pollution concentration. Wind data can be assimilated in a simulation. Model output can be processed through the GUI, including visualization, extraction of time-series, static plots, and summary statistics, using common packages. The model can be run in a nested mode, with its outermost domain nested in synoptic analyses/progoses. TAPM is suitable for impact distances ranging from hundreds of metres to a few hundred kilometres. It is applicable to air quality studies that involve simple to very rugged terrain, time-varying conditions such as the diurnal cycle, and the interaction of complex wind flows such as sea breezes and drainage winds. The system is readily applied to emissions from industrial facilities such as power stations, refinery complexes and smelters, as well as urban sources such as motor vehicles. TAPM also contains an algorithm to take account of the effect of building wakes on plume rise and dispersion. Concentration mean and variance can be calculated by the model." "The horizontal model domain size should be restricted in size to less than about 1500 km x 1500 km. The reasons for this restriction are that the model horizontal coordinate system neglect the curvature of the Earth. No large-scale cloud-convection parameterisation is included in the model. TAPM cannot be used to accurately represent deep atmospheric circulations or extreme weather events (e.g. thunderstorms, cyclones/hurricanes). The Generic Reaction Set (GRS) photochemistry option in the model may not be suitable for examining small perturbations in emissions inventories, particularly in VOC emissions, due to the highly lumped approach taken for VOCs in this mechanism. " "Timesteps set by model according to grid size (typically 5 to 300 seconds). Simulations from 1 day to years." "Grid spacing 0.3 km to 30 km. Domain size up to 1500 km." "10m at ground. Typically 10 levels below a height of 1000 m." "Semi-Lagrangian" "Prognostic TKE - eddy dissipation rate, with counter-gradient fluxes. Cloud microphysics: water vapour, cloud water/ice, rain, snow. Gradual plume-rise in Lagrangian Mode. Building wake effects. " "Dry and wet deposition. Surface: Soil, Vegetation, Urban, and energy balance. " "Tracers with optional first-order decay. Photochemistry uses a highly condensed scheme for smog formation (O3, NO2, NO, SO2, PM2.5, PM10, and Rsmog (for VOCs)). Dust Mode (PM2.5, PM10, PM20, PM30). See Technical Report on website for further details. " "Finite differencing for meteorological and concentration equations. No grid stagger and second-order centred spatial differencing is used, with first-order differencing with a semi-implicit approach used for the time terms. Time-split approach whereby gravity-wave terms are solved on a smaller timestep than other terms. Plume-rise equations are solved using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta method with a timestep of 1 second. See Technical Report on website for further details." "Default input data is supplied with the model (e.g. terrain, land use, soil, LAI, synoptic analyses), but user-defined data can also be input into the model. Pollution emissions data and building wake data need to be supplied by the user. Optionally, Wind data and pollutant background data and can also be assimilated by the model. " "Emission rates for all sources, and stack height, radius, temperature and exit velocity for point sources. For vehicles, can specify rates separately for petrol, diesel and LPG vehicles, at 25C. TAPM applies temperature correction throughout a simulation. Wood heater emissions are specified at 10C and biogenics at 30C and 1000 units PAR. TAPM applies correction throughout a simulation." "Meteorological variables are predicted by the model. Real wind data can be assimilated throughout a simulation." "The GUI uses the TAPM-supplied terrain height file and land-use file, both on an approximately 1-km spaced grid, to set up the grids for each nest. User-defined databases can be included." "Initial fields for each nest are interpolated from TAPM-supplied synoptic global analyses (at 6-hourly intervals). Alternatively users can supply their own synoptic analyses. When setting up a simulation, it is recommended that at least one model spin-up day be allowed for, to enable the model variables to adjust to the terrain." "On the outermost grid, boundary values are interpolated in time and space from the 6-hourly synoptic analyses. Inner nests obtain their boundary conditions from the previous nest (one-way nesting)." "Real wind data can be assimilated throughout a simulation." "All meteorological input for the user-region supplied with the model. This includes terrain and land-use data. Latitude and longitude of centre of nested grids. Grid spacings and number of gridpoints in horizontal and vertical directions." "Meteorology: Hourly time series at any level for wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, surface fluxes, as well as PBL height and micro-meteorological variables for any grid point. Vertical profile of hourly time series at any grid point (visually displayed) for wind, temperature, relative and specific humidity and TKE. Horizontal contours of the above variables at any hour. Concentrations: Time series of ground-level concentrations of pollutants averaged over time intervals from 1 hour to 24 hours are available at any gridpoint. Percentiles are calculated. Horizontal contours of maximum concentration and various percentile concentrations over the simulation period are calculated and displayed." "Graphical User Interface supplied with model to set up and to post-process simulations. Runs on PC under Windows XP. Graphical Interface System supplied with model to visualize model results." "TAPM is widely used in the Australian and New Zealand environmental consulting communities, government departments and Universities. It is approved for regulatory use by various state EPAs. TAPM is also used in a number of other countries around the world. " "Urban" "Prediction of high-resolution (0.25km spacing) SF6 for Kincaid and Indianapolis International Verification Datasets - See: Luhar A. and Hurley P. (2003). Evaluation of TAPM, a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model, using urban and rural point-source data, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2795-2810." "Extreme events" "Prediction of high-resolution (0.25km spacing) SF6 for Kincaid and Indianapolis International Verification Datasets - See: Luhar A. and Hurley P. (2003). Evaluation of TAPM, a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model, using urban and rural point-source data, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2795-2810." "Extreme events" "Prediction of high-resolution (0.25km spacing) SF6 for Kincaid and Indianapolis International Verification Datasets - See: Luhar A. and Hurley P. (2003). Evaluation of TAPM, a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model, using urban and rural point-source data, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2795-2810." "Technical Papers and Manual available on website (http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm/). Hurley P., Physick W. and Luhar A. (2005). TAPM A practical approach to prognostic meteorological and air pollution modelling, Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 737-752." "On website (http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm/), see TAPM V4 Technical Paper Part 2 for validation studies. Amongst others, successful validations have been carried out against the Indianapolis and Kincaid standard data sets (Luhar and Hurley, 2002, 2003), SO2 data from the Kwinana coastal industrial complex (Hurley et al., 2001), the Perth (NO2 and O3) and Melbourne (NOx,NO2,O3 and PM10) EPA network stations (Physick et al. 2002a, Hurley 2000, Hurley et al., 2003), and meteorological, NOx and ozone data at a coastal location (Physick et al. 2002b). " "Recent model intercomparison papers include: - Hurley P. and Luhar A. (2005). An evaluation and inter-comparison of AUSPLUME, CALPUFF and TAPM. Part I: The Kincaid and Indianapolis field datasets, Clean Air, 391, 39-45. - Hurley P., Hill J., and Blockley A. (2005). An evaluation and inter-comparison of AUSPLUME, CALPUFF and TAPM. Part II: Anglesea and Kwinana annual datasets, Clean Air, 391, 46-51. - Hurley P. (2006). An evaluation and inter-comparison of AUSPLUME, AERMOD and TAPM for seven field datasets, Clean Air, 401, 45-50." "Does TAPM need any local data? No, it predicts the meteorology (although any data available can be assimilated) and terrain and landuse data are supplied. Gridded synoptic analyses are also supplied." "TAPM runs on a standard desktop PC under Windows." "Model run-time varies from minutes to hours for cases studies, or from hours to days for an annual simulation, depending on grid configuration used. " "An annual simulation needs about 10 Gb, although some files can be deleted when the simulation is completed." "TAPM (executable code), GUI, GIS and associated terrain, landuse and synoptic analysis data sets for region of interest are available for AUD$5000. See TAPM web site fro a pricelist (www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm)." "Refer to documentation at www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm." " Hurley P. (2000). Verification of TAPM meteorological predictions in the Melbourne region for a winter and summer month. Aust. Met. Mag., 49, 97-107. Hurley P., Blockley A., and Rayner K. (2001). Verification of a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model for year-long predictions in the Kwinana region of Western Australia. Atmos. Environ., 35, 1871-1880. Hurley P., Manins P., Lee S., Boyle R., Ng Y. and Dewundege P. (2003). Year-long, hi-resolution, urban airshed modelling: Verification of TAPM predictions of smog and particles in Melbourne, Australia, Atmos. Environ.,37, 1899-1910. Luhar A. and Hurley P. (2002). Comparison of meteorological and dispersion predictions obtained using TAPM with the Indianapolis (urban), Kincaid (rural) and Kwinana (coastal) field data sets, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October. Luhar A. and Hurley P. (2003). Evaluation of TAPM, a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model, using urban and rural point-source data, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2795-2810. Physick, W.L., Cope, M.E. and Stuart, A. (2002a). Evaluation of a population-surrogate emissions inventory for Perth using TAPM, Proceedings of the 16th International Clean Air and Environment Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, August 2002. Hurley P., Physick W. and Luhar A. (2005). TAPM A practical approach to prognostic meteorological and air pollution modelling, Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 737-752. Hurley P. and Luhar A. (2005). An evaluation and inter-comparison of AUSPLUME, CALPUFF and TAPM. Part I: The Kincaid and Indianapolis field datasets, Clean Air, 391, 39-45. Hurley P., Hill J., and Blockley A. (2005). An evaluation and inter-comparison of AUSPLUME, CALPUFF and TAPM. Part II: Anglesea and Kwinana annual datasets, Clean Air, 391, 46-51. Hurley P. (2005). The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) Version 3. Part 1: Technical description. CSIRO Atmospheric Research Technical Paper No. 71. 54 pp. Hurley P., Physick W., Luhar A. and Edwards M. (2005). The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) Version 3. Part 2: Summary of some verification studies. CSIRO Atmospheric Research Technical Paper No. 72. 36 pp. Zawar-Reza P., Sturman A., and Hurley P. (2005). Prognostic urban-scale air pollution modelling in Australia and New Zealand A review, Clean Air, 392, 41-45. Hurley P., Edwards M., Physick W. and Luhar A. (2005). TAPM V3 Model description and Verification, Clean Air, 394, 32-36. McGibbony S., Siems S., Physick W. and Hurley P. (2005). The sensitivity of simulations of air pollution events at Cape Grim to the modelled meteorology, Aust. Met. Mag., 54, 321-331. Hurley P. (2006). An evaluation and inter-comparison of AUSPLUME, AERMOD and TAPM for seven field datasets, Clean Air, 401, 45-50." 3/29/2011 18:17:48 121 "UDM-FMI" "Ari Karppinen - Jari Harkonen" "Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Air Quality, Dispersion Modelling Group" "ari.karppinen@fmi.fi, Jari.Harkonen@fmi.fi" "Erik Palminen Aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki, Finland" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Benzene, PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models, Semi-empirical models, Chemical models" "1 to 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "UDM-FMI" "UDM-FMI, Urban Dispersion Modelling System - Finnish Meteorological Institute" "UDM-FMI v. 97, Final" "October 2006" "Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)" "Ari Karppinen" "
    Finnish Meteorological Institute
    Air Quality Research
    P.O.Box 503
    00101 HELSINKI
    Finland" "+358 9 1929 1" "+358 9 1929 5403" "Ari.Karppinen@fmi.fi" "http://www.fmi.fi/" "Provided by contact person." "Basic" "The dispersion part of UDM-FMI is an integrated Gaussian urban scale model. The model is commonly applied for regulatory purposes. The model requires information on emissions and meteorological parameters on an hourly basis. It computes time series of concentrations and related statistics at user-specified receptor points." "Multiple source Gaussian plume model, combined with a meteorological pre-processing model based on atmospheric boundary layer scaling." "The atmospheric dispersion module is an integrated urban scale model, taking into account of all source categories (point, line, area and volume sources). It includes a treatment of chemical transformation (for NO2), wet and and dry deposition (for SO2), plume rise (extended Briggs formulation), downwash phenomena and dispersion of inert particles.
    The Gaussian dispersion parameters are functions of boundary layer variables, and their dependence on source height is also taken into account. The model includes the influence of a finite mixing height on the plume dispersion. The system computes statistical concentration parameters from the hourly time series, which can directly be compared to air quality guidelines and limit values.
    The modelling system evaluates the time variation of the regional background concentrations. The regional background concentrations are based on the data from a monitoring station situated outside the urban area (f.ex. for the Helsinki metropolitan area calculations we use Luukki monitoring station, situated in the North-Eastern part of the Helsinki metropolitan area) In order to filter out temporally high episodic concentrations, originating from local sources, we computed diurnal hourly average concentrations for each month. This procedure produced a matrix of 12 times 24 regional background concentration values, for each pollutant and each measurement station.
    If there is no suitable monitoring station available we use concentration values from a regional dispersion model (EMEP) instead of the backround measurement data." "The concentration distributions are assumed to be Gaussian in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The model does not allow for the influence on dispersion of individual buildings and obstacles, or inhomogeneous terrain. The treatment for particle dispersion takes into account only inert particles settling due to gravity." "1 hour" "Domain dimension: up to 50 *50 km, adjustable calculation grid." "Domain dimension: mixing height, grid size not explicitly limited." "Gaussian plume." "Atmospheric boundary layer scaling theory." "Resistance model for gases and particles." "Chemical transformation of nitrogen oxides is modelled by using two semi-empirical regression models for the NO2/NOx ratio, one applied for mobile sources and another for stationary sources." "Analytical solution." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Required parameters include: the pollutant species, the hourly emission time-series, the effective source height and geometry (the height and width of the source building) and the geographical coordinates of the sources" "Meteorological measurements are processed by a pre-processor (MPP-FMI); the input includes three-hourly data from synoptic stations and twice-daily vertical profiles (of temperature, wind and humidity) from a radiosonde station." "Specified as terrain heights at receptor locations." "Background concentrations from regional model." "Not applicable." "Background data can be assimilated from measurements." "Emissions, meteorology and topography. Receptor locations. Information on the canopy resistance." "The model output consists of hourly concentrations and deposition at each grid point." "The model has a unix-based non-GUI user interface." "Users of UDM-FMI should be scientists or engineers, with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences." "Urban" "
    NOx concentrations at Helsinki area.
    (Karppinen et al, 2000ab, Kousa et al, 2001)" "
    NOx concentrations at Helsinki area.
    (Karppinen et al, 2000ab, Kousa et al, 2001)" "
    NOx concentrations at Helsinki area.
    (Karppinen et al, 2000ab, Kousa et al, 2001)" "Level 3. The model is documented in publicly available reports and publication series (for instance, Karppinen et al, 1998a)." "Level 4. The model predictions have been compared with the Kincaid, Copenhagen and Lillestrom data (Olesen, 1995). The modelling system has also been tested extensively against results from urban measurement networks (Karppinen et al., 2000a,b and Kousa et al, 2001)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The model has been written in Fortran 77. A parallel processor version of the program has been ported for the Cray C-97 and SGI Altix 3700 BX2(linux) supercomputers. The program can also be executed (with/without the parallel processor routines) in any mainframe or workstation computer." "The computation time depends on the number of sources, the number of receptor points and the extent of the emission and meteorological time series. The computational times vary from seconds to a couple of tens of hours (for very extensive applications) CPU - time on unix mainframe computer (Cedar/CSC)." "Storage requirements for the results: (number of components)*(number of receptor-grid points)*(length of simulation in hours) * (X) bytes. Typical value for the coefficient X = 4 ." "The model is not currently in public domain." "Karppinen, A., Kukkonen, J., Nordlund, G., Rantakrans, E., and Valkama, I., 1998. A dispersion modelling system for urban air pollution. Finnish Meteorological Institute, Publications on Air Quality. Helsinki, 50 p. Karppinen, A, J. Kukkonen, T. Elolähde, M. Konttinen, T. Koskentalo and E. Rantakrans, 2000. A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution, Model description and applications in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Atmos. Environ. 34-22, pp 3723-3733. Karppinen, A, J. Kukkonen, T. Elolähde, M. Konttinen and T. Koskentalo, 2000. A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution, Comparison of model predictions with the data of an urban measurement network. Atmos. Environ. 34-22, pp 3735-3743. Karppinen, A., 2001. Meteorological pre-processing and atmospheric dispersion modelling of urban air quality and applications in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Finnish Meteorological Institute, Contributions No. 33, ISBN 951-697-552-6, University Press, Helsinki, 94 p. Kousa, A., J. Kukkonen, A. Karppinen, P. Aarnio, T. Koskentalo, 2001. Statistical and diagnostic evaluation of a new-generation urban dispersion modelling system against an extensive dataset in the Helsinki Area. Atmos. Environ., Vol 35/27, pp 4617-4628. Kukkonen, J., Harkonen, J., Valkonen, E., Karppinen, A. and Rantakrans, E., 1997. Regulatory dispersion modelling in Finland. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 8., Nos. 3-6, p. 782-788. Olesen, H.R., 1995. Datasets and protocol for model validation. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 5, Nos. 4-5, pp. 693-701." 3/29/2011 18:17:49 122 "VADIS" "Carlos Borrego " "cborrego@ua.pt" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Carbon monoxide (CO), PM2.5 and PM10, Dense" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Lagrangian models" "1 to 24 hours" "PC, Workstation" "VADIS" "Pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere under variable wind conditions" "v. 2009" "September 2009" "University of Aveiro" "Professor Carlos Borrego" "Dep. Environment and Planning University of Aveiro PT-3810-193 AVEIRO
    Portugal" "+351 234 400 800" "+351 234 382 876" "cborrego@ua.pt" "http://www.dao.ua.pt/gemac" "Ana Margarida Costa e-mail: amcosta@ua.pt Jorge Humberto Amorim e-mail: amorim@ua.pt" "Advanced" "There are no general remarks." "Simulation of flow and air pollutants dispersion (inert gases, particle matter and heavy gases) near obstacles (buildings and trees) in urban areas. Simulation of the vegetative canopy effects on wind flow and dispersion." "VADIS is a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) type with a Lagrangian module for pollutants dispersion. " "VADIS functioning is based on two modules, FLOW and DISPER. In the first module a k-e turbulence model calculates the 3D wind field, the turbulent viscosity, the pressure, the TKE (Turbulent Kinetic Energy) and the temperature fields affected by a set of obstacles defined in a Cartesian grid. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is made through the SIMPLE solver. The DISPER module uses the data provided by the previous module, namely the wind field, and estimates the 3D concentration field, based on the Lagrangian approach. This methodology assumes that the pollutant spatial and temporal dispersion is conveniently represented by a large number of numerical particles released in the flow." "- No topography - No humidity - No roughness - No chemistry - No radiation - No clouds - No nesting - Uses cartesian grid " "Depends on available meteorological data and domain cell sizes. Typical time step: 0.1 to 5 seconds Typical simulated time period: minutes to several hours" "Typically 0.5 to 5 m, but highly dependent on machine performance." "Typically 0.5 to 5 m, but highly dependent on machine performance." "The model does not use advection." "k-e turbulence scheme. This scheme corresponds to a one-and-a-half order closure that retains the prognostic equations for the zero-order statistics such as mean wind, temperature, humidity and the variances of the referred variables. The TKE equation is used in place of the velocity variance equations. A highly-parameterized prognostic equation for the dissipation rate is included in addition to the equation for TKE." "The model does not use deposition." "The model does not use chemistry." "Wind field: SIMPLE solver, tri-diagonal matrix algorithm;
    Dispersion field: Lagrangian approach using the Langevin equation. This methodology assumes that the spatial and temporal dispersion of the mass of pollutant emitted is conveniently represented by a large number of numerical particles randomly released in the flow. In each time step, each particle displacement is calculated by the sum of a deterministic component obtained from the velocity field, the stochastic component related with the local turbulence translated by the Langevin stochastic theory and the influence of the fluctuation forces, represented by the Langevin equation." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Multiple point, line, area, volume sources with different positions, dimensions and emission rates; sources 3D extreme coordinates." "Wind velocity and direction at a reference height, wind velocity profile, air temperature, turbulence at the entrance of the domain." "The model is applicable for flat terrain." "The model does not use Initial conditions." "Wind velocity and direction and background pollutant concentrations at the entrance of the domain." "The model does not use Data assimilation options." "Volumetry: Buildings and trees 3D extreme coordinates; angle between obstacle and the grid; obstacle temperature. " "3D fields of wind, pressure, temperature, turbulence and viscosity; Numerical particles 3D position and concentration fields. " "VADIS model interface for a friendly user access is available only for research activities." "The model is being used by scientific research groups in universities." "Urban" "1) Project title
    SUTRA Project
    2) Relevant references
    BORREGO, C.; TCHEPEL, O.; COSTA, A.M.; AMORIM, J.H. and MIRANDA, A.I. Emission and dispersion modelling of Lisbon air quality at local scale. Atmospheric Environment: Elsevier, Vol. 37 (2003), p. 5197-5205.
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M.; TCHEPEL, O.; AMORIM, J.H. and MARTINS, H. - Air Quality Modelling in European Cities: a local scale perspective. In Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 8th, Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October 2002, - Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes Proceedings, eds. Ekaterina Batchvarova and Dimiter Syrakov, pp.244-248.
    Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Salmim, L; Amorim, J.H.; Costa, A.M. and Janko, J., 2004. Integrated modelling of road traffic emissions: application to Lisbon air quality management. Cybernetics and Systems: An International journal. Taylor & Francis, Vol. 35, Numbers 5-6, p. 535-548.
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M. and AMORIM, J.H. - VADIS Street Canyon Model: Methodology description. Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro: Setembro 2002, AMB-QA-09/02. Deliverable D04.3 of SUTRA Project (EVK4-CT-1999-00013).
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M. and AMORIM, J.H. - VADIS Street Canyon Model: Operational Prototype. Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro: Setembro 2002, AMB-QA-10/02. Deliverable D04.4 of SUTRA Project (EVK4-CT-1999-00013).
    3) Projects short description
    The primary objective of SUTRA was to develop a consistent and comprehensive approach and planning methodology for the analysis of urban transportation problems, that helps to design strategies for sustainable cities. This included an integration of socio-economic, environmental and technological concepts including the development, integration, and demonstration of tools and methodologies to improve forecasting, assessment and policy level decision support. VADIS model was one of the numerical tools used in the above mentioned project. The model was applied to the Lisbon city centre in order to evaluate the air pollution associated to road traffic. The study domain covers an area of 450 m x 450 m and is characterised by strictly perpendicular streets including several one-way roads and a pedestrian zone. During the simulation period, wind direction was mainly from Northwest, with velocities varying between 1 m s-1 and 6 m s-1. Background concentrations entering the model domain were based on CO average concentrations measured at an urban monitoring station that is not directly influenced by the emission sources. Hourly simulation were conducted with VADIS to obtain CO concentration levels for a typical summer day, which was chosen using a statistical meteorological approach. Several traffic management scenarios were developed and evaluated using the TREM (Transport Emission model for Line Sources) and VADIS results." "Urban" "1) Project title
    SUTRA Project
    2) Relevant references
    BORREGO, C.; TCHEPEL, O.; COSTA, A.M.; AMORIM, J.H. and MIRANDA, A.I. Emission and dispersion modelling of Lisbon air quality at local scale. Atmospheric Environment: Elsevier, Vol. 37 (2003), p. 5197-5205.
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M.; TCHEPEL, O.; AMORIM, J.H. and MARTINS, H. - Air Quality Modelling in European Cities: a local scale perspective. In Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 8th, Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October 2002, - Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes Proceedings, eds. Ekaterina Batchvarova and Dimiter Syrakov, pp.244-248.
    Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Salmim, L; Amorim, J.H.; Costa, A.M. and Janko, J., 2004. Integrated modelling of road traffic emissions: application to Lisbon air quality management. Cybernetics and Systems: An International journal. Taylor & Francis, Vol. 35, Numbers 5-6, p. 535-548.
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M. and AMORIM, J.H. - VADIS Street Canyon Model: Methodology description. Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro: Setembro 2002, AMB-QA-09/02. Deliverable D04.3 of SUTRA Project (EVK4-CT-1999-00013).
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M. and AMORIM, J.H. - VADIS Street Canyon Model: Operational Prototype. Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro: Setembro 2002, AMB-QA-10/02. Deliverable D04.4 of SUTRA Project (EVK4-CT-1999-00013).
    3) Projects short description
    The primary objective of SUTRA was to develop a consistent and comprehensive approach and planning methodology for the analysis of urban transportation problems, that helps to design strategies for sustainable cities. This included an integration of socio-economic, environmental and technological concepts including the development, integration, and demonstration of tools and methodologies to improve forecasting, assessment and policy level decision support. VADIS model was one of the numerical tools used in the above mentioned project. The model was applied to the Lisbon city centre in order to evaluate the air pollution associated to road traffic. The study domain covers an area of 450 m x 450 m and is characterised by strictly perpendicular streets including several one-way roads and a pedestrian zone. During the simulation period, wind direction was mainly from Northwest, with velocities varying between 1 m s-1 and 6 m s-1. Background concentrations entering the model domain were based on CO average concentrations measured at an urban monitoring station that is not directly influenced by the emission sources. Hourly simulation were conducted with VADIS to obtain CO concentration levels for a typical summer day, which was chosen using a statistical meteorological approach. Several traffic management scenarios were developed and evaluated using the TREM (Transport Emission model for Line Sources) and VADIS results." "Urban" "1) Project title
    SUTRA Project
    2) Relevant references
    BORREGO, C.; TCHEPEL, O.; COSTA, A.M.; AMORIM, J.H. and MIRANDA, A.I. Emission and dispersion modelling of Lisbon air quality at local scale. Atmospheric Environment: Elsevier, Vol. 37 (2003), p. 5197-5205.
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M.; TCHEPEL, O.; AMORIM, J.H. and MARTINS, H. - Air Quality Modelling in European Cities: a local scale perspective. In Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 8th, Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October 2002, - Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes Proceedings, eds. Ekaterina Batchvarova and Dimiter Syrakov, pp.244-248.
    Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Salmim, L; Amorim, J.H.; Costa, A.M. and Janko, J., 2004. Integrated modelling of road traffic emissions: application to Lisbon air quality management. Cybernetics and Systems: An International journal. Taylor & Francis, Vol. 35, Numbers 5-6, p. 535-548.
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M. and AMORIM, J.H. - VADIS Street Canyon Model: Methodology description. Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro: Setembro 2002, AMB-QA-09/02. Deliverable D04.3 of SUTRA Project (EVK4-CT-1999-00013).
    BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M. and AMORIM, J.H. - VADIS Street Canyon Model: Operational Prototype. Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro: Setembro 2002, AMB-QA-10/02. Deliverable D04.4 of SUTRA Project (EVK4-CT-1999-00013).
    3) Projects short description
    The primary objective of SUTRA was to develop a consistent and comprehensive approach and planning methodology for the analysis of urban transportation problems, that helps to design strategies for sustainable cities. This included an integration of socio-economic, environmental and technological concepts including the development, integration, and demonstration of tools and methodologies to improve forecasting, assessment and policy level decision support. VADIS model was one of the numerical tools used in the above mentioned project. The model was applied to the Lisbon city centre in order to evaluate the air pollution associated to road traffic. The study domain covers an area of 450 m x 450 m and is characterised by strictly perpendicular streets including several one-way roads and a pedestrian zone. During the simulation period, wind direction was mainly from Northwest, with velocities varying between 1 m s-1 and 6 m s-1. Background concentrations entering the model domain were based on CO average concentrations measured at an urban monitoring station that is not directly influenced by the emission sources. Hourly simulation were conducted with VADIS to obtain CO concentration levels for a typical summer day, which was chosen using a statistical meteorological approach. Several traffic management scenarios were developed and evaluated using the TREM (Transport Emission model for Line Sources) and VADIS results." "PhD thesis written in Portuguese with VADIS description:
    Martins, JM, 1998, Dispersão de poluentes na atmosfera em condições de vento fraco, PhD thesis, Dep. Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro.

    Master dissertation written in Portuguese with model application:
    COSTA, A.M. Avaliação da Qualidade do Ar ao Nível Local: contributo para o desenvolvimento urbano sustentável. Dissertação apresentada à Universidade de Aveiro para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Poluição Atmosférica, Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal. Fevereiro 2003.

    SUTRA European Project (EVK4-CT-1999-00013) Deliverables:
    D04.3 VADIS Street Canyon Model: Methodology Description
    D04.4 VADIS Operational Street Canyon Model (operational prototype)." "A model validation exercise was conducted in the scope of COST Action 732 (http://www.mi.uni-hamburg.de/Home.484.0.html). Franke, J.; Hellsten, A.; Schlünzen, H.; Carissimo, B.; Baklanov, A.; Barmpas, P.; Bartzis, J.; Batchvarova, E.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Berkowicz, R.; Borrego, C.; Britter, R.; Brzozowski, K.; Burzynski, J.; Costa, A.M., et al., 2007. Best practice guideline for the CFD simulation of flows in the urban environment. COST Action 732: Quality assurance and improvement of microscale meteorological models. COST Office Brussels, ISBN 3-00-018312-4, 51 pp. Britter, R.; Schatzmann, M.; Baklanov, A.; Barmpas, P.; Bartzis, J.; Batchvarova, E.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Berkowicz, R.; Borrego, C.; Brzozowski, K.; Burzynski, J.; Costa, A.M.; Carissimo, B.; Dimitrova, R.; Franke, J., et al., 2007. Background and justification document to support the model evaluation guidance and protocol. COST Action 732: Quality assurance and improvement of microscale meteorological models. COST Office Brussels, ISBN 3-00-018312-4, 85 pp. Britter, R.; Schatzmann, M.; Baklanov, A.; Barmpas, P.; Bartzis, J.; Batchvarova, E.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Berkowicz, R.; Borrego, C.; Brzozowski, K.; Burzynski, J.; Costa, A.M.; Carissimo, B.; Dimitrova, R.; Franke, J., et al., 2007. Model Evaluation Guidance and Protocol Document. COST Action 732: Quality assurance and improvement of microscale meteorological models. COST Office Brussels, ISBN 3-00-018312-4, 27 pp. " "1. Wind flow simulations were performed by VADIS and compared with CHENSI model under ATREUS network.
    1) Project title
    Advanced Tools for Rational Energy Use towards Sustainability with emphasis on microclimatic issues in urban applications (ATREUS) network (http://aix.meng.auth.gr/atreus/).
    2) Relevant references
    S. Vardoulakis et al. Intercomparison of CFD models within ATREUS: Single building configuration, presented to the ERCOFTAC Meeting on Urban Scale CFD, Nottingham (UK), 9-10 September 2004.
    K. Richards et al. A wind tunnel investigation of thermal effects within the vicinity of a single block building with leeward wall heating, accepted to the ERCOFTAC Meeting on Urban Scale CFD, Nottingham (UK), 9-10 September 2004.
    S. Vardoulakis, R. Dimitrova, K. Richards, D. Hamlyn, G. Camilleri, M. Weeks, J-F. Sini, R. Britter, C. Borrego, M. Schatzmann, N. Moussiopoulos, Numerical model inter-comparison for a single block building within ATREUS, accepted for oral presentation at the 10th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion, 17-20 October, 2005, Crete, Greece.
    3) Projects short description
    The project research objectives include:
    • The study of the urban energy budget taking into account the local and microclimatic conditions,
    • Use of the knowledge gathered by latest studies on wind flow modifications by urban structures, their geometry and dimensions,
    • Development of city maps to allow the determination of optimum arrangements of groups of buildings to optimise the exchange processes for an area of the city or for the city as a whole,
    • Study of the flow and turbulence characteristics within a street canyon with special emphasis in the boundary layers of building walls and roofs,
    • Investigation of the thermal effects on flow modification within street canyons with special regard to low wind speed conditions around buildings,
    • Evaluation of the wind field around buildings,
    • Determination of the exploitable RES potential on the urban areas, and
    • Determination of heating and cooling loads of the buildings, and their impact on the urban microclimate.
    4) more details on Model performance
    Both the micro-scale numerical models used (VADIS and CHENSI) were extensively validated against the experimental data for both the isothermal (cold cube) and thermal cases. Both codes made representative predictions of the mean velocity field for the cold cube case but tended to over predict mean turbulent kinetic energy in regions of impingement, a common problem when using RANS codes with variants of the standard k-e turbulence model. In both cases improvements in overall predictions were observed when non-uniform inflow boundary conditions, the same as that recorded in the wind tunnel were applied. With respect to the thermal cases CHENSI generally performed better at predicting the mean temperature field and resulting modifications in the velocity distribution within fair agreement with the experimental data at the model centre-plane. Predictions were further improved through applying a new thermal wall condition, obtained from the experimental data, based on the heat flux at the heated face of the cube. In general VADIS over-predicted the buoyancy force and mean temperature field in the wake of the model. Difficulties with VADIS in applying the thermal conditions to more complex domain meant only CHENSI was further used to make predictions of wind and temperature fields within the more complex Lisbon geometry. The VADIS code encountered difficulties with these simulations primarily due to the recent addition of wall functions into the code. VADIS is an in-house code developed at GEMAC/UA and is always under development. This compounded with limited time meant that this problem with VADIS could not be fully resolved within ATREUS. However work will continue in this area.

    2. Comparisons were made against FLUENT model
    1) Project title
    SUTRA Project
    2) Relevant references
    BORREGO, C.; TCHEPEL, O.; COSTA, A.M.; AMORIM, J.H. and MIRANDA, A.I. Emission and dispersion modelling of Lisbon air quality at local scale. Atmospheric Environment: Elsevier, Vol. 37 (2003), p. 5197-5205.
    3) Projects short description
    The primary objective of SUTRA was to develop a consistent and comprehensive approach and planning methodology for the analysis of urban transportation problems, that helps to design strategies for sustainable cities. This included an integration of socio-economic, environmental and technological concepts including the development, integration, and demonstration of tools and methodologies to improve forecasting, assessment and policy level decision support. VADIS model was one of the numerical tools used in the above mentioned project. The model was applied to the Lisbon city centre in order to evaluate the air pollution associated to road traffic. The study domain covers an area of 450 m x 450 m and is characterised by strictly perpendicular streets including several one-way roads and a pedestrian zone. During the simulation period, wind direction was mainly from Northwest, with velocities varying between 1 m s-1 and 6 m s-1. Background concentrations entering the model domain were based on CO average concentrations measured at an urban monitoring station that is not directly influenced by the emission sources. Hourly simulation were conducted with VADIS to obtain CO concentration levels for a typical summer day, which was chosen using a statistical meteorological approach. Several traffic management scenarios were developed and evaluated using the TREM (Transport Emission model for Line Sources) and VADIS results.
    4) more details on Model performance
    Hourly CO concentrations obtained with VADIS for the Lisbon city centre were compared with concentration values measured by an air quality station located in the study domain and with FLUENT results. There is a good agreement between predicted and measured values between 0 a.m. and 3 p.m. for the simulated day. Moreover, during the time period when model estimations and measurements show some discrepancy, the results obtained with FLUENT and VADIS are very similar, indicating that the trend of both models to underestimate the CO concentrations could be justified by a possible inaccuracy associated with initialisation data. Due to the low CO background concentration (77 µg m-3), the modelling results are not affected by the background values. A quantitative analysis to determine modelling uncertainties has been applied to the estimated CO concentration values. The analysis is based on the definition of maximum deviation of the measured and calculated levels during the considered period. To be compared with modelling quality objectives established by the Directive (200/69/EC), 8-hour average CO values were evaluated. Based on this approach, the average uncertainty of the model prediction for this study corresponds to 15 %, achieving 52 % as a maximum for the 8-hour average period from 1 to 8 p.m.. This value slightly exceeds the 50 % acceptability limit defined by the Directive. " "Cluster 2.33 GHz 4GB RAM" "Extremely dependent on number of computational cells and grid resolution. Typical CPU run time of ~14h for a 30 million cells simulation on a Cluster with 2 processors 2.33 HHz and 4GB of RAM." "Typically around 25 Mb per simulation." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining VADIS can be provided by Prof. Carlos Borrego." "MARTINS J.M. - Study of the atmospheric dispersion of aerosols generated during a fire, Workshop on European Research on Industrial Fires, EUR15340EN, Apeldoorn (1993). BORREGO C., MARTINS J.M. - Simulation of the atmospheric dispersion of gases and aerosols, Final report of the EC Project MISTRAL, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro (1994). MARTINS J.M., BORREGO C. - Simulation of the atmospheric dispersion of gases and aerosols, 2nd Workshop on European Research on Industrial Fires, EUR15967EN, Cadarache (1994). BORREGO C., MARTINS J.M. - Simulation of the atmospheric dispersion of gases and aerosols - Comparison between experiments and numerical models results, MISTRAL 2 - progress report, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro (1995). MARTINS J.M., BORREGO C., HODIN A. AND MEJEAN P. Comparison of real scale, wind tunnel and numerical model results of atmospheric dispersion in the vicinity of a building in 3rd Workshop on European Research on Industrial Fires Proceedings, Roskilde (1996). BORREGO C., MARTINS J.M. - Simulation of the atmospheric dispersion of gases and aerosols - A simple numerical simulation for low wind speed dispersion, MISTRAL 2 - progress report, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro (1996). MARTINS J.M. - Dispersão de poluentes em condições de vento fraco (Air pollutant dispersion in calm wind conditions), PhD Thesis, University of Aveiro (1998). MARTINS J.M. AND BORREGO C. Describing the dispersion of pollutants near buildings under low wind speed conditions: real scale and numerical results in Envirosoft 98 Development and application of computer techniques to environmental studies, WIT, Las Vegas (1998). BORREGO C., MARTINS J.M., PINTO C., AND CARVALHO A. Modelling flow and dispersion around buildings under varying wind direction in Abstracts of 3rd Saturn Workshop, pp. 5, Aveiro (1999). BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; COSTA, A.M.; TCHEPEL, O.; AMORIM, J.H. and MARTINS, H. - Air Quality Modelling in European Cities: a local scale perspective. In Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 8th, Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October 2002, - Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes Proceedings, eds. Ekaterina Batchvarova and Dimiter Syrakov, pp.244-248. Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Costa, A.M.; Amorim, J.H. and Miranda, A.I., 2003. Emission and dispersion modelling of Lisbon air quality at local scale. Atmospheric Environment: Elsevier, Vol. 37, p. 5197-5205. BORREGO, C.; MIRANDA, A.I.; TCHEPEL, O.; COSTA, A.M.; AMORIM, J. and MAGALHÃES, S. Development of an integrated air quality management system for urban areas. In EUROTRAC-2 Symposium 2002, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 11-15 March, 2002: Proceedings EUROTRAC-2 Symposium 2002: Eds. P. Midgley, M. Reuther, Margraf-Verlag, Weikersheim 2002. Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Salmim, L; Amorim, J.H.; Costa, A.M. and Janko, J., 2004. Integrated modelling of road traffic emissions: application to Lisbon air quality management. Cybernetics and Systems: An International journal. Taylor & Francis, Vol. 35, Numbers 5-6, p. 535-548. Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Costa, A.M.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J. and Miranda, A.I., 2006. Traffic-related particulate air pollution exposure in urban areas. Atmospheric Environment: Elsevier, Vol. 40, pp. 7205-7214. COSTA, A.M., MIRANDA, A.I., BORREGO, C. Dispersion modelling of atmospheric contaminants resulting from terrorist attacks and accidental releases in urban areas. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Air, Water and Soil Quality Modelling for Risk and Impact Assessment, Tabakhmela, Georgia, 16-20 September, 2005 Book of Abstracts, pp. 19. " 3/29/2011 18:17:50 123 "WinMISKAM" "Achim Lohmeyer " "Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG" "LOHMEYER_KA@t-online.de, thomas.flassak@lohmeyer.de" "+49 (0) 721 6251021" "+49 (0) 721 6251030" "Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG, An der Rossweid 3, D- 76229 Karlsruhe, (www.lohmeyer.de)" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Benzene, Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Eulerian models" "More than 24 hours" "PC" "WinMISKAM" "WinMISKAM (Mikroskaliges Klima- und Ausbreitungsmodell)" "Version 5.02a (March 2007)" "January 2008" "Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG" "Dr. Th. Flassak and Dr. A. Lohmeyer" "
    Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG
    An der Rossweid 3
    D-76229 Karlsruhe
    GERMANY" "+49 721 62510-0" "+49 721 62510-30" "software(at)lohmeyer.de" "www.lohmeyer.de/Software" "thomas.flassak(at)lohmeyer.de" "Basic" "Calculation of flow field and air quality in built up areas" "Three-dimensional prognostic flow model coupled with an Eulerian dispersion model." "MISKAM consists of a 3-dimensional non hydrostatic flow model and an Eulerian dispersion model. The physical basis are the complete 3-dimensional equations of motion of the flow field and the advection-diffusion equation to determine the concentrations of substances with neutral density. The calculated result is the stationary flow- and pressure-field, diffusion coefficients and the concentration field in an area of typically 800 m x 800 m (200 x 200 cells or more, non equidistant grid). The main application is in built-up areas where neutral atmospheric stratifications are dominant. Input parameters are: Information about the grid, the buildings, the aerodynamic roughness of the areas between the buildings and on the building surfaces as well as position and strength of the sources. Additionally, initial information about the wind direction, the wind speed and the reference height of the wind speed is necessary.
    WinMISKAM adds to the above mentioned MISKAM a statistics module to determine statistical values of concentrations (annual mean and 98-percentile), adds an NO-NO2-conversion model, integrates everything in a user-friendly Windows-Surface which enables digitizing of the buildings from a bitmap, handling of the non-equidistant grid with the mouse, easy gridding of the buildings, tools for the interactive preparation of the input files and graphical features to control the input and output. Additionally needed input information are long-term 3-dimensional statistics of the wind speed and the wind direction and the distribution of the emissions in the course of the week. The calculated results are the concentrations (annual mean values and 98-percentils) of the air pollutants under consideration (incl. NOx and NO2).
    WinMISKAM has an interface to MOBILEV (program to determine traffic induced emissions) and to PROKAS_V (program to determine the concentrations by surrounding streets). The addition of the concentrations determined by PROKAS_V and the concentrations determined by WinMISKAM is done time correlated with the single values in order to assure a correct determination of the 98-percentile.
    WinMISKAM is able to account vegetation areas (trees) and also vertical jets (in order to model plume-rise). An interface for import and export of shape files is implemented too." "WinMISKAM is not applicable in strongly structured terrain, if the area, modeled in WinMISKAM, is too small to take into account features influencing the flow from outside the modeled area when the assumption of neutral atmospheric stratification is not appropriate (incl. areas with valley drain-age flows) when the geometry of the buildings differs significantly from a rectangular grid" "stationary solution" "up to 400 x 400 cells, grid not necessarily equally spaced, minimum grid spacing usually 1 m" "up to 99 cells, grid not necessarily equally spaced, minimum grid spacing near the ground usually 0.6 m" "Upstream (flow model): upstream with optional Smolarkiewicz correction of numerical diffussion (dispersal model)" "E-epsilon-model" "Yes" "NO-NO2-conversion-module" "Flow field: Initial flow field with one dimensional logarithmic profile. Calculation of flow field from 3-dimensional non hydrostatic equations of motion with Boussinesq approximation on staggered grid (Arakawa C). Diffusion coefficients: Either diagnostic model with mixing length or E-epsilon model (solution of prognostic equations for kinetic energy of turbulence and of dissipation of turbulence) Calculation of dispersion: Prognostic solution of the advection - diffusion equation on staggered grid, advection by upstream procedure, optionally with Smolarkiewicz correction. End of calculation: either time limit or stationarity of result" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions of sources in g/s/m² or in each cell with variability during day and week" "Longtime statistics of meteorology if statistics of concentration have to be determined" "No" "Logarithmic wind profile" "Inflow: Logarithmic wind profile and zero concentration Outflow: Zero gradient." "No" "Buildings: 3-dimensional structure of all objects in the investigated area. Gridding is done automatically." "Threedimensional mean concentration distribution. Statistical values of concentrations (usually: yearly average, 98-percentiles, number of exceedences of daily PM10 concentration)" "Graphical Windows user interface" "Approx. 100 implementations in Europe, users are planning authorities, consulting engineers, universities " "Urban" "U-shaped building. Comparison with wind tunnel data. Reference see below: Flassak and Blessing (2009)" "Urban" "U-shaped building. Comparison with wind tunnel data. Reference see below: Flassak and Blessing (2009)" "Urban" "U-shaped building. Comparison with wind tunnel data. Reference see below: Flassak and Blessing (2009)" "Complete documentations available, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals. " "

    " " " "How is stability considerd? In the german guideline VDI 3782 / 8 WinMISKAM is only considered for neutral stratification. How are trees accounted for? There is a validated procedure available to account trees and other vegetation. The parameter leaf area density in [m²/m³] is required." "PC with WINDOWS NT, 2000 or XP." "For the typical case of 200 x 200 x 40 cells and 1 inert pollutants, the simulation of 1 episode needs needs approx. 6 hours of computing time for calculating windfield and approx. 2 hours of computing time for calculating dispersion. (On Pentium 4, 3GHz). Please note that 36 episodes are needed for calculating statistical values." "For the same typical case: 1Gbyte RAM. Disk space: 40 Mbytes needed for the output wind turbulence and concentration files of 1 episode." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining MISKAM can be provided by Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG" "Eichhorn. J. (2008): MISKAM Manual for Version 5. Technical report. Giese-Eichhorn. Environmental meteorological software. Eichhorn, J.(1989): Entwicklung und Anwendung eines dreidimensionalen mikroskaligen Stadtklima-Modells. Dissertation, Universitat Mainz. Eichhorn, J., Schrodin, R. and Zdunkowski, W. (1988): Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of the Urban Climate. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph., Vol. 61, No.3, P.187. " "Schadler, G., Bachlin, W., Lohmeyer, A., van Wees, Tr.(1996): Vergleich und Bewertung derzeit verfugbarer mikroskaliner Stromungs- und Ausbreitungsmodelle. Forschungsbericht FZKA-PEF 138, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 36 40, D-76021 Karlsruhe. M. Balczó, J. Eichhorn (2009): Refined MISKAM simulations of the Mock Urban Setting Test. Proceedings of the XXIII. MicroCAD International Scientific Conference, Miskolc / Hungary, pp. 7-12; ISBN 978-963-661-866-7. K. Czáder, M. Balczó, J. Eichhorn (2009): Modelling of flow and dispersion in a street canyon with vegetation by means of numerical simulation. Proceedings of the XXIII. MicroCAD International Scientific Conference, Miskolc / Hungary, pp. 47-52; ISBN 978-963-661-866-7. H.R. Olesen, R. Berkowicz, M. Ketzel, P. Løfstrøm (2009): Validation of OML, AERMOD/PRIME and MISKAM using the Thompson wind-tunnel dataset for simple stack-building configurations. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Volume 131, Number 1 / April 2009, pp. 73-83. M. Balczó, Ch. Gromke, B. Ruck (2009): Numerical modeling of flow and pollutant dispersion in street canyons with tree planting, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 18, No. 2, April 2009, pp. 197 - 206. R.P. Donnelly, T.J. Lyons, T. Flassak (2009): Evaluation of results of a numerical simulation of dispersion in an idealised urban area for emergency response modelling. Atmospheric Environment Volume 43, Issue 29, September 2009, pp. 4416-4423. T. Flassak, C. Blessing (2009): Vergleich der Modelle MISKAM und AUSTAL2000 am Anwendungsfall eines U-förmigen Gebäudes. Zeitschrift „Immissionsschutz, Heft 4, Dezember 2009." 3/29/2011 18:17:52 124 "PLUME" "Nelly Gromkova" "Geophysical Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences" "gromkova@geophys.bas.bg" "+(359 2) 979 33 23" "+(359 2) 971 3005" "Acad. G. Bonchev St., block 3 1113 Sofia BULGARIA" "Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "PC" "PLUME" "PLUME (Gaussian Plume model)" "one version" "Institute of Geophysics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences" "Nelly Gromkova" "Akad. G. Bonchev, bl. 3,
    1113 Sofia, Bulgaria" "+359 2 9793323" "+359 2 700 226" "gromkova@geophys.bas.bg" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of pollutant dispersion at the local scale" "Gaussian" "PLUME is a conventional Gaussian plume model in more regulatory applications than any other models. The basis of the model is a single simple formula which assumes constant wind speed and a reflection from the ground surface. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters as function of downwind distance and stability and the plume rise equations are taken from ISC2ST model (see the references)." "Gaussian plume model; chemical reactions are not included; the model is not a complex terrain model, but some simple algoritmus to describe disperssion over slightly hilly terrain or building effects are included." "The model is designed to work with input and output data in the form of 1 hour or 30 minute averages." "Gaussian plume model" "Gaussian plume model" "Gaussian plume" "Boundary layer scalling" "Source depletion concept" "???" "Gaussian plume model" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "???" "meteorology input
    - wind speed and direction, ambient temperature, stability class or
    - wind rose or
    -hourly sequential file Y, M, D, H, WS, WD, T, Cld (cloud amount in tenths)" "???" "???" "???" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "There are 3 type of inputs: model input: resolution, open-country or urban conditions, latitude and longitude of the site
    source input: number of sources, their co-ordinates, height and radius of the chimney, temperature of release gases, volumetric flow, emission rate ???" "Concentration field in ASCII format" "Graphical DOS user interface" "The model is developed for routine applications for air quality assessment, regulatory purposes and policy support." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Described in reports (see Reference). The documentation available for the moment is written on Bulgarian only." "Level 2: (US EPA ISC2 model see References)" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "???" "The model can run on any PC with minimum 486 processor" "For 1 point source and 500 grid points it is approximately 1 minute with Pentium 100 MHz." "Full installation needs about 10 MB of HD space." "???" "Users guide for the ISC2 dispersion models, US Environmental Protection Agency, 1992 Briggs, G.A., 1975: Plume Rise Predications. In Lectures on Air Pollution and Environmental Impact Analysis, American Meteorological Society, Boston, Massachusetts. Briggs, G.A., 1971: Discussion on Chimney Plumes in Neutral and Stable Surroundings. Atmos. Environ. 6:507-510. Briggs, G.A., 1969, Plume Rise, USAEC Critical Review Series, TID-25075, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. Turner, D.B., 1970: Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates. PHS Publication No. 999-AP-26. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Air Pollution Control Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio. Atmospheric dispersion in nuclear power plant siting. Safety series N°. 50-SG-S3, IAEA SAFETY GUIDES Elaboration of a method for determination of the parameters of the releasing systems and for calculation of the distribution and the expected pollution concentrations in the surface air layer - Project funded by the Phare program, trough the Bulgarian Ministry for Environment, contract No. 166-1618 - Project reports I&II" 3/29/2011 18:17:53 127 "AirQUIS-EPISODE" "Sam-Erik Walker" "Norwegian Institute for Air Research" "sew@nilu.no" "+47 63 89 80 83" "+47 63 89 80 50" "Instituttveien 18, P.O. Box 100, N-2027 KJELLER, NORWAY" "Tropospheric ozone, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Eulerian models, Lagrangian models, Chemical models" "10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation" "AirQUIS-EPISODE" "AirQUIS-EPISODE" "Version 3.2" "September 2010" "Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU)" "Sam-Erik Walker" "Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU)
    P.O. Box 100
    N-2027 Kjeller, Norway" "+47 63898000" "+47 63898050" "sew@nilu.no" "http://www.nilu.no" "Provided by contact person" "Intermediate" "There are no general remarks." "Simulation of dispersion of inert and photochemical pollutants at urban and local-to-regional scale" "Three-dimensional, combined Eulerian/Lagrangian air quality model" "The AirQUIS-EPISODE model is the main air pollution dispersion model used in the PC-based Air Quality Management and Information System AirQUIS2003 (Bøhler and Sivertsen, 1998), which has been developed at NILU during recent years. The AirQUIS System is part of NILUs support for Air Quality Management (AQM), and is more fully described in http://www.nilu.no/aqm.
    The AirQUIS-EPISODE model is a combined 3D Eulerian and Lagrangian air pollution dispersion model for urban and local-to-regional scale applications (Slørdal, Walker and Solberg, 2003). The model is typically used to calculate air pollution concentrations in cities and urban areas from multiple emission sources such as road traffic, domestic (home) heating and industry.
    The model calculates ground level hourly average concentrations as gridded values (using one or more user defined grids), and in a set of irregularly placed receptor points. The model also calculates hourly dry and wet deposition values for the same geographical locations. Since the output from the model consists of hourly data, it can be used as a basis for calculating long term concentration averages or total deposition values. It also contains a statistical module for calculating the N highest daily or hourly values during the simulation period which can be used for defining percentiles.
    The Eulerian part of the AirQUIS-EPISODE model consists of a numerical solution of the atmospheric (mass) conservation equation of the pollutant species in a three-dimensional Eulerian grid. The Lagrangian part of the model consists of separate subgrid-models for line- and point-sources. The line source model is an integrated Gaussian type of model, while the point source model is a Gaussian segmented plume/puff trajectory model.
    The meteorological data used in AirQUIS-EPISODE is calculated in a separate meteorological preprosessor, which is based on atmospheric boundary layer similarity theory (Gryning, Holtslag, Irwin and Sivertsen, 1987; Bøhler, 1996).
    Calculations of NO2 are based on using photochemical equilibrium between the three fast-cycle compounds NO, NO2 and O3. For more comprehensive photochemical calculations, the model contains a newly developed and simplifed photochemistry scheme for cities and urban areas (Walker, Solberg and Denby, 2003). The scheme is based on the more comprehensive EMEP photochemistry scheme (Anderson-Skold and Simpson, 1999; Simpson, 1993). The new scheme contains 45 compounds and about 70 chemical reactions as compared to the EMEP schemes 70 compounds and about 150 reactions." "The subgrid scale line source model is intended for a relatively flat area, and does not take into account any complex terrain effects. The subgrid scale line and point source models does not take into account any complex photochemistry, except for the fast NO-NO2-O3 cycle." "Time step: 10 - 300 seconds, simulated time period: From hour to years" "Grid size: 100 - 10 000 m, domain dimension: 5 - 500 km" "Cell height: 20 - 500 m (varying with height), total height: up to 2000 m" "Horizontal advection is calculated by the Bott positive definite scheme using 4th degree polynomials. Vertical advection is calculated by using an explicit upstream scheme." "Horizontal diffusion is calculated by using a 2D explicit scheme. Vertical diffusion is calculated based on a simple forward in time, centered in space discretization." "Dry deposition is based on a standard resistance model using aerodynamic, boundary layer and surface resistance Wet deposition is based on a standard wet scavenging model" "A simplified EMEP 45 compounds scheme is available as part of the model (Walker, Solberg and Denby, 2003). The photochemistry reaction equations are formulated using a BDF (Backward Differentiation Formula) form and are solved using a two-step Gauss-Seidel iterative method. An implicit Euler formulation and solver is employed initially and at restarts. A simple scheme for photochemical equilibrium between NO, NO2 and O3 is also included." "Eulerian part
    The atmospheric mass (conservation) equation is solved numerically in three dimensions by using timesplitting. The operator sequence is switched every other timestep to give higher order of accuracy in time. The horizontal advection equation is solved by the Bott positive definite scheme using 4th degree polynomials (Bott, 1989). The horizontal 2D diffusion equation is solved using a simple 2D explicit scheme. Vertical advection is solved by using an explicit upstream scheme. Horizontal diffusion is solved by using a 2D explicit scheme. Vertical diffusion is solved using a simple forward in time, centered in space discretization.
    The vertical component of the wind is generated internally in the model based on the horizontal wind-components and a 3D divergence free condition for the wind field. The transport processes caused by the turbulence (diffusion) are treated in the grid model using a first order mixing length parametrization (first order closure or K-theory). The advection and diffusion equations of the grid model contains a sigma coordinate transform where the grid cells follows the terrain close to the ground, while being more independent of the terrain higher up (stretched vertical coordinate).
    Photochemistry, in combination with dry and wet deposition, is solved using a two-step Gauss-Seidel scheme with the implicit Euler method used initially and at restarts (Walker, Solberg and Denby, 2003).

    Lagrangian part
    The integral of the Gaussian concentration function in the subgrid line-source model is solved by using either the trapezoidal (Romberg) integration method or by using Gaussian quadrature methods. Pollutant mass from the Lagrangian models (for line and point sources) are introduced into the Eulerian part (3D grid) as emissions and/or initial concentrations at regular intervals of time depending on specific criteria. The combined Eulerian-Lagrangian model is mass consistent." "Emissions data are provided by the AirQUIS AQMS system which has been validated separately. Meteorology and background concentrations are provided by surface stations which have their separate validation." "Usually calculated by AirQUIS as hourly values for each grid cell (area source), road (line source), and stack (point source) and automatically input to the dispersion model." "Temperature (stability) and wind measurements in at least one meteorological station is the minimal amount of meteorological data which must be provided. Gridded wind fields are usually calculated by AirQUIS using the separate wind field model MATHEW (Slørdal, 2002), which forms part of the AirQUIS meteorological preprocessor. This model takes into effect influences of the topography on the wind field depending on stability. Other meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and precipitation may also be given as input data from AirQUIS, usually based on measurements.
    Hourly gridded values of turbulence (sigma-v and sigma-w) and mixing height are calculated in AirQUIS by using the separate boundary layer meteorological preprocessor MEPDIM (Gryning, Holtslag, Irwin and Sivertsen, 1987; Bøhler, 1996). This preprocessor also calculates other meteorological parameters used by the model such as the Monin-Obukhov length L, the friction velocity u*, Lagrangian time scales TL and mixing height HMIX.
    Alternatively, some or all of the meteorological parameters may be calculated using different external meteorological model systems, and subsequently input to the AirQUIS-EPISODE dispersion model using separate external files." "Orography height may be given for each grid location and receptor point. Usually surface roughness is also defined as part of the input data. Land use is not explicitly treated in the model yet." "Initial concentrations (3D grid) for each pollutant must be provided by the user (usually set equal to zero). Final concentrations from a previous run may be used as initial concentrations for a new run." "Hourly background (boundary) concentrations for each pollutant must be provided by the user. This is usually done in AirQUIS by defining the background concentration to be dependent upon one or more background (regional) measurement values." "Data assimilation is not included as part of the model, but has been applied in conjunction with the model as a postprocessing task (Denby and Flicstein, 2005)." "Input data will usually come from AirQUIS, but can also be read from separate files. None." "Hourly ground level concentrations and dry and wet deposition values for each pollutant and for each grid location and individual receptor point" "User interface through NILUs AirQUIS system, which is a menu based Windows application using a comprehensive GIS system to display emission data, meteorological data and resulting concentration values." "The model is currently in use many places in Norway and elsewhere, e.g., in Sweden, Poland, Spain, Israel, Abu Dhabi, South Africa and China, to name a few). Users of AirQUIS-EPISODE should have some background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models." "Urban" "Title: Calculations of urban air quality in Norway with respect to EU directives on NO2, PM10 and C6H6
    References: Laupsa et al. (2003, 2005):
    Short description:
    The model is used to calculate urban air quality in Norway with respect to the requirements of the EU directives on NO2, PM10 and C6H6 . Also population exposure of the same compounds for the two Norwegian cities Oslo and Trondheim in 2001 is described. The combined use of a grid model together with a sub-grid line source model makes it possible to estimate exposure levels for the population living in the cities in the vicinity of major roads.
    Model performance: The model performs reasonably well for all the compounds indicated." "Urban" "Title: Calculations of urban air quality in Norway with respect to EU directives on NO2, PM10 and C6H6
    References: Laupsa et al. (2003, 2005):
    Short description:
    The model is used to calculate urban air quality in Norway with respect to the requirements of the EU directives on NO2, PM10 and C6H6 . Also population exposure of the same compounds for the two Norwegian cities Oslo and Trondheim in 2001 is described. The combined use of a grid model together with a sub-grid line source model makes it possible to estimate exposure levels for the population living in the cities in the vicinity of major roads.
    Model performance: The model performs reasonably well for all the compounds indicated." "Urban" "Title: Calculations of urban air quality in Norway with respect to EU directives on NO2, PM10 and C6H6
    References: Laupsa et al. (2003, 2005):
    Short description:
    The model is used to calculate urban air quality in Norway with respect to the requirements of the EU directives on NO2, PM10 and C6H6 . Also population exposure of the same compounds for the two Norwegian cities Oslo and Trondheim in 2001 is described. The combined use of a grid model together with a sub-grid line source model makes it possible to estimate exposure levels for the population living in the cities in the vicinity of major roads.
    Model performance: The model performs reasonably well for all the compounds indicated." "Level 1: A technical description (Slørdal, Walker and Solberg, 2003) and a Users Guide (AirQUIS, 2003) is available." "Level 2: Extensive model evaluation has been performed
    Denby and Flicstein (2005):
    Assessment of 12 months of operational data show clear improvements in the now-cast quality when assimilation is applied. Maps and measurements are automatically updated on a publicly accessible website(http://www.aironline.info/haifa.) with updates being available within one hour of the last observation.
    Laupsa et al. (2003, 2005):
    The model validation shows that the model results agree reasonably well with the observations. The model calculations show better agreement with the observations for NO2 than for PM10. This is particularly the case during dry periods in spring (March-April) when high concentrations of PM10 is observed due to enhanced traffic induced resuspention of road dust.
    Ødegaard et al. (2005):
    In the Better City Air project, a report is presented at the end of each season, where comparison between the monitoring data and the forecast data is described. For different stations and components the relative bias ranges from 7-50%, and the correlation is on average about 0.3. Over all, the system provides good results compared to other forecast systems available. " "Title: Haifa now-cast system
    References: Cuvelier et al. (2006), Solberg et al. (2005)
    Short description:
    EPISODE-AirQUIS was one of the models participating in the CityDelta model intercomparison study. Simulations were carried out for the city of Berlin for the 1999 reference period using a resolution of 10 km and covering a 300 km square region. Comparisons with 12 urban and rural stations were made.
    Model performance:
    The model performed very well in comparison to the other models involved in the study. For O3 EPISODE-AirQUIS had one of the lowest biases of all the models and an hourly correlation coefficient > 0.6 for almost all stations. In general EPISODE-AirQUIS performed very well in these simulations for most diagnostic tests." "Is the model available as a standalone application? Yes, it can be run as a separate model with its own interface." "Written in ANSI Fortran 90. The model has been run on Windows, HP-UX and Solaris, and can be easily ported to Linux." "On a typical 20 x 20 x 5 grid using one single inert compound, the model takes about 1 second of CPU time to run for one day of simulation (24 hours). On a 30 x 30 x 6 grid using full photochemistry (45 compounds) (the City Delta calculations) the model takes approximately 6 hours of CPU time to run for one month of simulation (720 hours). In both cases a 2 Ghz Pentium 4 Windows XP based PC was used." "The model uses dynamic memory allocation so only the minimum amount of RAM memory needed is being used at any one time. The PC where AirQUIS is to be run should have a minimum of 512 MB RAM if its a client, or at least 1 GB of RAM with ORACLE 8.1.7 or higher data base system installed if its a server. If AirQUIS is used, at least one PC server part has to be installed." "The model is generally available as part of NILUs AirQUIS system (AQMS). Information on the conditions for obtaining the AirQUIS system and the AirQUIS-EPISODE model can be provided by the contact person." "AirQUIS (2003) Models Module - Users Guide. Kjeller, Norwegian Institute of Air Research (NILU 2003). Slørdal, L.H., Walker, S.E., Solberg, S. (2003) The urban air dispersion model EPISODE applied in AirQUIS2003. Technical description. Kjeller, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU TR 12/2003). Solberg S., S.E. Walker, B. Denby, 2005. Development of a simplified photochemistry scheme for urban areas. Proceeedings from the 5th Urban Air Quality Conference in Valencia, 2005. University of Hertfordshire, CD-ROM. Walker, S.E., Solberg, S. and Denby, B. (2003) Development and implementation of a simplified EMEP photochemistry scheme for urban areas in EPISODE. Kjeller, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU TR 13/2003). These all refers to model development." "AirQUIS (2003) Models Module - Users Guide. Kjeller, Norwegian Institute of Air Research (NILU 2003). Anderson-Skold, Y. and Simpson, D. (1999) Comparison of the chemical schemes of the EMEP MSC-W and IVL photochemical trajectory models. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 1111-1129. Bott, A. (1989) A positive definite advection scheme obtained by non-linear renormalization of the advective fluxes, Monthly Weather Review 117, 1006-1015 and 2633-2636. Bøhler, T. and Sivertsen, B. (1998) A modern air quality management system used in Norway. Kjeller, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU F 4/98). Bøhler, T. (1996) MEPDIM. The NILU meteorological processor for dispersion modelling. Version 1.0. Model description. Kjeller, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU TR 7/96). Cuvelier et al., 2006. CityDelta: A model intercomparison study to explore the impact of emission reductions in European cities in 2010. Accepted for publication in Atmospheric Environment. Denby B., and B. Flicstein, 2005. Air quality now-cast system for the township of Haifa, Israel. Proceeedings from the 5th Urban Air Quality Conference in Valencia, 2005. University of Hertfordshire, CD-ROM. Gryning, S.E., Holtslag, A.A.M., Irwin, J.S., and Sivertsen, B. (1987) Applied Dispersion Modelling Based on Meteorological Scaling Parameters. Atmos. Environ., 21, 79-89. Laupsa, H. and Slordal, L.H. (2003). Applying model calculations to estimate urban air quality with respect to the requirements of the EU directives on NO2, PM10 and C6H6. . Internat. J. Environ. Pollut., vol. 20, no.1-6 (2003). Laupsa, H., Denby, B., Slordal, L.H. and Tonnesen, D.(2005). Model calculations to estimate urban levels of particulate matter in Oslo, with respect to the requirements of the EU directives. Accepted for publication in: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Urban Air Quality. March 29-31, 2005, Valencia, Spain. Simpson, D. (1993), Photochemical model calculations over Europe for two extended summer periods: 1985 and 1989. Model results and comparisons with observations, Atmospheric Environment, 27A, No. 6, 921-943 Slørdal, L.H., Walker, S.E., Solberg, S. (2003) The urban air dispersion model EPISODE applied in AirQUIS2003. Technical description. Kjeller, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU TR 12/2003). Solberg S., S.E. Walker, B. Denby, 2005. Development of a simplified photochemistry scheme for urban areas. Proceeedings from the 5th Urban Air Quality Conference in Valencia, 2005. University of Hertfordshire, CD-ROM. Walker S.E., Slørdal L.H., Guerreiro C., Gram F. and Grønskei K.E. (1999) Air Pollution exposure monitoring and estimation. Part II. Model evaluation and population exposure. J. Environ. Monit, 1, pp 321-326. Walker, S.E., Solberg, S. and Denby, B. (2003) Development and implementation of a simplified EMEP photochemistry scheme for urban areas in EPISODE. Kjeller, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU TR 13/2003). Wind, P., Tarrason, L., Berge, E., Slørdal, L.H., Solberg, S. and Walker, S.E. (2002) Development of a modeling system able to link hemispheric-regional and local air pollution. Joint MSC-W & NILU Note 5/02. Oslo, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute. (http://www.emep.int/reports/emep_note_5_2002.pdf) Ødegaard, V., Gjerstad, K.I. og Bjergene, N., Better City Air Evaluation of prognosis models of meteorology and air quality, winter 2004/2005, met.no report, no. 14/2005 (in Norwegian)." 3/29/2011 18:17:55 128 "AERMOD-HNS" "Dezso J. Szepesi & Katalin E. Fekete " "szd12506@ella.hu, h11275fek@ella.hu" "Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Plume-rise models, Gaussian models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC" "AERMOD-HNS" "American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model Improvement Committee Hungarian National Standard" "AERMOD-DEP View version 4.8.0" 2004 "Levegokornyezeti Bt. Consultants on Air Resources Management" "Dezso J. Szepesi, Katalin E. Fekete" "Levegokornyezeti Bt, Consultants on Air Resources Management Katona Jozsef utca 41 V/25, Budapest XIII, H-1137 Hungary" "++36 1 329 3940" "++36 1 329 3940" "szd12506@ella.hu or h11275fek@ella.hu" "www.levegokornyezet.hu" "Provided by contact persons." "Basic" "Local and regional scale regulatory air quality management" "AERMOD is a steady-state Gaussian plume model. It simulates air quality and deposition fields up to 30 km." "National Authorities (Hungarian Ministry on Environment and Water Management and Hungarian Mateorological Service) decided in 2003 to promulgate AERMOD as national standard.
    AERMOD supports regulatory modeling programs. Currently it calculates concentration values, dry, wet and total deposition rates. It generates gridded vertical profile of potential temperature for use in plume rise calculations. Effective release height for flare sources is available. Exponential decay of pollutant is taken into account. Point, volume and area sources are treated. Line sources are handled as volume source." "Calm winds,rapidly changing weather conditions." "Model is time independent." "No limits to spatial resolution." "No limits to spatial resolution." "Turbulence profiles are based on surface similarity and boundary layer scaling." "It is based on deposition velocity and washout coeffient." "Multi-chemical run utility can be used if sources emit multiple pollutants." "No numerical methods are required." "Referring to the paper presented at the Golden jubilee meeting in N. C. USA in September 2005 we found that MET data available for whole World at NCDC and formatted by ISH-DCI Code give more conservative estimations than in the case when original MET data are applied." "Hourly emission rate file option allows to specify hourly emission rates for one or more sources." "Surface, upper air and on site meteorological data can be used. Surface and upper air data series of 1-5 yr long are processed by RAMMET and AIRMET. For some parts of the world (North America: www.WebMET.com) surface and upper air data files could be freely downloaded. For model comparison, research and educational etc. purposes to run AERMOD SFC and PFL metorological files for thousands of regions worldwide are available at szd12506@ella.hu" "AERMOD is applicable for both simple terrain and for complex terrain. AutoCAD DXF file is used to import terrain elevations. Elevations/Flagpole heights tool allows you to graphically define terrain elevatioms and receptor heights. Terrain files can be downloaded at www.WebMET.com/terrain.html. Land use and land cover digital data provide the necessary information in territorial distribution." "No background pollution is considered." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Emission, Meteorology and Topography. Land use and land cover data." "1h, 24h and yearly concentration and deposition values in tables or in territorial distribution are calculated. Norm value exceedencees and protection zones are estimated based on these calculated values. Gas dry deposition with seasonal and land use cathegories are calculated." "It uses Control, Source, Receptor, Meteorology, Terrain and Output Pathways" "Consultants, industries, authorities, research and educational establishments." "Regional" "Meteorological input data for Hungary.
    Description:
    We produced Hungarian meteorological input data for AERMOD model in 2001. Summarizing the main steps of the meteorological data formatting procedure for AERMOD: Step 1 Purchase meteorological data from NCDC; Step 2 Format and interpolate files using the ISH/DCI Utility Code; Step 3 Make further corrections in EXCEL; Step 4 Prepare input file with the SAMSON extension in AERMET; Step 4.1 Prepare a multi-year input file to enhance local representativeness; Step 4.2 Prepare territorial interpolation to enhance local representativeness; Step 5 Create surface and profile files in AERMET." "Meteorological input data for Hungary.
    Description:
    We produced Hungarian meteorological input data for AERMOD model in 2001. Summarizing the main steps of the meteorological data formatting procedure for AERMOD: Step 1 Purchase meteorological data from NCDC; Step 2 Format and interpolate files using the ISH/DCI Utility Code; Step 3 Make further corrections in EXCEL; Step 4 Prepare input file with the SAMSON extension in AERMET; Step 4.1 Prepare a multi-year input file to enhance local representativeness; Step 4.2 Prepare territorial interpolation to enhance local representativeness; Step 5 Create surface and profile files in AERMET." "Meteorological input data for Hungary.
    Description:
    We produced Hungarian meteorological input data for AERMOD model in 2001. Summarizing the main steps of the meteorological data formatting procedure for AERMOD: Step 1 Purchase meteorological data from NCDC; Step 2 Format and interpolate files using the ISH/DCI Utility Code; Step 3 Make further corrections in EXCEL; Step 4 Prepare input file with the SAMSON extension in AERMET; Step 4.1 Prepare a multi-year input file to enhance local representativeness; Step 4.2 Prepare territorial interpolation to enhance local representativeness; Step 5 Create surface and profile files in AERMET." "AERMOD is wellknown, fully documented. Level 1." "AERMOD is in all respect tested, and regularly updated. Level 1. " "Comparison of two models, 2004
    Relevant reference:
    www.levegokornyezet.hu/ Kutatasi eredmenyeink/ Kemiai vonatkozasok/
    Comparison of Concentrations Estimated by Standardized Models for Hungary: AERMOD-HNS and HNS-TRANSMISSION.
    Description:
    A model comparison was carried out for low (5 m), medium (40 m) and high (100 m) stacks. At the estimations similar source and meteorological parameters of the same region were applied. Concentrations were estimated by both models for 1 hr, 24 hr and as annual average. Results of comparison are can be summarized as follows: (a) Absolute maximum concentrations differ considerable mostly for low and medium height stacks, (b) Higher concentrations were estimated mostly by AERMOD." "Estimations by former model HNS-ISAQA are also accepted in Hungary? Yes, till 2005" "Easily installed on PC. AERMOD was developed specifically for MS Windows and runs under Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000 and Xp." "Very fast, seconds for one hour of meteorological data." "Typically 0.5 GB." "It is available from Lakes Environmental commercially." "http://www.epa.gov/scram001/tt26.htm#aermod Users Guide for AERMOD DEP Beta Test Version 02222 with Prime. To access this version with deposition go to Topics for Review and Comment at http://www.epa.gov/scram001/tt26.htm#aermod Evaluation Databases for AERMOD version 02222, see also at http://www.epa.gov/scram001/tt26.htm#aermod The 4-th Symposium on Air Quality Management held at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Chairman: D. Szepesi), 12 September 2002, Budapest. Hungarian Board for Standardization. MSZ 21457-(1-7) 2002. Szepesi D., Fekete K. and Lee R. (2005), Application of AERMOD-View Outside North America, NOAA/EPA Golden Jubilee Symposium on Air Quality Modeling and Its Applications, USA, 20. September 2005." 3/29/2011 18:17:56 118 "SMOG" "Jan Bednar" "kmop@mff.cuni.cz" "Summer smog, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3)" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Lagrangian models" "PC, Workstation" "SMOG" "SMOG, Model for Computation of Summer Smog Episodes" "Version 3.0" "Department of Meteorology and Env. Protection, Faculty of Math. and Phys., Charles University, Prague, the Czech Republic" "Jan Bednar, Tomas Halenka, Josef Brechler" "
    Department of Meteorology and Env. Protection
    Faculty of Math. and Phys., Charles University
    V Holesovickach 2
    180 00 Prague 8
    Czech Republic" "+-420 2 2191 2548, 2514, 2549" "+-420 2 2191 2533" "kmop@mff.cuni.cz , tomas.halenka@mff.cuni.cz , josef.brechler@mff.cuni.cz" "http://www.mff.cuni.cz/win/home.htm - a web page of Faculty of Math. and Phys. of Charles University with references to single depts. and their members." "Provided by contact persons" "Basic" "Photochemical air-pollution on the local and local-to-regional scale. Summer smog epi-sodes modelling." "Lagrangian puff-model for summer smog episodes with complex orography and chemistry." "SMOG is a Lagrangian puff-model, on local or local-to-regional scale, with Gaussian dispersion of puffs and chemistry of NOx, VOC and ozone. Trajectories of puffs are constructed from individual sources of emission (point sources - individual stacks - and area sources - emission from traffic and other sources of pollution in different parts of studied area). The chemical mechanism of NOx and VOC is involved. The simplified surface ozone chemistry is applied. The number of species (equations) and chemical reactions depend on availability of NMVOC emission and concentration data. The most simple case assumes 10 species (O3, NO, NO2, HNO2, HNO3, NO3, PAN, OH, RO2 and NMVOC - bulk) and about 25 chemical reactions." "Rapidly changing wind field during the period of simulation and, on the other side, calm conditions. The number of emission sources is limited - depends on available computer memory." "Timestep: 1 second for chemical processes, 15 minutes for puffs movement and 15 minutes for trajectory computation. Domain dimension are of the order from 10-100 km." "Gaussian dispersion of puff." "Gaussian dispersion of puff." "Lagrangian trajectory puff model with Gaussian dispersion of puffs." "The chemical mechanism is solved numerically along trajectories. Gaussian distribution of concentration with respect to puff centre is a function of stability. Interpuff mixing processes are included." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Emissions of NOx and VOC for each point source or area source together with other source parameters (co-ordinates, stack height, thermal output) are requested." "Three dimensional fields of wind, temperature and stability, total ozone and cloudiness." "US NAVY orography with resolution of 10+A4Q-10. minutes is applied, but any other type of orography is acceptable." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Receptor points
    Georaph. coordinates and so-called damping factor (factor describing relation between wind velocity in transport and ground levels) are requested for each receptor point." "Ground concentration fields of NO, NO2 and O3." "None." "Model was developed and used in the framework of the international project supported with Asahi Glass Foundation and now is used in the framework of subsequent project of Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic dealing with photochemical air-pollution in Prague ." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "At this moment no documentation in the form of manual is available." "No validation and evaluation except that in the previously mentioned project has been performed yet." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Model is too new for answering this item." "Model can be run on computers with FORTRAN 77 compiler. The model is tested on Pentium PC and SUN workstation." "Highly variable - depends on the number of emission sources, on the extent of model area, on interval of puffs release and time of updating next part of puff trajectory. On Pentium based PC one run for approximately 140 emission sources (point and area sources) and area approximately 50x50 km one run lasted tens of minutes (real time)." "Depends on the number of emission sources, model area dimensions and applied time steps." "The model is not a public domain programme. Those, who are interested in using this model are kindly asked to contact the authors." "Bednar, J., Brechler, J., Halenka, T. (1997): On the modelling of aerosol and photo-chemical smog in Bohemian basin. XXII General Assembly of European Geophysical Society, 21. - 25. 4. 1997, Vienna, poster. Bednar, J., Brechler, J., Halenka, T., Kopacek, J. (1998): Modelling of photochemical smog. Bulletin of the Slovak Meteorological Society, the Slovak Academy of Sciences, vol. IX, no.2, pp. 7 - 8, (In Czech ). Bednar, J., Brechler, J., Halenka, T., Kopacek, J. (1998): Modelling of photochemical smog. In Proc.: Air /98, SHMI Bratislava, eds.: Drobna, B., Kocan, A., Jursa, S., ISBN 80- 88907-03-9, pp. 161-164, (in Czech). Bednar, J., Brechler, J., Halenka, T., Kopacek, J. (1998): Modelling of photochemical smog. Ochrana ovzdusi (Air protection), vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 5 - 10, ISSN: 1211-0337, (in Czech). Bednar, J., Brechler, J., Halenka, T., Holpuch, J. (1998): Photochemical smog model-ling. In: Photochemical Air Pollution in Prague. Final Report of the Project Supported by the Asahi Glass Foundation of Japan. Ed. B. Moldan, Prague. (in English)." 3/29/2011 18:20:51 59 "MAP" "George Ch. Bergeles" "bergeles@fluid.mech.ntua.gr" "Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, PM2.5 and PM10" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "MAP" "Modelling of Atmospheric Pollution (MAP)" "Version 1.0" "February 1997" "Laboratory of Aerodynamics Department of Mechanical Engineering National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)" "Prof. George Ch. Bergeles or Dr. John Anagnostopoulos (post doc. research assistant)" "
    National Technical University of Athens
    Laboratory of Aerodynamics - Fluids Section
    9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave.
    157 73 ZOGRAFOU, ATHENS
    GREECE" "+301 7721077 / +301 7721058" "+301 7721057" "bergeles@fluid.mech.ntua.gr, jjjj@fluid.mech.ntua.gr" "http://www.fluid.mech.ntua.gr" "Provided by contact persons" "Basic" "Prediction of the atmoshheric conditions and air quality over complex urban and rural terrain, at local or regional scale. Computation of wind field and pollutant dispersion and photochemical kinetics." "Three dimensional, nonhydrostatic, prognostic mesoscale model." "MAP is a three dimensional , nonhydrostatic, prognostic algorithm, which simulates the flow field and the dispersion and photochemical kinetics of various gas and particulate pollutants, emissions from industrial activities and/or traffic, over terrain with complex topography. The model uses the finite volume method for the integration of the conservation equations for mass, momentum and potential temperature, whereas the particulate phase is simulated by a Lagrangian stochastic technique. Computations are performed on a non-uniform, Cartesian, collocated grid and advanced numerical techniques are implemented (i.e. internal grids, domain decomposition with locally refined grids, partially-blocked cells) to enhance the accuracy of the domain representation and the produced results. The numerical solution is based on either the Hybrid or the second order BSOU discretisation scheme. Turbulence is simulated with the two-equations k-å model. Chemical transformation of pollutants is simulated with the CBM-IV mechanism. The heat flux at the ground is calculated from analytic expressions as function of the incident radiation flux, the atmospheric stability and local characteristics (ground temperature, slope, etc.). Dirichlet, Neumann or mass-entrainment conditions can be applied at the lateral boundaries." "No icing, no precipitation." "Time step: up to 1 hour, simulated time periods: several weeks." "Grid size: 500 - 2000 m, domain dimensions: 1 - 100 km" "Cell height: 10 - 500 m (varying with height), total height: up to 10000 m" "Discretisation: Hybrid and BSOU" "Two equations k-å model." "CBM-IV." "The system of conservation equations for the wind and temperature field is solved iteratively with the SIMPLE algorithm and with an implicit time-integration technique, allowing the use of relatively long-steps (up to 1 hour). The system of 97 chemical reactions of the CBM-IV mechanism is solved with the QSSA method and the integration requires time-steps of the order of 10 sec, whereas the pollutant transport equations are integrated over a 5 minute period. The coupling of the above integration procedures is performed by a numerical technique capable to reduce significantly the computer storage requirements." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions of various pollutants (in mass per unit time) at any location." "Synoptic conditions Vertical profile of temperature and surface wind velocity at one or more stations." "Orography height and ground surface characteristics" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "area latitude, simulated date, LST time, cloudness.
    a file with control run data." "Wind velocity components, potential temperature, pressure, pollutants concentrations for each grid-cell location and after each integration time period." "DOS user interface available. Windows user interface, in pre / main / post processor form, under construction." "The model has been developed and used by the Laboratory of Aerodynamics at the National Technical University of Athens. The model has been implemented in the real case of Attica peninsula (characterized by a quite compicated topography) and predictions for different locations and different air pollutants were performed. The results, concerning the accuracy of the predictions and the general characteristics of the model were published at scientific journals [1-4].
    Potential users of the developed model should be meteorologists or environmental engineers with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2, and manuals in two languages under construction." "Level 3-2, Individual modules validated against analytical solutions. MAP has been found capable to simulate with accuracy mesoscale flow field characteristics, like the land and sea breeze and mountain wind systems as well as various pollutant concentration fields [1-4]." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? By comparing the results with existing measurements [1-4] Is the model capable to perform real-time predictions? It depends on the computer power available. Run on a modern PC can produce real-time solutions with moderate accuracy (relatively coarse grid resolution)." "Sufficient experience on a Pentium PC and UNIX environment." "For a typical 40x40x40 grid size, each run for the simulation of 1 hour requires about 4 hours execution time on a pentium PC (100MHz)." "32 Mbytes RAM. Disk space: 20 - 40 Mbytes (during each run and for the final results only). About 20 Mbytes for each complete set of intermediate results." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining MAP can be provided by the contact person." "Anagnostopoulos J. and Bergeles G., 1998, A Numerical Model for Wind Field and Pollutant Concentration Calculations over Complex Terrain. Application to Athens, Greece, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Volume 73, Issue 3, Pages 285-306. Tryfonopoulos, D. and Bergeles, G., Temperature fields and air pollution build-up over the Athens basin, Environmental Software, 9, 269-283 (1994). Kadja, M., Anagnostopoulos, J., Bergeles, G., Computation of Wind Flow and Pollutant Dispersion over Complex Terrain, Proc. Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, Paris, Sep. 1996, Ed. John Wilew & Sons - Ltd., Environmental Flows, pp 1-7. Giambanis A., Anagnostopoulos J., Bergeles G., 1998, Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Dispersion and Photochemical Kinetics over Complex Terrain, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Volume 22, Number 4, pp. 313-329(17). Gery, M. W., Whitten, G.Z., Killus, J.P., Dodge, M.C., A photochemical kinetics mechanism for urban and regional scale computer modelling, Journal of Geophysics Research, 94, pp.: 12925-12956, (1989). Pielke, R. A., Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling, Academic Press, London (1984). Hanna, S. R., Briggs, G. A. and Hosker, R. P., Handbook on Atmospheric Diffusion, Technical Information Center, U.S. Department of Energy, (1982). McNider, R. T. and Pielke, R. A., Diurnal boundary layer development over sloping terrain, Journal of Atmospheric Science, 38, 2198-2212, (1981)." 3/29/2011 18:20:53 58 "MAGTOS" "MODEL DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM" "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, LHTEE" "mds@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 310 99 6060" "+30 310 99 6012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "PC" "MAGTOS" "MAGTOS" "An old and unused model version is described in the following fields" "Jacek Iwanek" "jiwanek@warman.com.pl" "Basic" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Chrósciel St. et al., 1983: The guidelines for estimating air pollution. MAGTOS, PZTiS 1981/83, Warsaw (in Polish). Chrósciel St.- Markiewicz M., 1985: Modelling of the atmospheric dispersion of sulphur dioxide in the urban area refereed to the Cracow agglomeration. Envir. Prot. Engin. Vol.II, p.65-72. Chrósciel St.- Markiewicz M., 1988: Modelling, dispersion of air pollution over the Cracow agglomeration. Proceedings Tropical Miero-Meteorology and Air Pollution 15-19 February 1988, New Delhi, India. " 3/29/2011 18:20:54 55 "KKW.LAG" "Michael Schorling " "Schorling & Partner (http://www.schorling.net)" "schorling@schorling.net" "+49 8062 806010" "+49 8062 806015" "Kistlerweg 3, D-83620 Vagen , Germany" "Nuclear emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Source-receptor relationships, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Lagrangian models" "PC, Workstation" "KKW.LAG" "KKW.LAG (Kernkraftwerk.Lagrange)" "Version 2.0" "January 1998" "Schorling & Partner, Consulting Engineers" "Dr. Ing. Michael Schorling" "
    Schorling & Partner
    Consulting Engineers
    Innsbrucker Ring 152
    D - 81669 Munchen" "+49 89 680 680 0" "+49 89 680 681 1" "schorling@schorling.net" "http://www.schorling.net" "Provided by contact person." "Basic" "On-line monitoring of nuclear power plants in Bavaria, Germany" "Three-dimensional, Lagrangian dispersion model using a 3-D diagnostic, mass-consistant windfield model as preprocessor and a (radioactive) dose model as postprocessor" "Up to now, the model KKW.LAG has been applied to on-line monitor the six nuclear power plants in Bavaria, Germany. In the course of the model development, a large amount of static data has been collected for these power plants, such as gridded terrain maps in differerent resolution up to 50 km off the source, release szenario data, a GIS comprising data on highways, waterways, railways, administrative borders etc. Hence the model descriptions emphasises a little bit the according development. This model will substitute the present monitoring system based on a Gaussian plume model.
    Hence, the change will bring into the monitoring system numerical models (3-D windfield model, Lagrangian dispersion model) as well as up-to-date WWW software technology.
    This allows to assess the exposition to people in routine and alarm operation of six nuclear plants after atmospheric releases of radionuclides. Here, the topography at different resolutions including that of the plant area, the meteorology at the site and at additional locations, and the time-dependent release rates will be taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the computations.
    For the off-line system or prognoses a menu-driven user shell eases the data input, the initialisation of the computations as well as the output of the graphics. The nearfield (5 km source distance), middle-zone (10 km distance) and farfield (50 km distance) of the concentration- and dose pattern is drawn optional together with maps, administrative borders, water- and railways and the street net. Time series of the doses as computed can be compared with measurements; the 7 days prognosis of the loads be evaluated.
    The offline version is in use since 1996 at the Bavarian Ministry for Landplanning and Environment. It is beeing used for training and the annual exercises.
    The online version with automated data input from the KFU network comprising the release- and the meteorology data at the site and additional locations will be fully automated in routine and alarm operations of the nuclear plants. An animation will present the development of the loads for the last 24 hours. Specific graphs show where relevant countermeasures must be considered in a case of accidental release.
    The system applies software technology of the world wide web, such as the netscape browser and HTML pages. Different clients, such as local authorities, emergency centres and the police can be connected to the system via an intranet. This guarantees an immediate information exchange between the authorities involved in emergency planning.
    The implementation of the on-line system at the Bavarian Authority took place in winter 1997.
    A network comprising several PC" "The model is valid within the constraints of the expected releases and their conditions at the stack (temperature, exit velocity, vapour content)" "Time step: the time step is internally set according to the Lagrangian time scale" "Grid size: 10-800 m in a non-equidistant net" "Computations valid within the assumed mixing height" "Parametrisation according to the well known literature" "according to deposition coefficients" "The dispersion process is considered to be Markovian, hence the equations to be solved are only of algebraic nature" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The release data at stack height are measured and forwarded to the emergency center" "The meteorological data comprising windspeed, winddirection and data to parametrise the atmospheric stability as well as the rain rate are forwarded to the emergency center.
    Additionally, meteorological data from an air quality network in Bavaria are taken into the computation." "Gridded terrain data have been set up in the required range from 10 - 800 m according to the non-equidistant net." "The 1/2 hourly means are conditioned on the preceding episodes" "as given by the topography" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Pre-defined scenarios for accidental releases have been set up for the case, that measured data for the release will not be available.
    The maps at different scales for 5 power plants, the network of the streets, highways, railways, waterways etc. are used for the visualization of the concentration and doses.
    The computational loads at receptor points from different nets, at which the gamma dosis will be measured, are given in listings and graphs." "numerical data and graphs for the concentration of Xe131, Cs137 and I129 and doses for the computed (1/2 hourly) means. The graphs can be displayed in form of an animation for the last 24 hours." "User interface applying HTML scripts and WWW Software technology" "The Bavarian State Ministry for Landplanning and Environment and the Bavarian Environmental Agency" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 1: manuals available in German." "Level 2: validation with respect to experimental data.
    Validation with respect to the Gaussian model at Gaussian Boundary conditions, such as flat terrain, homogeneous wind, stationary releases, no plume rise, no deposition, no scavenging. " "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? Relating the computations to the results of the validation or comparing them with a Gaussian model, given Gaussian input data." "Sufficient experience on a Pentium II PC under LINUX Some experience on a workstation under SOLARIS
    The routines to be exchanged when porting the program to a different kind of a maschine are well known." "The computer time varies with respect to release height, atmospheric stability and terrain complexity and travel time of the pollutants.
    In general, the computational cycle for the computation of the windfield, the dispersion, the doses and the graphs lasts up to about 5 minutes. At the beginning of an accident this time is in the range of 45 seconds. This is valid for a 100*100 km area of interest." "RAM of 32 MB is required, data files for 1 episode comprise less than 10 MB" "The model is not a public domain programme.
    It is available to other clients. Computer runs for any area of interest can be carried out by the contact person." "Schorling, M.: Die Berechnung der atmospharischen Ausbreitung, Entwicklung und Validierung eines Lagrange- Modells. Handbuch des Umweltschutzes 46. Er. Lfg. 12/ 1989, ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1989 Dabberdt W., Hoydysch W., Schorling M: Dispersion Modelling at Urban Intersections. The Science of the Total Environment 169 (1995) 93-102 Schorling M., Schiegl W.-E.: TA Luft. ecomed Verlag 1995 Schorling M.: Lagrangian Dispersion Model and its Application to Monitor Nuclear Power Plants. Environ. Sci. & , Pollut. Res. 2, (2) 105-106, 1995 Schorling M.: Monitoring the Bavarian Nuclear Power Plants with an Online - Lagrangian Dispersion Model, Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society, San Francisco, 1997 Eder, E; Dehos, R; Schorling, M.: On-line calculation of the dispersion of radioactive substances in air on the basis of a Lagrangian Model. Kerntechnik 62 (1997) 5-6, 1997" 3/29/2011 18:20:57 54 "OLD KIDLER" "MODEL DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM" "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, LHTEE" "mds@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 310 99 6060" "+30 310 99 6012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Public information" "Concentrations, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10" "PC" "OLD KIDLER" "KIDLER" "Sam Erik Walker & Steinar Larssen" "sew@nilu.no & stl@nilu.no" "www.nilu.no" "Basic" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." 3/29/2011 18:20:58 57 "LOTOS-EUROS" "M.G.M. Roemer, Maarten van Loon & P.J.H. Builtjes" "TNO Energy, Environment and Process Innovation" "roemer@mep.tno.nl" "+31 55 5493385" "+31 55 5493252" "P.O. Box 342, 7300 AH Apeldoorn, The Netherlands" "Climate change, Ozone depletion, Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Eutrophication, Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Supercomputer" "LOTOS-EUROS" "LOng Term Ozone Simulation - EURopean Operational Smog model" "Version 1.6" "spring 2010" "TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, KNMI Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency" "Prof. dr. ir. P.J.H. Builtjes, Dr. M. Schaap, Dr. R.M.A. Timmermans" "
    P.O. Box 80015
    3508 TA Utrecht
    The Netherlands" "31 (0)88 8662017 (Builtjes), 31 (0)88 8662074 (Schaap), 31 (0)88 8662080 (Timmermans)" "31 (0)88 866 2044" "renske.timmermans@tno.nl" "http://www.lotos-euros.nl/" "Intermediate" "modelling of pollutants (photo-oxidants, aerosols, heavy metals) over Europe air quality forecasting" "Eulerian, 3-D" "The LOTOS-EUROS-model is an Eulerian grid model covering Europe (Iceland excluded with horizontal boundaries at 10W and 60E and at 35N and 70N. In horizontal direction the model domain in its standard version is divided into 140x140 grid cells with a size of 0.5 deg lon.x 0.25 deg lat. (~25-30x25-30 km2). There is a possibility to zoom in by a factor 2 or 4 to a resolution of ~6-7x6-7km2. In the standard model version the lowest 3.5 km of the atmosphere are represented by three terrain following prognostic layers for wich the continuity equation is solved and an additional (diagnostic) surface layer of 25 meter. The lowest of the three prognostic layers is the boundary layer, the two other layers are reservoir layers. The two reservoir layers are of equal depth but vary in time. The purpose of these layers is to keep track of pollutants emitted above the boundary layer under stable conditions. They also serve as reservoir for aged pollutants entrained and detrained during multiday episodes. Exchange of pollutants with the free troposphere takes place through the top layer. For each of the three prognostic layers and for each long-lived (transportable) species a time dependent continuity equation is solved." "Simple chemistry (a slightly adapted version of CBM-IV) does not allow accurate night time simulations coarse resolution, especially in the vertical direction. The mixing layer is treated as one layer. Ground level ouput is generated by assuming a vertical profile near the ground based on the deposition velocities." "hourly" "standard 0.5 x0.25 deg lon-lat zoom possible for regional/national applications generally up to 0.125x0.0625 deg lon-lat " "4 layers up to 3.5 km, surface layer of 25 meter, mixing height layer and 2 reservoir layers. Possible extension to 5 km with an extra top layer. " "Walcek (Walcek, C.J. (2000) Minor flux adjustment near mixing ratio extremes for simplified yet highly accurate monotonic calculation of tracer advection, J. Geophy. Res., Vol. 105, D7, pp.9335-9348). The number of steps within the advection scheme is chosen such that the courant restriction is fulfilled. " "Atmospheric stability values and functions, including Kz values, are derived using standard similarity theory profiles" "The dry deposition in LOTOS-EUROS is parameterised following the well known resistance approach. The deposition speed is described as the reciprocal sum of three resistances: the aerodynamic resistance, the laminar layer resistance and the surface resistance. The aerodynamic resistance is dependent on atmospheric stability. The relevant stability parameters (u*, L and Kz) are calculated using standard similarity theory profiles. The laminar layer resistance and the surface resistances for acidifying components and particles are described following the EDACS system (Erisman, J.W., van Pul, A., Wyers, P. (1994) Parametrization of surface-resistance for the quantification of atmospheric deposition of acidifying pollutants and ozone, Atmos. Environ., Vol. 28, 2595-2607). Below cloud scavenging is described using simple scavenging coefficients for gases (Schaap et al., 2004) and following Simpson et al. ( Simpson, D., Fagerli, H., Jonson, J.E., Tsyro, S., Wind, P., and Tuovinen, J-P (2003) Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe, Part 1: Unified EMEP Model Description, EMEP Report 1/2003, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway) for particles. In-cloud scavenging is neglected due to the limited information on clouds. Neglecting in-cloud scavenging results in too low wet deposition fluxes but has a very limited influence on ground level concentrations (see Schaap et al., 2004a)." "The LOTOS-EUROS model contains two chemical mechanisms, the TNO CBM-IV scheme and the CBM-IV by Adelman (CB99)(Adelman, Z.E. (1999) A re-evaluation of the Carbon Bond-IV photochemical mechanism. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, USA) The TNO CBM-IV scheme is a modified version of the original CBM-IV ( Whitten, G., Hogo, H., Killus, J. (1980) The Carbon Bond Mechanism for photochemical smog, Env. Sci. Techn., Vol. 14, pp.14690-14700). The scheme includes 28 species and 66 reactions, including 12 photolytic reactions. Compared to the original scheme steady state approximations were used to reduce the number of reactions. In addition, reaction rates have been updated regularly. Aerosol chemistry is represented using ISORROPIA (Nenes, A., Pilinis, C., and Pandis, S. N. (1999) Continued Development and Testing of a New Thermodynamic Aerosol Module for Urban and Regional Air Quality Models, Atmos. Env., Vol. 33 , pp.1553-1560) and SORGAM (Schell, B., Ackermann, I.J., Hass, H., Binkowski, F.S., Ebel, A. (2001) Modelling the formation of secondary or¬ganic aerosol within a comprehensive air quality modelling system, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 106, pp.28275 - 28293)." "For each of the three prognostic layers and for each long-lived (transportable) species a time dependent continuity equation is solved. The equation is solved by means of operator splitting, the time step is split in two halves and concentration changes are calculated for the first half time step in the following order: chemistry, diffusion and entrainment, dry deposition, wet deposition, emission, advection. Then the second half time step the order is reversed." "Schaap, M., Timmermans, R.M.A., Roemer, M., Boersen, G.A.C., Builtjes, P.J.H. Sauter, F.J., Velders, G.J.M. and Beck, J.P., The LOTOSEUROS model: description, validation and latest developments, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.270290, 2008" "Anthropogenic emissions: TNO European emission inventories produced for GEMS and MACC projects. The TNO 2005 inventory is described in detail by Denier van der Gon et al. 2010 (Denier van der Gon, H. A.Visschedijk, J. Kuenen, H. van der Brugh, R. Dröge, and M. Schaap, High resolution European emission grids for anthropogenic sources for the years 2003-2007, EGU 2010 special session Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 12, EGU2010-10800-1, 2010; Kuenen, J.J.P. and H.A.C. Denier van der Gon, A.J.H Visschedijk, H. van der Brugh, High resolution European emission inventory for the years 2003 2007 for the EU IP MACC, TNO report, TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, The Netherlands, 2010 (in preparation).) The data used for the scaling for other years consist where possible of the information delivered by countries themselves in their national inventories, but this is not always possible since gaps and other problems do exist in the reported emissions by countries In LOTOS‐EUROS biogenic isoprene emissions are calculated following the mathematical description of the temperature and light dependence of the isoprene emissions, proposed by (Guenther, A. B., P. R. Zimmerman, P. C. Harley, R. K. Monson and R. Fall, Isoprene and Monoterpene Emission Rate Variability: Model Evaluations and Sensitivity Analyses, J. Geophys. Res., 98, dx.doi.org/10.1029/93JD00527, 1993.), using the actual meteorological data. In addition, sea salt emissions are parameterised following (Monahan, E.C. and Spiel, D.E. and Davidson, K.L., A model of marine aerosol generation via whitecaps and wave disruption, Monahan, E.C. and Mac Niocaill, G. editors, Oceanic Whitecaps and their role in air/sea exchange, D. Reidel, 167‐174.1986) from the wind speed at ten meter height. At this moment, the dust emissions for the European domain for traffic re‐suspension, agricultural activities and wind erosion are switched off." "The LOTOS-EUROS system is presently driven by 3-hourly meteorological data. These include 3D fields for wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity and density, substantiated by 2-d gridded fields of mixing layer height, precipitation rates, cloud cover and several boundary layer and surface variables. The standard is to use meteorological data from the ECMWF." "The Corine/Smiatek data base has been enhanced using the tree pecies map for Europe made by (Köble R. and G. Seufert, Novel Maps for Forest Tree Species in Europe, 2001.), who also used Corine as a basis. This data base contains 115 tree species, on a grid of 1 x 1 km2, with coverage per grid. In parts of the LOTOS‐EUROS modelling domain, especially Russia, the Koeble tree map provides no information. We have coupled the Corine/Smiatek land use database to the database on tree species. In this procedure the land‐use database was leading, meaning that tree species were only appointed to forest areas. In case no tree species information was available for a forest area, the three Corine forest categories are maintained. So, the full tree data base contains 115 + 3 categories. The combined database has a resolution of 0.0166x0.0166° which is aggregated to the required resolution during the start‐up of a model simulation." "interpolation of the boundary conditions" "See documentation For ozone the 3-D climatological dataset by Logan or dataset from the global models TM3/TM5/Mozart For a number of other components we follow the EMEP method (Simpson 2003, EMEP report 2003/1) based on measured data. Simple functions have been derived to match observed distributions. BC are adjusted as function of height, latitude and day of the year. The annual cycle of each species is represented with a cosine curve" "ensemble kalman filter The uncertainties involved with the modelled and observed values determine the weights that are put on the measured and calculated values. With an ensemble Kalman filter there is no need to specify the model uncertainties beforehand as they are determined by the range of modelled states of the ensemble members. The ensemble is generated by adding noise to uncertain model parameters (currently on emissions and deposition velocities). Hence, the specification of the noise influences the weights and therewith results of the procedure. " "hourly 3-D concentration fields of O3, NOx, SIA, POPS,Na, Pb, Ld, primary aerosol (BC, PM25 PM10, sea salt) hourly 2-D deposition fields hourly 3-D budget fields per grid cell or larger units budgets are defined by the separate terms in the continuity equation (transport, chemistry, dry and wet deposition, emissions)." "An input file specifies the user input. This file contains explanations of the fields to be filled in. Output is written in netCDF format " "Results are use by e.g. governmental or local authorities, scientists within national and international projects. The model can only be used properly by a skilled person. " "Regional" "Data assimilation.

    observing system simulation experiment to evaluate the impact of a future satellite instrument for the improvement of air quality forecasts.
    R.M.A. Timmermans , A.J. Segers, P.J.H. Builtjes, R. Vautard, R. Siddans, H. Elbern, S.A.T. Tjemkes, M. Schaap, The Added Value of a Proposed Satellite Imager for Ground Level Particulate Matter Analyses and Forecasts, IEEE-JSTARS (Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, pp. 271-283, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2034613, 2009. pdf

    assimilation SO2, SO4
    Barbu, A.L., Segers, A.J., Schaap, M., Heemink, A.W., Builtjes, P.J.H., A multi-component data assimilation experiment directed to sulphur dioxide and sulphate over Europe, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 43, Pages 1622-1631, 2009. pdf

    assimilation PM and or AOD
    Denby, B., Schaap, M., Segers, A., Builtjes, P., Horalek,J., Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM10 exceedances on the European scale, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Pages 71227134, 2008. pdf
    Koelemeijer, R.B.A., Schaap, M., Timmermans, R.M.A., Homan, C.D., Matthijsen, J., Kassteele, J. van de, Builtjes, P.J.H., Monitoring aerosol concentrations and optical thickness over Europe, PARMA final report, MNP report 555034001/2006, 2006" "Regional" "Data assimilation.

    observing system simulation experiment to evaluate the impact of a future satellite instrument for the improvement of air quality forecasts.
    R.M.A. Timmermans , A.J. Segers, P.J.H. Builtjes, R. Vautard, R. Siddans, H. Elbern, S.A.T. Tjemkes, M. Schaap, The Added Value of a Proposed Satellite Imager for Ground Level Particulate Matter Analyses and Forecasts, IEEE-JSTARS (Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, pp. 271-283, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2034613, 2009. pdf

    assimilation SO2, SO4
    Barbu, A.L., Segers, A.J., Schaap, M., Heemink, A.W., Builtjes, P.J.H., A multi-component data assimilation experiment directed to sulphur dioxide and sulphate over Europe, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 43, Pages 1622-1631, 2009. pdf

    assimilation PM and or AOD
    Denby, B., Schaap, M., Segers, A., Builtjes, P., Horalek,J., Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM10 exceedances on the European scale, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Pages 71227134, 2008. pdf
    Koelemeijer, R.B.A., Schaap, M., Timmermans, R.M.A., Homan, C.D., Matthijsen, J., Kassteele, J. van de, Builtjes, P.J.H., Monitoring aerosol concentrations and optical thickness over Europe, PARMA final report, MNP report 555034001/2006, 2006" "Regional" "Data assimilation.

    observing system simulation experiment to evaluate the impact of a future satellite instrument for the improvement of air quality forecasts.
    R.M.A. Timmermans , A.J. Segers, P.J.H. Builtjes, R. Vautard, R. Siddans, H. Elbern, S.A.T. Tjemkes, M. Schaap, The Added Value of a Proposed Satellite Imager for Ground Level Particulate Matter Analyses and Forecasts, IEEE-JSTARS (Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, pp. 271-283, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2034613, 2009. pdf

    assimilation SO2, SO4
    Barbu, A.L., Segers, A.J., Schaap, M., Heemink, A.W., Builtjes, P.J.H., A multi-component data assimilation experiment directed to sulphur dioxide and sulphate over Europe, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 43, Pages 1622-1631, 2009. pdf

    assimilation PM and or AOD
    Denby, B., Schaap, M., Segers, A., Builtjes, P., Horalek,J., Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM10 exceedances on the European scale, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Pages 71227134, 2008. pdf
    Koelemeijer, R.B.A., Schaap, M., Timmermans, R.M.A., Homan, C.D., Matthijsen, J., Kassteele, J. van de, Builtjes, P.J.H., Monitoring aerosol concentrations and optical thickness over Europe, PARMA final report, MNP report 555034001/2006, 2006" "Schaap et al. 2005, LOTOS-EUROS: Documentation, TNO report B&O-A R 2005/297." "
    M. Schaap, F. Sauter, R.M.A. Timmermans, M. Roemer, G. Velders, J. Beck and P.J.H. Builtjes, The LOTOS-EUROS model: description, validation and latest developments, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.270290, 2008 The variability in ozone concentrations is well reproduced by the model. Ozone concentrations are underestimated at days with low ozone which is probably associated with an underestimation of vertical mixing in the presence of clouds. Ozone peaks during smog episodes are also underestimated.
    Overall, for secondary inorganic aerosols the agreement between modelled and observed concentrations is reasonable. Sulphate concentrations are underestimated by the model whereas nitrate and ammonium are in agreement with observations. We have observed that sulphate and ammonium concentration data do not support the model hypothesis that sulphate is present as ammonium sulphate in Spain explaining the better comparison for ammonium.
    The first application for sea salt shows promising results. The timing of the events is good but the concentrations are overestimated.
    Modelled heavy metal concentrations underestimate measured values by a factor 3-4 which reflects the current status of emission estimates. " "model intercomparison with EMEP and AIRBASE groundbased measurements for O3, NO2, NO, NH3, SO4, SO2 and NH4. The model is able to capture the varaiability of ozone well, especially in summer. However, the exchange between the mixing layer and the free troposphere was assessed to be too low resulting in too high ozone levels at days with low ozone. Sulphate levels are underestimated, whereas the concentrations of nitrate and ammonium are in line with measured data. The performance of LOTOS-EUROS is similar to other regional models in Europe.
    EURODELTA, A regional scale model intercomparison to analyse the responses of different CTMs to emission changes/scenarios. The results for LOTOS-EUROS are similar as for the other Regional CTMs
    Vautard, R., Schaap, M., Bergstr�m, R., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Builtjes, P.J.H., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, C., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Roberts, P., Rou�l, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., Wind, P., Skill and uncertainty of a regional air quality model ensemble, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 43, Pages 4822-4832, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.083, 2009. pdf
    M. van Loon, R. Vautard, M. Schaap, R. Bergström, B. Bessagnet, J. Brandt, P.J.H. Builtjes, J. H. Christensen, K. Cuvelier, A. Graf, J.E. Jonson, M. Krol, J. Langner, P. Roberts, L. Rouil, R. Stern, L. Tarrasón, P. Thunis, E. Vignati, L. White, P. Wind , Evaluation of long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble average, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Issue 10, Pages 2083097, 2007. pdf
    CITYDELTA
    P. Thunis, L. Rouil, C. Cuvelier, R. Stern, A. Kerschbaumer, B. Bessagnet, M. Schaap, P. Builtjes, L. Tarrason, J. Douros, N. Moussiopoulos, G. Pirovano and M. Bedogni, Analysis of model responses to emission-reduction scenarios within the CityDelta project, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Pages 208220, 2007. pdf
    C. Cuvelier, P. Thunis, R. Vautard, M. Amann, B. Bessagnet, M. Bedogni, R. Berkowicz, J. Brandt, F. Brocheton, P. Builtjes, A. Coppalle, B. Denby, G. Douros, A. Graf, O. Hellmuth, C. Honoré, A. Hodzic, J. Jonson, A. Kerschbaumer, F. de Leeuw, E. Minguzzi, N. Moussiopoulos, C. Pertot, G. Pirovano, L. Rouil, M. Schaap, R. Stern, L. Tarrason, E. Vignati, M. Volta, L. White, P. Wind, A. Zuber, CityDelta: A model intercomparison study to explore the impact of emission reductions in European cities in 2010, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Pages 189207, 2007. pdf
    PM episodes
    R. Stern, P. Builtjes, M. Schaap, R. Timmermans , R.Vautard, A. Hodzic, M. Memmesheimer, H. Feldmann, E. Renner, R. Wolke, A. Kerschbaumer, A model inter-comparison study focussing on episodes with elevated PM10 concentrations, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Issue 19, June 2008, Pages 45674588, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.01.068, 2008. pdf

    Review of unified EMEP model
    Reference: Loon et al (2004) Model intercomparison in the framework of the review of the Unified EMEP model, TNO report R2004/282
    Description: A model intercomparison aimed at establishing the performance of the unified EMEP model against observations. modellers have delivered data for more than 160 stations for the species: O3, Ox, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, SO4, NO3, NH4, PM10, Total NO3, Total NH4 .... Observations are taken from EMEP and AIRBASE. Only rural stations are selected. For results see validation and evaluation." "4.5 CPU day on a PC for 1 year simulation. Less if run in parallel mode" "No public availability" "M. Schaap, F. Sauter, R.M.A. Timmermans, M. Roemer, G. Velders, J. Beck and P.J.H. Builtjes, The LOTOS-EUROS model: description, validation and latest developments, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.270290, 2008. pdf " "A.M.M. Manders, M. Schaap, X. Querol, M.F.M.A. Albert1, J. Vercauteren, T.A.J. Kuhlbusch, R. Hoogerbrugge, Sea salt concentrations across the European continent Atmospheric Environment, 44 (20), 2434-2442, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.03.028, 2010. pdf R.M.A. Timmermans , A.J. Segers, P.J.H. Builtjes, R. Vautard, R. Siddans, H. Elbern, S.A.T. Tjemkes, M. Schaap, The Added Value of a Proposed Satellite Imager for Ground Level Particulate Matter Analyses and Forecasts, IEEE-JSTARS (Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, pp. 271-283, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2034613, 2009. pdf R.M.A. Timmermans , M. Schaap, H. Elbern, R. Siddans, S.A.T. Tjemkes, R. Vautard, P.J.H. Builtjes, An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for Aerosol Optical Depth from satellites, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26, 2673-2682, 2009. pdf A.M.M. Manders, M. Schaap , R. Hoogerbrugge , Testing the capability of the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS to forecast PM10 levels in the Netherlands, Atmospheric Environment, pp. 4050-459, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.05.006, 2009. pdf Barbu, A.L., Segers, A.J., Schaap, M., Heemink, A.W., Builtjes, P.J.H., A multi-component data assimilation experiment directed to sulphur dioxide and sulphate over Europe, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 43, Pages 1622-1631, 2009. pdf M. Schaap, A. Apituley, R.M.A. Timmermans, RB. A. Koelemeijer, and G. de Leeuw, Exploring the relation between aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 at Cabauw, the Netherlands, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, pp909-925, 2009 . pdf Vautard, R., Schaap, M., Bergstr�m, R., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Builtjes, P.J.H., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, C., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Roberts, P., Rou�l, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., Wind, P., Skill and uncertainty of a regional air quality model ensemble, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 43, Pages 4822-4832, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.083, 2009. pdf Denby, B., Schaap, M., Segers, A., Builtjes, P., Horalek,J., Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM10 exceedances on the European scale, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Pages 71227134, 2008. pdf R. Stern, P. Builtjes, M. Schaap, R. Timmermans , R.Vautard, A. Hodzic, M. Memmesheimer, H. Feldmann, E. Renner, R. Wolke, A. Kerschbaumer, A model inter-comparison study focussing on episodes with elevated PM10 concentrations, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Issue 19, June 2008, Pages 45674588, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.01.068, 2008. pdf M. Schaap, F. Sauter, R.M.A. Timmermans, M. Roemer, G. Velders, J. Beck and P.J.H. Builtjes, The LOTOS-EUROS model: description, validation and latest developments, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.270290, 2008. pdf M. Schaap, R.M.A. Timmermans , R.B.A. Koelemeijer, G. de Leeuw, P.J.H. Builtjes, Evaluation of MODIS aerosol optical thickness over Europe using sun photometer observations, Atmos. Environ., 42, 21872197, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.11.044, 2008. pdf Schaap, M. and Denier van der Gon, H.A.C, On the variability of Black Smoke and carbonaceous aerosols in the Netherlands, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Pages 59085920, 2007. pdf Hulskotte, J.H.J., van der Gon, H.A.C.D., Visschedijk, A.J.H., Schaap, M., Brake wear from vehicles as an important source of diffuse copper pollution, Water Science and Technology, Volume 56, Pages 223-231, 2007. H.A.C. Denier van der Gon, J.H.J. Hulskotte, A.J.H. Visschedijk, M. Schaap, A revised estimate of copper emissions from road transport in UNECE Europe and its impact on predicted copper concentrations, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Issue 38, Pages 86978710, 2007. pdf A. de Meij, S. Wagner, N. Gobron, P. Thunis, C. Cuvelier, F. Dentener, M. Schaap, Scale issues in aerosol modelling: a case study on chemical and optical properties over the greater Milan area (Italy), June 2001, Atmospheric Research, Volume 85, Pages 243267, 2007. pdf M. van Loon, R. Vautard, M. Schaap, R. Bergström, B. Bessagnet, J. Brandt, P.J.H. Builtjes, J. H. Christensen, K. Cuvelier, A. Graf, J.E. Jonson, M. Krol, J. Langner, P. Roberts, L. Rouil, R. Stern, L. Tarrasón, P. Thunis, E. Vignati, L. White, P. Wind , Evaluation of long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble average, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Issue 10, Pages 2083097, 2007. pdf P. Thunis, L. Rouil, C. Cuvelier, R. Stern, A. Kerschbaumer, B. Bessagnet, M. Schaap, P. Builtjes, L. Tarrason, J. Douros, N. Moussiopoulos, G. Pirovano and M. Bedogni, Analysis of model responses to emission-reduction scenarios within the CityDelta project, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Pages 208220, 2007. pdf C. Cuvelier, P. Thunis, R. Vautard, M. Amann, B. Bessagnet, M. Bedogni, R. Berkowicz, J. Brandt, F. Brocheton, P. Builtjes, A. Coppalle, B. Denby, G. Douros, A. Graf, O. Hellmuth, C. Honoré, A. Hodzic, J. Jonson, A. Kerschbaumer, F. de Leeuw, E. Minguzzi, N. Moussiopoulos, C. Pertot, G. Pirovano, L. Rouil, M. Schaap, R. Stern, L. Tarrason, E. Vignati, M. Volta, L. White, P. Wind, A. Zuber, CityDelta: A model intercomparison study to explore the impact of emission reductions in European cities in 2010, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Pages 189207, 2007. pdf R. Vautard, M. van Loon, M. Schaap, R. Bergströ, B. Bessagnet, J. Brandt, P.J.H. Builtjes, J. H. Christensen, K. Cuvelier, A. Graf, J.E. Jonson, M. Krol, J. Langner, P. Roberts, L. Rouil, R. Stern1, L. Tarrasón, P. Thunis, E. Vignati, L. White, P. Wind, Is regional air quality model diversity representative of uncertainty for ozone simulation?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24818,doi:10.1029/2006GL027610, 2006. pdf Vautard, R., Builtjes, P. H. J., Thunis, P., Cuvelier, K., Bedogni, M., Bessagnet, B., Honoré, C., Moussiopoulos, N., Pirovano G., Schaap, M., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Van Loon, M., Evaluation and intercomparison of Ozone and PM10 simulations by several chemistry-transport models over 4 european cities within the City-Delta project, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Pages 173188, 2007. pdf van de Kassteele, J., Koelemeijer, R. B. A., Dekkers, A. L. M., Schaap, M., Homan, C.D., Stein, A., Statistical mapping of PM10 concentrations over Western Europe using secondary information from dispersion modeling and MODIS satellite observations, Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess., Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 183194, doi:10.1007/s00477-006-0055-4, 2006. pdf Schaap, M., Roemer, M., Sauter, F., Boersen, G., Timmermans, R., Builjes, P.J.H., Vermeulen, A.T. 2005, LOTOS-EUROS: Documentation, TNO report B&O-A R 2005/297 Schaap, M., Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C., Dentener, F.J., Visschedijk, A.J.H., van Loon, M., Ten Brink, H.M., Putaud, J-P., Guillaume, B., Liousse, C. and Builtjes, P.J.H. (2004b) Anthropogenic Black Carbon and Fine Aerosol Distribution over Europe, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 109, D18201, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004330. Loon, M. van, Roemer, M. and Builtjes, P.J.H. (2004) Model intercomparison in the framework of the review of the Unified EMEP model, TNO-Rep. R 2004/282. Roemer, M., Beekmann, M., Bergstr¥õm, R., Boersen, G., Feldmann, H., Flat¥÷y, F., Honore, C., Langner, J., Jonson, J.-E., Matthijsen, J., Memmesheimer, M., Simpson, D, Smeets, P., Solberg, S, Stern, R., Stevenson, D., Zandveld, P. and Zlatev, Z. (2003) Ozone trends according to ten dispersion models, Special Rep. EUROTRAC-2 ISS , Munchen." 3/29/2011 18:21:00 56 "LED" "Dimiter Syrakov" "dimiter.syrakov@meteo.bg" "Acidification, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Lagrangian models" "PC" "LED" "LED (Lagrangian Eulerian Diffusion)" "a) LED" "National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology Bulgarian Academy of Sciences" "Dimiter Syrakov" "
    National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology
    66 Tzarigradsko chaussee
    1784 Sofia
    Bulgaria" "+359 2 975 39 86/87/88/91/92" "+359 2 88 03 80 / 88 44 94" "dimiter.syrakov@meteo.bg" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of pollutant dispersion at the local-to-regional and regional-to-continental scale. The model is used in Bulgarian Early Warning System of industrial accidents." "Lagrangian puff model with Eulerian dispersion of puffs." "LED, a typical puff model, is described in references. The impact of each pollutant source is presented as releases of successive clouds (puffs), transported and dispersed independently. A simple PBL model is built in LED. The wind components and the vertical velocities are used in the simplest Eulerian forward 3D scheme for calculation of the position of each puff centre at each time step. A volume-source type analytical solution of the Fick equation is applied to parametre the horizontal diffusion. The vertical distribution of the pollutant is described by four analytical solutions of the vertical diffusion equation, obtained using different boundary conditions. The processes accounted for in the model are:
    - transport,
    - horizontal and vertical diffusion,
    - chemical (radio-active) transformations,
    - dry deposition,
    - wet deposition,
    - acid rains formation." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "From 5 min to 1 hour" "Typical for mesoscale trajectory puff models, parameters can be modified by users. Horizontal resolution 75 km (41 x 39 points) and time step 1 hour were chosen for ETEX project." "The computing domain is the PBL (lowest 1000 m) divided logarithmically to 5 layers" "Transport:
    - trajectory calculation at the puff centre.
    Horizontal diffusion:
    - Eulerian, Fick equation isotropic analytical solution,
    - volume type source,
    - zero boundary conditions at infinity,
    - parametrized by puff dispersion:
    sigma^2(t+dt)=sigma^2(t)+4Kh(dt) (Kh is horizontal eddy diffusivity, dt time step)" "Vertical diffusion:
    - Eulerian, Fick equation analytical solution,
    - volume type source,
    - zero boundary condition at Z=infinity,
    - dry deposition boundary condition at Z=0." "Wet removal: - the simplest decay law, - seasonal dependence according main precipitation formatting processes." "Surface concentration and deposition, created by each puff for each time step are calculated. The sums over all current puffs give current concentration and deposition fields. Accumulation and averaging in time give the respective monthly or annual values. Details see references." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are provided in mass units per second." "Wind at 850 hPa, potential temperature at 850 hPa and at the ground level, mixing height (if available) and precipitation. ECMWF meteorological input data are currently used." "The roughness and sea-land distribution are necessary characteristic of the model area." "See model scheme description." "See model scheme description." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Concentration and deposition fields." "The model output is deposition and concentration fields (layer by layer) presented as SURFER\\'s GRD-files in ASCII format. They can be either directly visualized by this graphical package or used as numerical tables for other processing. " "Bulgarian Early Warning System of industrial accidents." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Described in different reports and conference presentations (see References). No documentation available for the moment." "Participation in ETEX-II inter calibration study - ranged 14th among 34 models in this exercise." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "IBM PC compatible computers - 486 or Pentium" "Depends on the fields dimensions, number of pollutants, time parameters (time step, release frequency, period of integration). For the ETEX exercise a version is used with 41x39 grid, one pollutant, 1 hour time step and release frequency, 3 days integration period. For this case, one run takes 3 minutes on IBM-486." "For the above case, the necessary storage is 400 Kb" "Information on the conditions for obtaining LED can be provided by the contact person." "Syrakov D., G. Djolov, D. Yordanov: Incorporation of planetary boundary layer dynamics in a numerical model of long-range air pollution transport, Boundary Layer Meteorology, 26, pp. 1-13, 1983. Syrakov D., G. Djolov, D. Yordanov: Long-range admixture transport in atmosphere in presence of inversion, Comptes rand. Bulg. Acad. Sci., v. 38, No 3, 1985. Djolov G., D. Yordanov, D. Syrakov: Modelling the long range transport of air pollutants with atmospheric boundary layer chemistry, Boundary Layer Meteorology, v. 41, 1987. Syrakov D., M.Kolarova, D.Perkauskas, K.Senuta, A.Mikelinskene: Model of long-range pollutant dispersion and acidity of precipitation for the Baltic region, Journal of Ecological Chemistry, No 2-3, 1993. Syrakov D., M.Prodanova: Europian Traser Experiment and Bulgarian Participation in its Dry Runs, Bulgarian Journal of Meteorology and Hydrology, vol.5, No 1-2, 1994. Syrakov D. and Prodanova M., Bulgarian Long-range Transport Models - Simulation of ETEX First Release, in K.Nodop , Proc. of ETEX Symposium on Long-range Atmospheric Transport, Model. Verification and Emergency Response, 13-16 May 1997, Vienna (Austria), Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, ISBN 92-828-0669-3, 141-144, 1997." 3/29/2011 18:21:02 51 "INPUFF-U" "Ion Sandu" "sandu@meteo.inmh.ro" "Air toxics, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Lagrangian models" "PC, Workstation" "INPUFF-U" "INPUFFU (Integrated Puff Model Upgraded)" "Version 4" "National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH)" "Dr. Ion Sandu" "Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics
    National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology
    Sos Bucuresti-Ploiesti 97
    71552 Bucharest,
    Romania" "+40-1-230 3142" "+40-1-230 3142" "sandu@meteo.inmh.ro" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of passive and radioactive pollutant dispersion at local scale" "Lagrangean puff dispersion model" "INPUFFU is a Lagrangeian puff dispersion model of local to urban scale, capable of simulating accidental or continuous release for both stationary or moving point sources over a spatially and temporally variable wind field. Computations can be made for a single point source at a number of receptor locations limited only by available computer memory. The algorithm is based on Gaussian puff assumptions including a vertically uniform wind direction field. Dry and wet deposition and gravitational settling are included, as well as radioactive decay. INPUFF-U utilises four distinct dispersion algorithms: the Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) scheme, the on-line scheme, the OML scheme, and the long travel time scheme. Plume rise is calculated using Briggs methods. Building downwash, buoyancy-induced dispersion, and gradual plume rise are not treated. Stack-tip downwash (optional) can be considered using the methods of Briggs." "Gaussian pollution dispersion within the puff; constant meteorological conditions within a time step; chemical reactions not included in the model; wind direction constant with height; no explicit treatment of complex terrain." "Time step: 1 min - 1 h. Simulated time period: several days" "Grid distance: 1-100 m. Domain dimension: 10-30 km (depend on the scale of accidental release or emission strengths)" "Gaussian dispersion in a puff." "Dispersion P-G scheme, on-site scheme, OML scheme, long travel time scheme
    Plume rise
    Briggs " "
    Dry deposition velocity
    Washout coefficient
    Gravitational settling velocity" "The concentration of a pollutant at x, y, z from an instantaneous puff release with an effective emission height is given by a Gaussian puff equation. Puffs motions are sensitive to changing wind speed intensity and diffusion parameters are functions of travel time. When the standard deviation of the vertical concentration distribution becomes larger than eight tenths of the mixed depth layer, the puff is assumed to be well mixed. The total contribution from all the puffs is summed at each receptor after each time step. Three dispersion algorithms are incorporated within the model to account for initial dispersion, short travel time dispersion, and long travel time dispersion. The initial dispersion algorithm handles the finite size of the release through the use of initial dispersion parameters. The short travel time algorithm has two schemes: the P-G scheme, and the on-line scheme. The P-G scheme characterises dispersion as a function of downwind distance, and the on-line scheme characterises dispersion as function of travel time. In the OML scheme the dispersion parameters are continuous functions of boundary-layer parameters. The long travel time algorithm allows the puff to grow as a function of the square root of time. The OML scheme is superior to PG scheme when using elevated sources.
    Stack-tip downwash (optional) can be considered using the methods of Briggs, in which case, a height increment is deducted from the physical stack height before momentum or buoyancy rise is determined. This option affects computations from stacks having small ratios of exit velocity to wind speed." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Wind direction (deg), wind speed (m/sec), mixing height (m), stability class, standard deviation of elevation angle (rad), standard deviation of azimuth angle (rad), ambient air temperature (K), anemometer height (m)" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Grid dimensions
    If the user-supplied wind field option is implemented, then the dimension of the meteorological grid along with the size of each grid rectangle must also be indicated. It is recommended that both grids be given a common origin.
    Source
    Location (km), emission rate (g/sec, Ci/s), physical stack height (m), stack gas temperature (K), stack diameter (m), stack gas velocity (m/sec), stack gas volume flow (m3/sec), and initial sr and ss. Source information can be updated each meteorological period.
    Receptors
    Location and height of each receptor. If dispersion is characterized by the on-site scheme, then the standard deviation of the azimuth and elevation angles are required.
    Options
    Stack-tip downwash, source update, user-supplied wind field, intermediate concentration output, puff information output." "Doses and average concentrations in air and average deposited for each receptor for all meteorological periods" "DOS, QuickWin, Unix" "Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, NIMH" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2 " "Level 2: Refer to Sandu (1994)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "PC, Workstation" "160 s for 10-h simulation, 100 receptors on a 150 MHz Pentium PC" "111 kb output file for above mentioned run" "Information provided by contact person" "Berkowicz, R., Olesen, H.R., and Torp, U., 1985.The Danish Gaussian air pollution model (OML). Proceedings of the 15th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Applications - St. Louis, USA, April 16-19, 1985. Briggs, G.A., 1969. Plume Rise. USAEC Critical Review Series. TID - 25075, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. 81 pp. Briggs, G.A., 1971. Some Recent Analyses of Plume Rise Observation. In: Proceedings of the Second International Clean Air Congress, H.M. Englund and W.T. Beery ,eds., Academic Press, N.Y., pp. 1029-1032 Briggs, G.A., 1973. Diffusion Estimation for Small Emissions. NOAA Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, Contribution File No. (Draft) 79. Oak Ridge, TN. 59pp. Briggs, G.A., 1975. Plume Rise Predictions. In: Lectures on Air Pollution and Environmental Impact Analysis, D.A. Haugen, ed., Amer.Meteorol.Soc., Boston, MA., pp. 59-111 Irwin, J.S., 1983. Estimating Plume Dispersion - A Comparison of Several Sigma Schemes. J. Climate Applied Meteorol., 22: 92 - 114 Petersen, W.B., and Lavdas L.G., 1986. INPUFF 2.0 - A Multiple Source Gaussian Puff Dispersion Algorithm. Users Guide. U.S. E.P.A., Research Triangle Park, NC. Sandu, I, Evaluation of the Gaussian puff model based on measurements, Int. J. Environ. Pollution, 4-6, 375-381 (1994) Sandu, I., Cuculeanu, V., Romanof, N., Statistical performence of few dispersion schemes for tracer experiment data at a nuclear power plant, In Proceeding of 5th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmosphere Dispersion Model for Regulatory Purposes, 18-21 May, 1998, Rhodes Greece. Turner, D.B., 1970. Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates. Office of Air Programmes Publication No. AP 26 (NTIS PB 191 482) U.S. E.P.A., Research Triangle Park, NC. 84 pp." 3/29/2011 18:21:04 50 "IFDM" "Clemens Mensink" "VITO, Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Department of Integrated Environmental Studies" "clemens.mensink@vito.be" "Boeretang 200 B-2400 MOl Belgium" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Plume-rise models, Gaussian models" "Up to 10 minutes, More than 24 hours" "PC" "IFDM" "Immission Frequency Distribution Model" "IFDM-PC (1996), IFDM-POLCA(2006)" 2006 "VITO" "Guido Cosemans" "Boeretang 200
    B2400 Mol
    Belgium" "+ 32 14 33 59 61" "+ 32 14 32 11 85" "guido.cosemans@vito.be" "http://www.vito.be/" "Guido Cosemans " "Basic" "Regulatory Modelling; Planning; Environmental Impact Assessment; Evaluating Emission Permit Granting Policy; Optimal Siting of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Networks; Evaluation alternative sanitation measures (emission reduction strategies), impact of urban traffic planning." "Bi-gaussian IFDM-PC: point sources and area sources. IFDM-POLCA: IFDM-PC + line sources and street canyons." "The Immission Frequency Distribution Model IFDM is a bi-Gaussian transport and dispersion model. It is used to assess the impact of emissions from point and area sources up to a distance of 30 km. Input to IFDM are the emissions of point and area sources in the region of interest, a receptor grid of arbitrary size and resolution, and a times series of hourly meteorological parameters over a period up to one year. For time varying emissions, such as those from space heating, the model requires a time series of daily averaged temperatures as well. The characterisation of the dispersion capacity of the atmosphere is based on the work of Bultynck-Malet, who used a Richardson-number approach. Output of the model are time series of the calculated ground-level concentrations, and the most frequently asked statistical parameters of these time series such as average; extreme values and twelve different percentiles, including P98. The output is represented under the form of tables and graphics, allowing an immediate interpretation and analysis. The output can be exported to other software. IFDM has been optimised with respect to computer time requirements, so that it can deal with huge emission inventories and a large number of receptor points with modest computer time requirements. Successive versions of IFDM are in operational use since 1972. The model has been upgraded continuously since 1972 till now. The model has been validated several times as well for complex urban and industrial regions (Antwerpen, Gent, Tessenderlo), as for the dispersion of tracer gas releases (SF6). The model was mainframe based till 1992. Then, a IBM-compatible PC-version with a simple, yet comprehensive user interface was made available to interested parties on a commercial basis. In 2006, line sources, street canyons and NO-NO2-O3 equilibrium chemistry were added in order to support new policy demands; this version is called IFDM-POLCA. " "IFDM should not be used for dispersion modelling within the zero displacement, within the wake of buildings, or beyond distances of 30 km from the source. The model is for inert pollutants only. However, a post-processor converts NOx concentrations to NO2 concentrations, using the relations between NO2 and NOx found in the Flemish Environmental Agency ambient air quality monitoring network data. " "Time series of hourly data up to a period of one year, are used as input. Output is a time series of calculated hourly or daily ground level concentrations." "No limits" "Only ground level concentrations/depositions" "Steady-state bi-Gaussian plume for each hour" "Bultynck-Malet, based on the Bulk Richardson number. " "Dry deposition: source depletion or surface depletion; Wet deposition: source depletion, proportional with rain intensity ." "The model is for inert pollutants only. However,IFDM-PC has a post-processor that converts NOx concentrations to NO2 concentrations, using the relations between NO2 and NOx found in the Flemish Environmental Agency ambient air quality monitoring network data. In IFDM-POLCA, the hourly NO2-concentrations resulting from NOx emissions near line sources and in street canyons are calculated using the photochemical equilibrium between NO, N02 and O3; the needed time series of hourly NO-NO2-O3 concentrations are computed by the BELEUROS model (Mensink and Delobbe,2005)." "For each hour of the meteorological time series given as input, the bi-Gaussian distribution function is used to compute the distribution of the material within the plume. Effective plume height is calculated according to the Briggs 1975 plume rise formulas. Transport wind speed is taken at effective plume height. Input wind speed is usually measured at 69 m or 30 m above the ground. An exponential vertical wind speed profile is used, as observed along the 124 m high meteorological tower of Mol, Belgium, which is situated over a flat, park-like landscape. " "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Point sources: x,y,stack height & diameter, temperature of gases at stack orifice, volumetric stream and pollutant mass stream plus information on working regimes.
    Area sources: x,y, diameter (squares), pollutant mass, information of daily cycle, dependency on outside temperature Line sources: x,y of road end points, pollutant mass, daily cycle Street canyon: as for the OSPM model (Berkowicz)" "Hourly: Month, Day, Hour, wind speed (m/s), direction (degree), rain (mm/h), Bultynck-Malet stability class if measured.
    Daily: day-averaged temperature" "Flat terrain, gently rolling terrain." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Receptor grid, averaging time, dry deposition velocity, wash-out coefficient. " "Time series of calculated hourly/daily/monthly concentrations for each receptor statistics: average, maximum and twelve percentiles, including: P50, P70, P90, P95, P98, P998 and P999. Other percentiles are determined by interpolation." "IFDM-PC: Yes, for data entry and (graphical)post-processing of the ouput. A report with echo of the input data, model options choosen and selected model output results is produced. Also, the results can be exported in a form ready for use in GIS. IFDM-POLCA: user interface under construction." "Consultant agencies, industries, universities, authorities. IFDM cited as is the reference model for impact assessment studies in the Flemish environmental legislation." "Urban" "Air quality modelling for the selection of populations for a biomonitoring study in Flanders, Belgium.
    Reference:
    Afbakening van biomonitoringsgebieden rondom industrieën met behulp van het IFDM_R computermodel / G. Cosemans, G. Koppen. Milieu & Gezondheid in Vlaanderen & Europa - p. 133 Vlaamse WVmg, VMM, , 2003.
    Description
    Choice of the study population for a human biomonitoring program. (http://www.vito.be/english/who/vito_en2005.pdf , page 21) The biomonitoring entails the analysis of blood and urine for levels of harmful substances and for indications for disorders like asthma and allergies, developmental problems, and cancer risk. The measuring values come from areas with different and varying levels of environmental pressures, such as cities, rural, agricultural, and industrial areas. Mothers and their newborn babies, adolescents, and adults were examined in each area.
    Initially, the scientists conducting this biomonitoring program delineated the industrial areas (heavy metals, chemistry and incinerators) by circles around the industrial sites. The circles have a radius such as to provide a sufficient number of participants required in the study. Because the winds over the flat terrains in Belgium are dominantly south west and north east, ambient air pollution caused by this industries is not uniform over such a circle. IFDM modelling provided contours of regions wherein the population is more equally exposed than it is over a circular area." "Urban" "Air quality modelling for the selection of populations for a biomonitoring study in Flanders, Belgium.
    Reference:
    Afbakening van biomonitoringsgebieden rondom industrieën met behulp van het IFDM_R computermodel / G. Cosemans, G. Koppen. Milieu & Gezondheid in Vlaanderen & Europa - p. 133 Vlaamse WVmg, VMM, , 2003.
    Description
    Choice of the study population for a human biomonitoring program. (http://www.vito.be/english/who/vito_en2005.pdf , page 21) The biomonitoring entails the analysis of blood and urine for levels of harmful substances and for indications for disorders like asthma and allergies, developmental problems, and cancer risk. The measuring values come from areas with different and varying levels of environmental pressures, such as cities, rural, agricultural, and industrial areas. Mothers and their newborn babies, adolescents, and adults were examined in each area.
    Initially, the scientists conducting this biomonitoring program delineated the industrial areas (heavy metals, chemistry and incinerators) by circles around the industrial sites. The circles have a radius such as to provide a sufficient number of participants required in the study. Because the winds over the flat terrains in Belgium are dominantly south west and north east, ambient air pollution caused by this industries is not uniform over such a circle. IFDM modelling provided contours of regions wherein the population is more equally exposed than it is over a circular area." "Urban" "Air quality modelling for the selection of populations for a biomonitoring study in Flanders, Belgium.
    Reference:
    Afbakening van biomonitoringsgebieden rondom industrieën met behulp van het IFDM_R computermodel / G. Cosemans, G. Koppen. Milieu & Gezondheid in Vlaanderen & Europa - p. 133 Vlaamse WVmg, VMM, , 2003.
    Description
    Choice of the study population for a human biomonitoring program. (http://www.vito.be/english/who/vito_en2005.pdf , page 21) The biomonitoring entails the analysis of blood and urine for levels of harmful substances and for indications for disorders like asthma and allergies, developmental problems, and cancer risk. The measuring values come from areas with different and varying levels of environmental pressures, such as cities, rural, agricultural, and industrial areas. Mothers and their newborn babies, adolescents, and adults were examined in each area.
    Initially, the scientists conducting this biomonitoring program delineated the industrial areas (heavy metals, chemistry and incinerators) by circles around the industrial sites. The circles have a radius such as to provide a sufficient number of participants required in the study. Because the winds over the flat terrains in Belgium are dominantly south west and north east, ambient air pollution caused by this industries is not uniform over such a circle. IFDM modelling provided contours of regions wherein the population is more equally exposed than it is over a circular area." "Model description in peer reviewed journal(s)
    Bultynck, H. and Malet, L. (1972), Evaluation of atmospheric dilution factors for effluents diffused from an elevated continuous point source, Tellus, Vol. 24, pp. 445-472.
    The kernel of the bi-Gaussian model IFDM is described in this paper of Bultynck and Malet. Their goal was to find (1) an easy to measure stability parameter S and (2) dependence functions *y or z (x,S) = f(S) so that the use of a tridimensional anemometer would not be necessary for the routine assessment of the diffusive capacities of the atmosphere at the height of 69 m, a height typical for the point sources (reactor and laboratory stacks) at the Belgian for Nuclear Energy Research Centre (SCK/CEN), Mol, Belgium.

    Complete user manual
    Yes, English and Dutch version available" "Model validation against analytical solutions
    Yes. In the (Bultynck and Malet, 1972) Tellus paper, it is verified that the observed sigma-z (x) under neutral conditions compares excellent with the prediction of a theoretical formula derived from the theory of G.I. Taylor.
    Model validation against reference dataset
    Yes: Copenhagen (1978/79), Kincaid (1980/81), Indianapolis (1985), Lillestrøm (1987/88).
    Olesen H.R. (1995) The model validation exercise at Mol: overview of results, Workshop on Operational Short-range Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Environmental Impact Assessment in Europe, Mol, Nov. 1994, published in Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 5, Nos. 4-6, pp. 761-784.
    Model participation at model intercomparison activities

    The Initiative on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Use in Europe was the incentive for intensive model intercomparison. IFDM was thoroughly compared with other models currently in use for regulatory purposes in Europe (Olesen,1995; Maes e.a., 1995, Cosemans e.a.,1995;Mensink e.a., 1996, Cosemans e.a., 2001).
    Whenever possible, the IFDM predictions are compared with monitored ambient air quality data using the emissions and meteorological data during that monitoring period. This is done in order to be sure that the actual air pollution situation is perfectly known, and that the model is able to predict the impact of changes in the emission situation. Such model validation can cover an entire urban and industrial area (Cosemans e.a., 1982) or be restricted to the surroundings of an industrial site with very site-specific pollutant emissions (Vanderborght e.a., 1983. " "Model intercomparison activities with IFDM started 25 years ago, when the meteorological data of several years was processed according to the mainstream stability classification schemes used in the seventies. It was found that, according to the stability classification system used, the calculated impact of a pollutant release in the atmosphere could vary importantly.
    Kretzschmar J.G. and Mertens I. (1980). Influence of the turbulence typing schemes upon the yearly average ground-level concentrations calculated by means of a mean wind direction model. Atm. Env. 14, 947-951.
    Kretzschmar J.G., Mertens I., De Baere G. and Vandervee J. (1982): Final report Task 1. Influence of the turbulence typing scheme upon the cumulative frequency distributions of the calculated relative concentrations for different averaging times, EUR 8478 EN." "An IBM-compatible PC is needed. IFDM works under MS-DOS, Windows 95-98, Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Windows XP" "e.g. 200 sources, 160 receptors, 8760 hours of meteorological data: 10 minutes on 66 MHz 486-IBM-compatible PC (IFDM-PC). 2741 line sources, 250 x 223 receptors (grid size: 5m x 5m ), 8760 hours of meteorological data: 38 hours on a 2 Ghz PC" "Needs 2 Mbytes RAM, hard disk space required depending upon number of receptors averaging time requested mix of source types specified" "IFDM-PC is available on a commercial basis." "Bultynck, H. and Malet, L. (1972), Evaluation of atmospheric dilution factors for effluents diffused from an elevated continuous point source, Tellus, Vol. 24, pp. 445-472. Cosemans, G., Kretzschmar, J.G., De Baere G. and Vandervee J. (1982), Large Scale Validation of a bi-Gaussian Dispersion Model in a Multiple Source Urban and Industrial Area, in De Wispelaere C. (Editor), Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application II, Plenum Press; pp. 709-728. Vanderborght B., Mertens I., Kretzschmar J.(1983) Comparing The Calculated And Measured Aerosol Concentrations And Depositions Around A Metallurgical Plant , Atmospheric Environment 17 (9): 1687-1701 Cosemans, G., Kretzschmar, J.G. and Maes, G. (1992), The Belgian Immission Frequency Distribution Model IFDM, in Olesen, H. and Mikkelsen, T. (Editors) Proceedings of the DCAR Workshop on Objectives for Next Generation of Practical Short-Range Atmospheric Dispersion Models, NERI, Roskilde, Denmark. Olesen H. (1995), The Model Validation Exercise at Mol: Overview of Results, International Journal of Environment and Pollution (IJEP), Vol.5, Nos.4-6, pp. 761-784. Cosemans, G., Kretzschmar, J., Janssen, L. and Maes G. (1995), The Third Workshops environmental impact assessment model intercomparison exercise, IJEP, Vol.5, Nos.4-6, pp 785-798. Maes, G., Cosemans, G., Kretzschmar, J., Janssen L. and Van Tongerloo, J (1995), Comparison of six Gaussian dispersion models used for regulatory purposes in different countries of the EU, IJEP, Vol.5, Nos.4-6, pp. 734-747. Mensink, C. and Maes, G., (1996), Comparative sensitivity study for operational short-range atmospheric dispersion models, IJEP Vol.8, Nos. 3-6, pp. 356-366. Cosemans, G., Kretzschmar, J., Dumont, G. and Roekens, E. (1997), IFDM modelling for optimal siting of air quality monitoring stations around five oil refineries, IJEP Vol.8, Nos. 3-6, pp. 391-400. Cosemans G. and Mensink, C. (1998) Results from Belgian datasets, in: COST Action 710 - Final report, Part 4, Vertical profiles of wind, temperature and turbulence, EUR 18195 EN, pp. 85-109. Cosemans, G., Ruts R. and Kretzschmar J.G.(2001)Impact assessment with the Belgian dispersion model IFDM and the New Dutch National Model, Proc. 7th int. conf. on Harmonisation within atmospheric dispersion modelling for regulatory purposes,Belgirate, Italy, 125-129. Cosemans G. and Roekens, E. (2001) Air quality monitoring and modelling near a lead works, in http://rtmod.jrc.it/~thunis/harmo7/P225.pdf Cosemans G. and Roekens, E. (2002) Assessing uncontrolled emissions near a lead works, in C. Borrego and Schayes G. (Eds.) Air pollution modeling and its applications XV, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 507-508. Mensink C. and Delobbe L.(2005)BelEUROS: Implementation and extension of the EUROS (European Operational Smog) model for policy support in Belgium, Atmospheric Processes (Scientific Support Plan for a Sustainable Development Policy SPSD1) - Editor: Vanderstraeten Martine, Belgian Science Policy, Brussels, Belgium" 3/29/2011 18:21:06 52 "KFZ.LAG" "Michael Schorling " "Schorling & Partner (http://www.schorling.net)" "schorling@schorling.net" "+49 8062 806010" "+49 8062 806015" "Kistlerweg 3, D-83620 Vagen , Germany" "Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Benzene, Lead (Pb), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Lagrangian models" "PC, Workstation" "KFZ.LAG" "KFZ.LAG (Kraftfahrzeug.Lagrange)" "Version 4.0" "January 1998" "Schorling & Partner Consulting Engineers Innsbrucker Ring 152 D - 81669 Munchen" "Dr. Ing. Michael Schorling" "
    Schorling & Partner
    Consulting Engineers
    Innsbrucker Ring 152
    D - 81669 Munchen" "+49 89 680 680 0" "+49 89 680 681 1" "schorling@schorling.net" "http://www.schorling.net" "Provided by contact person." "Basic" "Simulation of traffic induced concentration fields at the local scale" "Three-dimensional, Lagrangian dispersion model using a 3-D diagnostic, mass-consistant windfield model as preprocessor" "Along highways with high traffic loads, the thresholds for benzene, soot and nitrogendioxid, as given by many national regulatory guides, are often matched or even exceeded. In order to safeguard health standards and to assess actual loads it is more effective to carry out computer simulations than to run measurements, which give only sparse spatial information.
    KFZ.LAG is our in-house developed Lagrangian particle model to determine the loads induced by traffic. It has a broad range of possible applications and allows the investigation along urban and rural streets considering buildings, noise abatement walls or mounds, tunnels -ventilated at stacks or portals including the portal exit velocity-, cut-ins or embankments, parking houses without or with stack releases, and bridges - all in complex terrain. The traffic situation is split up into passenger cars, light and heavy lorries and its corresponding speed along the individual street sections. There are different windfield models available: a simple diagnostic model with good features of the channelling of the flow and a diagnostic model considering slope flow, blocking and kinematic effects.
    There are no restrictions with respect to grid size except physical ones. The grid number is restricted by computer memory.
    The application is menu-guided by a user shell. It facilitates the input of all input data as well as the computation of hourly and annual means and percentiles as well as the display of the graphics.
    The pollutants considered are Benzene, soot, NO2, Pb, HC, CO and SO2. The reaction from NOX to NO2 relies on a chemical model comprising 96 reactions and 24 components. The emission data stem from a German authority, can however easily be exchanged with other relevant data. The program has been validated and documented.
    A special module allows the computation of the 2-D concentration distribution in a street canyon taking into account the lee vortex effect. The grid size can be as small as 1 m in the horizontal and the vertical.
    A regression model as published by the German Ministry of Traffic fails to consider the actual meteorological situation as given in the area of interest. To correct these, the submodel BAVARIA.LAG has been developed. This model allows the fast computation of the decay function for the annual mean concentration of the above cited pollutants in flat terrain considering, however, noise abatement walls." "The turbulence induced by traffic can presently not be modelled. The emission factors are standard factors as developed by the German EPA. In the 3-D model, no lee vortices and recirculations behind obstacles are computed" "Time step: the time step is internally set according to the Lagrangian time scale" "Grid size: 5 - 100 m, as defined by the user in the user shell" "Cell height: any height, as defined by the user in the user shell" "parametrisation according to the well known literature" "according to deposition coefficients or applying sink velocities (Lagrangian particles have a vertical velocity component according to their weight.)" "NOx will be transformed to NO2 according to a chemical model comprising 24 reactants and 96 reaction equations. Input for the transformation are mean ozon level and light intensity (bright, cloudy, night). There is a sufficient concentration on HC to guarantee the reactions." "The dispersion process is considered to be Markovian, hence the equations to be solved are only of algebraic nature" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The traffic data to be inputted comprise the number and average speed of cars (passenger cars, light and heavy lorries) on each street segment or traffic lane segment. These data will be transformed to line source emissions (mg/h*m) using the emission factors provided by the German EPA." "To determine the annual means of the loads, a meteorological statistic comprising the elements windspeed, winddirection and atmospheric stability and -if available- rain rate will be used.
    For hourly means, the data for windspeed, winddirection and atmospheric stability are required.
    The ground and /or vertical wind information of several meteorological stations can be taken into account in the area of interest." "
    Gridded orography height or maps
    Building sizes and heights
    All geometrical data on the street net, bridges, tunnels, their stacks, their portals, embankements, mounds, noise abatement walls etc.
    These data will be used to generate the gridded topography data." "The (1/4, 1/2, 1 ) hourly means might be independent or conditioned on the preceding episodes" "as given by the topography" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "For tunnels, the exit velocities will be computed according to a German Regulatory Guide.
    If tunnels will be air-conditioned by use of stacks, the plume rise will be treated according to Bosanquet." "numerical data and graphs on the computed means (hourly, daily, annually) and percentiles (95,98,99...) resp." "Yes, using Tubo Pascal" "The model has been and is being used to carry out expert opinions on highway developments in Germany and Austria.
    The model is being used by other consulting offices as well as by agencies on local levels." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 1: manuals available in German." "Level 2: validation with respect to experimental data and data as measured by local agencies along highways." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? Relating the computations to the results of the validation" "Sufficient experience on a Pentium II PC The routines to be exchanged when going to a different kind of a maschine are well known." "For one species and an area of interest of about 2*2 km, using a resolution of 10 m, the annual mean, covering about 100 meteorological episodes, is computed during 1 weekend.
    The means for other species can be computed on basis of the already computed and saved data files." "RAM of 32 MB is required, the data file for the annual mean and 1 species comprise less than 100 MB" "The model is not a public domain programme. It is available to other clients. Computer runs for any area of interest can be carried out." "Schorling, M.: Die Berechnung der atmospharischen Ausbreitung, Entwicklung und Validierung eines Lagrange- Modells. Handbuch des Umweltschutzes 46. Er. Lfg. 12/ 1989, ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1989 Schorling, M.: M.Hardt: Determination of the concentration distribution due to car exhaust efjluents. The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 93, Elsevier Verlag, Aimsterdam, 1990 Schorling, M.: Berechnung der Kfz Immissionsbelastung. UWSF -Z, Umweltchem. Okotox 3 (2) 89 - 92, 1991 Schorling, M.: Computation of the Concentration Distribution due to Car Effluents. 4th International Highway Pollution Symposium 1992, Madrid Dabberdt W., Hoydysch W., Schorling M: Dispersion Modelling at Urban Intersections. The Science of the Total Environment 169 (1995) 93-102 Schorling M., Schiegl W.-E.: TA Luft. ecomed Verlag 1995 Schorling M.: Lagrangian Dispersion Model and its Application to Monitor Nuclear Power Plants. Environ. Sci. & , Pollut. Res. 2, (2) 105-106, 1995 Eickenbusch H., Swidersky, H.: Berechnung storfallbedingter Freisetzung im komplexen Gelande als Beispiel rechnergestutzter Storfallsimulation. vfdb, Zeitschrift fur Forschung und Technik im Brandschutz, 44, Sept. 1995 S. 100- 1 07 Schorling, M.: Berechnung zur Lufthygiene an Autobahnen unter Berucksichtigung von Larmschutzmassnahmen. UWSF -Z, Umweltchem. Okotox 2 (7), in Vorbereitung Eder, E; Dehos, R; Schorling, M.: On-line calculation of the dispersion of radioactive substances in air on the basis of a Lagrangian Model. Kerntechnik 62 (1997) 5-6, 1997" 3/29/2011 18:21:07 179 "ODOR-TRANSMISSION" "Dezso J. Szepesi & Katalin E. Fekete " "szd12506@ella.hu, h11275fek@ella.hu" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance" "Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ammonia (NH3)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Plume-rise models, Gaussian models" "Up to 10 minutes" "PC" "ODOR-TRANSMISSION" "ODOR-TRANSMISSION" "Version 1.1" "July 2009" "Consultants on Air Resources Management" "Melinda Cseh, Dezso J. Szepesi" "Levegokornyezeti Bt., Consultants on Air Resources Management Katona Jozsef u. 41 V/25, H-1137 Budapest, Hungary" "+ 36 1 3293940, +36.20.9341318" "+ 36 1 3293940" "szd12506@ella.hu or modellezopont@levegokornyezet.hu" "www.levegokornyezet.hu" "Melinda Cseh, modellezopont@levegokornyezet.hu" "Intermediate" "There is no general remarks." "ODOR TRANSMISSION 1.1 was developed for the estimation of gaseous odorant concentrations emitted continuously from livestock buildings, chemical factories and municipal solid waste landfills. The model can determine and visualize the area, where odor exceedances occur in a given percentage of the hours of a year.
    The model is the developed version of HNS-TRANSMISSION 1.1 (http://pandora.meng.auth.gr/mds/showlong.php?id=48&MTG_Session=adf3bcc42465a62cf8fde5803c130186#d_30).
    The improvements concerning odor dispersion modeling and visualization on Google map.
    It is downloadable at request: http://www.levegokornyezet.hu/odor.html " "Odor emission from livestock building: the emission calculation part of the Purdue model (https://engineering.purdue.edu/~odor/setback.htm), dimension: odor unit/second
    Outdoor manure storage pools: based on A.J. Herber experiments (Herber, 2002), dimension: odor unit/second
    Municipal solid waste landfills: based on Sironi et al., (2005), dimension: odor unit/second
    Dispersion model: Bi-Gaussian plume model applied on local scale " "ODOR TRANSMISSION 1.1 model is based on three main parts:
    1. Odor emission calculation
    2. Dispersion model (HNS-TRANSMISSION 1.1)
    3. Visualisation on Google-map

    1. Odor emission calculation
    Livestock buildings: the odor emission calculation is based on the Purdue model. The estimation considers: the type of animals, the number of animals, the manure removal frequency, the manure dilution factor, the area of the storage building, the wind speed above the ground, and odor abatement. The method of the estimation of odor emission is based on the Livestock Unit and factors, developed in laboratory and field works.
    Manure storage pools: The emission is calculated concerning the surface wind speed and the area of the storage basin.
    Municipal solid waste landfills: The odor emission calculation considers the annual waste acceptance in the waste disposal, the waste density, the working days in one year, the height of the daily deposited waste layer, the surface of the active parcels, the surface of the restored parcels and the total landfill surface. (see Melinda Cseh at al. to be published)

    2. Dispersion model:
    HNS-TRANSMISSION1.1 (http://pandora.meng.auth.gr/mds/showlong.php?id=48&MTG_Session=adf3bcc42465a62cf8fde5803c130186#d_30) is a Gaussian plume dispersion model. Implementing the results of odor emission calculator, the transmission of odorous gas is determined and odor exceedances are calculated against the distance around the emitting point. Szepesi at al. 2005.

    3. Visualization on Google-map:
    The setback distance around the livestock building, factory or municipal solid waste landfills - where a given odor exceedencies occurs in a year - is plotted on Google map with accuracy of plus minus 1 meter. " "Odor threshold from authorities is required. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person.
    ODOR-TRANSMISSION is currently suitable for the visualization of area sources setback distance on Google-map." "30 minutes" "No limitation.
    In the visualization setback distance (rate of the days when odor exceedencies occurs in one year) is plotted in Google maps with an accuracy of 1 meter " "One layer representative for the plume " "In case of an elevated point source the wind is taken at the level of the average effective height of the plume. In case of low-level point and area sources it is taken according to the data of wind measurements near the ground. The wind direction is evaluated for 16 sectors. The wind speed is characterized by 7 values. To achieve representative wind data two alternatives exist. Design wind maps were established to furnish readily available regionally and temporally representative wind statistics for level and quasi-level terrain of the country. For the analysis of these maps all available surface wind data series (1881-1989) and upper air ascents (1929-1989) in Hungary were considered. " "The turbulent dispersion coefficients have been determined after Nowicki (1976). Values of SygmaY and SygmaZ depend on the stability, the distance, the roughness and the effective source height. The atmospheric stability is estimated by using 300 m deep layers average lapse rate. For area sources the initial dilution is taken into consideration by means of the height and width of the sources. A correction is applied in case of light winds and topographical features." "The effects of dry and wet deposition were not considered. " "Chemistry was not considered. " "The dispersion calculation is solved by Gaussian Plume Model" "Transmission matrices are prepared by using wind speed, wind direction and stability data, measured in a five years period for Hungary by using wind fields assimilated for the whole country. " "Odor emission
    Livestock unit:
    The estimation of odor emission from a livestock building is based on Purdue model. It considers several factors, which were determined in deeper studies. The factors are based on the field and laboratory measurements of North Dakota State University, Dickinson Research Extension Center and Minnesota University.

    Outdoor storage:
    The estimation of emitted odor concentration from an outdoor storage basin in a farm is based on field experiment made by A.J. Herber et al. (2002).

    Municipal waste disposal:
    Odor emission factor estimation is according to Sironi et al. (2005). Based on experimental and literature data a model was built and used satisfactory.

    Odor emission calculator for
    Livestock buildings:
    - Animal type
    - Number of animals per type
    - Manure removal frequency
    - Manure dilution factor
    - Odor abatement factor
    - Area of the outdoor liquid odor storage basin
    - Wind velocity
    Municipal waste disposal:
    - Annual waste acceptance in the waste disposal
    - Waste density
    - Working days in one year
    - The height of the daily deposited waste layer
    - Surface of the active parcels
    - Surface of the restored parcels
    - Total landfill surface.

    Emissions in HSN-Transmission 1.1
    The calculated data given by the odor emission calculator is considered as point sources. In addition to the quantity of odorous gas, the following data are required: coordinates x and y, stack height and diameter, exit velocity and temperature of emitted matter. " "For Hungary no meteorological data is needed as it is contained in the models 3D matrix database: Hourly data of meteorological elements are used for the determination of wind direction, wind speed, stability class. Multidimensional transmission matrices are input bases for long-term estimations of pollutant concentrations. Such matrices were established for 400 points in Hungary. In the case of other countries, wind frequency, wind speed and stability class is required for the calculation." "Topography is taken into account by correcting the turbulent dispersion coefficient and the effective height of the source. Dispersion coefficient includes also the parameter of surface roughness. " "Not Available" "Not Available" "Wind direction and speed data assimilation is applied by using surface and upper air wind data at 200 stations for the whole country and for the period of 1890 - 1980. The above mentioned data were plotted on maps for each of 16 wind directions and analyzed graphically. These maps make possible to pick up or interpolate yearly average wind direction frequencies and mean speed value data at any point of the country. See details about the analysis in Development of regulatory transmission modeling in Hungary (Szepesi et al., 2005)." "Standard information representing point or area sources are necessary. Besides them: Predetermined values (odor treshold, maximum accepted frequency of exceedances) are required from national or local authorities. " "Odor threshold limit exceedencies in tables against distance. Setback distance (rate of the days when odor exceedencies occurs in one year) in Google maps with an accuracy of 1 meter." "WINDOWS Xp, Vista" "Consultants, agricultural workers, industries, authorities " "Urban" "Pig farm odor modeling at Biharkeresztes city
    Relevant reference:
    Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS

    Description:
    The odor setback distance was determined around a pig farm with 10,000 animals in Biharkeresztes in March 2009. The meteorological data are used from the model 3D data matrix. The resulted setback distance is between 750 and 1750 meters from the source point according to the relevant wind direction frequency. " "Urban" "Pig farm odor modeling at Biharkeresztes city
    Relevant reference:
    Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS

    Description:
    The odor setback distance was determined around a pig farm with 10,000 animals in Biharkeresztes in March 2009. The meteorological data are used from the model 3D data matrix. The resulted setback distance is between 750 and 1750 meters from the source point according to the relevant wind direction frequency. " "Pig farm odor modeling at Biharkeresztes city
    Relevant reference:
    Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS

    Description:
    The odor setback distance was determined around a pig farm with 10,000 animals in Biharkeresztes in March 2009. The meteorological data are used from the model 3D data matrix. The resulted setback distance is between 750 and 1750 meters from the source point according to the relevant wind direction frequency. " "Level 2: Rather good scientific documentation and less complete users manuals.
    Scientific documentation will be published in English in 2010 in the periodical IDOJARAS which can be find soon in the webpage: www.levegokornyezet.hu
    Users manual available on request from contact persons. " "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data.
    Controll model calculations for validation were carried out in 2009 by Tibor Paksa environmental inspector and Tibor Nagy Ph.D. environmental inspector at Szolnok. Both of them find the model satisfactory and suggested for further application in practice.
    Sensitivity program was carried out by Consultants on Air Resources Mamagement for different kind of animals (chicken, duck and cattle). The results of this applications showed satisfactory results. " "Comparison of odor models
    Relevant reference:
    H. Guo et al. (2004): Comparison of five models for setback distance determination from livestock sites, Canadian Biosystems Egineering
    Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS.

    Description: The model was compared to three other odor setback distance models for 12 swine farms: Purdue model, OFFSET model and W-T model was compared to ODOR-TRANSMISSION model. The livestock farms located in Minnesota, therefore the Meteorological data of Minnesota were used in the simulation. The best fit appeared with the W-T model, however in all cases a good agreement is given between the models. " "Is it expectable from EU to set special odor parameters for its countries? No, according to international practice, this is the task of national or local authorities. Which odor treshold limit values (ranging 3, 4, 5 OU/m3) and exceedances (2, 3 or 4% per year) should be applied? According to sensitivity studies, 3 OU/m3 treshold limit value and exceedences of 2% gives acceptable results. " "IBM compatible PC 486 and higher." "small CPU time (some minutes) " "200 Mb, handling the virtual map may need some additional memory" "It is available from the contact person on request " "Sironi et al. (2005), Odour emission factors for assessment and prediction of Italian MSW landfills odour impact, Atmospheric Environment 39 5387-5394. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VH3-4GNTG12-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1035131333&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=d1d31c0699ee30f1597e9fd970b02603) A.J. Herber et al. (2002), Odor Flux Measurements at a Facultative Swine Lagoon Stratified by Surface Aeration, Applied Engineering in Agriculture, American Society of Agricultural Engineers ISSN 0883-8542. H. Guo et al. (2004), Comparison of five models for setback distance determination from livestock sites, Canadian Biosystems Engineering. (http://www.engr.usask.ca/societies/csae/protectedpapers/c0338.pdf) Dezso Szepesi, Katalin Fekete, Richárd Büki, László Koncsos (2005), Development of regulatory transmission modeling in Hungary. Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS." "Yanan Xing, (2006) Evaluation of commercial air dispersion models for livestock odour dispersion simulation, Master Thesis of Science, University of Saskatchewan (http://library2.usask.ca/theses/available/etd-01012007-231203/unrestricted/xingthesis.pdf) Lim et al. (2000) Odor impact distance guideline for swine production systems, Odors and VOC Emissions, pp. 773-788(16), Water Environment Federation European Standard, (2003): Air quality - Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry EN 13725:2003 E Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, (2002) Odour Methodology Guideline Smith, R.J. and P.J. Watts. (1994). Determination of Odour Emission Rates from Cattle Feedlots: Part 1, A Review. J. Agricultural Engineering Research, Silsoe Research Institute, Silsoe, England, 57:145-155. Nowicki, M., (1976): Ein Beitrag zur Bestimmung universeller Diffusions-Koeffizienten, Arch. Meteor. Geophis. A., No. 25, 31-45. " 3/29/2011 18:22:24 178 "IMMIScpb" "Anna Mahlau" "Environmental Planning and Information Systems, IVU Umwelt, Freiburg, Germany" "anna.mahlau@ivu-umwelt.de" "http://www.ivu-umwelt.de" "Air toxics, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Gaussian models, Semi-empirical models, Chemical models" "Up to 10 minutes" "PC" "IMMIScpb" "IMMIScpb (IMMIS canyon plume box)" "Version 3.0" "September 2003" "IVU Umwelt GmbH, Germany" "Volker Diegmann" "IVU Umwelt GmbH,
    Emmy-Noether-Str. 2,
    D-79110 Freiburg,
    Germany" "+49 761 888512-0" "+49 761 888512-12" "info@ivu-umwelt.de" "http://www.immis.de/e" "Provided by contact person" "Intermediate" "Simulation of microscale air motion and inert pollutant dispersion as well as NO/NO2-conversions due to road traffic emissions within urban streets with buildings along the sides (street canyons)." "2.5-dimensional (cross-section of street) canyon plume and box model with NO/NO2-conversion" "IMMIScpb is a dispersion model to calculate time series of concentrations of pollutants caused by road traffic in street canyons based on easily available input data. IMMIScpb models street canyons as a two-dimensional cross sections and can handle a wide variety of canyon geometries with gaps between buildings, differing building heights on both sides and up to 12 lanes per section with varying emission or traffic situations. Emission data can be provided directly but is generally calculated with an integrated emission model that calculates emissions per lane based on traffic data, fleet composition, type of road, and other parameters.
    The model consists of a flow module to generate wind fields for pollutant transport in the street canyon, an empirical turbulence module for turbulent transport in the street canyon and a dispersion module. The dispersion module has sub-models for initial vehicle-induced mechanical mixing, subsequent plume dispersion along the rotor path, pollutant exchange at the canyon top via advective and diffusive (i. e. turbulent) flux exchange, pollutant recirculation, fresh air injection near the downwind wall compensating for the advective venting of the canyon, alongwind diffusion, and reflection of pollutants at canyon walls.
    If necessary background concentrations are given, the model can derive statistical parameters or time series for NO2-concentrations. " "Only straight street sections with buildings on both sides that are at least twice as long as wide with a ratio of height/width between 1/6 and 4" "Time step: 15 min - 1 hour, simulated time period: up to 1 year" "0.5 m, width of street canyon: 1 - 100 m, variable placement of calculation points" "0.5 m, height of street canyon: 1 - 100 m, variable placement of calculation points" "Flow model to generate wind fields for pollutant transport in the street canyon. " "Two dispersion models, one for flow perpendicular to the street canyon and one for flow parallel to the street, switching between models is triggered by turbulence at canyon ground. Dispersion models account for initial vehicle-induced mechanical mixing, subsequent plume dispersion along the rotor path, pollutant exchange at the canyon top via advective and diffusive (i. e. turbulent) flux exchange, pollutant recirculation, fresh air injection near the downwind wall compensating for the advective venting of the canyon, alongwind diffusion, and reflection of pollutants at canyon walls.
    Empirical turbulence model for turbulent transport in the street canyon " "none" "Based on NO-, NO2, and O3-concentrations are given, a simple physico-chemical model based on the photochemical equilibrium is used to calculate total NO2 concentrations " "Each time step is modeled separately giving a steady-state-result for the end of the time step. Rotor speed in the canyon is modeled by the Hotchkiss-Harlow approach, an analytical solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation. Based on wind tunnel experiments, these results are corrected for influences of differing ratios of width and height of the canyon and differing heights of buildings on both sides. The mechanically induced turbulence in the canyon is an empirical model considering canyon width an building heights on both sides. The dispersion model consists of several submodels that consider vehicle-induced mechanical mixing, subsequent plume dispersion along the rotor path, pollutant exchange at the canyon top via advective and diffusive (i. e. turbulent) flux exchange, pollutant recirculation, fresh air injection near the downwind wall compensating for the advective venting of the canyon, alongwind diffusion, and reflection of pollutants at canyon walls. Turbulence is modeled partly based on empirical parameters derived from wind tunnel and field studies. Dispersion itself is modeled as several plumes in the canyon in combination with a box model approach. Finally a postprocessor is applied to adjust for gaps between buildings in the street canyon, i. e. the porosity of the building situation.
    As NO and NO2 are not inert substances and their transformation process depends on the total NOX-concentration, the NO2-concentration cannot be calculated directly. Thus, IMMIScpb models NOx concentrations. If background NOx-concentrations are given, an empirical approach is used to derive an annual mean values and a 98-percentile for NO2. If information on NO-, NO2, and O3-concentrations are given, a simple physico-chemical model based on the photochemical equilibrium is used to calculate total NO2 concentrations for each time step. " "Input data generally is easily available" "Emissions are given per lane in mg/m/vehicle or calculated internally based on traffic data.
    If no emissions are given (default case), the model needs number of vehicles and speed per time step per lane; default fractions of light trucks, heavy trucks, buses, and motorcycles per section; and optional: number of passenger cars, light trucks and heavy trucks per time step per lane " "wind direction, wind speed 5 m above roof top, and temperature for each time step" "road gradient" "none" "none" "none" "average vehicle height for each lane;
    global radiation for each time step or time and date of each time step;
    optional background concentration to derive total concentrations;
    optional measurement data to automatically compare with measured data and perform statistical analyses " "Additional concentration caused by road traffic in the section for each time step for each calculation point;
    optionally: calculated emissions for the section for each time step
    Statistical parameters on modeled concentrations and optionally comparison with measured data " "Graphical user interface as integration in ArcView 3 for Windows, Integration in ArcGIS in development" "Governmental and local authorities, environmental consultants" "Urban" "research project iq mobility in Berlin, Germany (cf. References)" "Regional" "research project iq mobility in Berlin, Germany (cf. References)" "Urban" "research project iq mobility in Berlin, Germany (cf. References)" "Complete documentations available, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals." "Level 2 (Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data). Validation and evaluation against measured data in many applications (cf. References) show a good performance of the model." "???" "??? ???" "Windows PC" "< 2 min CPU time on a 3 GHz Intel PC per calculation point per substance for one year simulation time in 1-h-time steps" "less than 100 MB for the program (including emission model); 1 10 MB input data (depending on detail);
    about 2 MB output per calculation point per substance for one year simulation time in 1-h-time steps " "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining IMMIScpb can be provided by the contact person." "[1] Hotchkiss, R. S., Harlow, F. H. 1973: Air pollution transport in street canyons. EPA-R4-73.029. 1973 [2] Wiegand, G.; Yamartino, R. J. 1986: Development and Evaluation of Simple Models for the Flow, Turbulence and Pollutant Concentration Fields within an Urban Street Canyon. Atmospheric Environment 20 Nr. 11, S. 2137-2156. 1986. [3] Yamartino, R. J. 1989: Modification of Highway Air Pollution Models for Complex Site Geometries. Volume 1: Data Analyses and Developement of the CPB 3 Model. TIDG Document No. R8806-002-RD. 1989. [4] IVU GmbH 1996: Entwicklung eines Modellinstrumentariums für § 40 Abs. 2 BImSchG (Inerte Schadstoffe). Teilvorhaben I im Rahmen des Projekts 'Entwicklung eines Modellinstrumentariums zur immissionsseitigen Bewertung von Kfz-Emissionen'. FE-Vorhaben FKZ 105 02 812/2. Auftraggeber: Wuppertal Institut für Klima - Umwelt - Energie GmbH. 1996. [5] IVU GmbH 1996: Canyon Plume Box Modell, Version 3, Release 8. Handbuch. Abschlußbericht FE-Vorhaben FKZ 104 02 811. Anhang A. Im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes. 1996." "[6] ISIS 1997: Berlin Case Study 1. Use of Canyon Plume Box model and IMMISluft to predict air pollution at street level. Integrated System for Implementing Sustainability (ISIS). Guidance for policy makers, decision makers and local administrators dealing with road traffic. In cooperation with IVU GmbH. Commissioned under the European Community 'LIFE Environment' Programme. 1997. [7] Yamartino, R. J.; Strimaitis, D. G.; Messier, T. A. 2002: Modification of Highway Air Pollution Models for Complex Site Geometries. Volume I: Data Analyses and Model Developement. 2002. [8] IVU Umwelt 2004: Dispersion calculations with RCG and IMMIScpb for the Clean Air Plan of Rhein-Main region. Contracting authority: State Environmental Agency of Hesse. 2004. [9] IVU Umwelt 2005: Untersuchung des Potentials und der Umsetzbarkeit von Maßnahmen und der damit erzielbaren Minderung der Feinstaub (PM10)- und Stickoxidemission in Berlin. Auftraggeber: Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung Berlin. 2005. [10] IVU Umwelt 2006: Dispersion calculations with RCG and IMMIScpb for the Clean Air Plan of Kassel. Contracting authority: State Environmental Agency of Hesse. 2006. [11] IVU Umwelt 2006: Dispersion calculations with RCG and IMMIScpb for the Clean Air Plan of Lahn-Dill region. Contracting authority: State Environmental Agency of Hesse. 2006." 3/29/2011 18:22:26 115 "PROKAS_B" "Achim Lohmeyer " "Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG" "LOHMEYER_KA@t-online.de, thomas.flassak@lohmeyer.de" "+49 (0) 721 6251021" "+49 (0) 721 6251030" "Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG, An der Rossweid 3, D- 76229 Karlsruhe, (www.lohmeyer.de)" "Air toxics, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Benzene, Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "PC" "PROKAS_B" "PROKAS_B (additional module to PROKAS_V for estimation of concentrations in streets with Buildings)" "Version 6.5" "November 2005" "Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG" "Dr. Th. Flassak and Dr. A. Lohmeyer" "
    Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG
    An der Rossweid 3
    D-76229 Karlsruhe
    GERMANY" "+49 721 62510-0" "+49 721 62510-30" "software(at)lohmeyer.de & thomas.flassak(at)lohmeyer.de" "www.lohmeyer.de/Software" "Same as contact address" "Basic" "Determination of concentrations of traffic induced pollutants in built-up streets" "Precalculated results (nondimensionalized) of the microscale flow- and dispersions model MISKAM for 21 building patterns are used for the actual application" "PROKAS_B is an additional module to PROKAS_V. It calculates the concentrations in built-up streets caused by the emissions in these streets, PROKAS_V provides the contributions of the surrounding streets.
    PROKAS_B is based on precalculated dimensionles results with the microscale flow and dispersion model WinMISKAM for 21 building patterns. The patterns depend on the ratio of height of buildings/width of street, buildings on one or both sides of the street, and the percentage of gaps along the length of the street. See Tab 1.. Modelling of up to 5000 streets with surrounding buildings within a network of streets is possible. The influence of traffic induced turbulence is included.
    An interface exists to MOBILEV (program to determine traffic induced emissions).
    The calculated results are the concentrations (annual mean values and 98-percentils) of the air pollutants under consideration (incl. NOx and NO2) in 1.5 m distance of the walls of the surrounding buildings in 1.5 m height above ground on the side of the street, where the meteorological conditions result in the higher concentrations." "PROKAS_B is not applicable
    if the building patterns vary strongly within 50 m along the street
    if the assumption of neutral atmospheric stratification in the street is not appropriate or in areas with valley drainage flows
    in cases when the influences of buildings have to be considered in detail ." "Concentrations are determined. 1.5 m in front of the buildings in street canyons" "Concentrations at 1.5 m above ground level are calculated" "uses the microscale flow and diffusion model WinMISKAM" "same as advection" "The network of roads has to be provided by straight line sources with homogeneous emissions and building patterns. To each line source a building pattern has to be assigned. The concentrations are determined by dimensionalising the dimensionles concentrations considering the building pattern, the actual width of the street, the 3-dimensional statistic of occurrence of the 36 wind directions, 12 wind speeds and the variation of the emissions in the course of the week. The addition of the background concentration caused by surrounding streets (determined by PROKAS_V) and the concentration in the built-up streets is done time correlated with the single values in order to assure a correct determination of the 98-percentile." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Emissions of all line sources in g/s/m with variability during day and week" "Longtime 3-dimensional statistic of wind speed, wind direction and atmospheric stability" "No" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "
    Width of the street (distance of the buildings).
    Height of buildings in the street canyon (longitudional average).
    Percentage of gaps along the street canyon." "Statistical values of concentrations (usually: yearly average, 98 percentile values)" "Graphical Windows user interface" "Environmental consultants, research groups, authorities" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Complete documentations available, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals. " "Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data. (see references)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "How good do your results meat the measurements? Usually we get a discrepancy for annual mean values of -20 % to +20 % and for 98-percentils of -20 % to +50 %." "PC under WindowsNT, Win98, Win2000 and Windows XP" "Less than 1 sec. per street canyon." "8 Mbytes RAM. Disk space: less than 10 Mbytes needed for the program and output files." "The model is not a public domain program. Information on the conditions for obtaining PROKAS_B can be provided by the contact person." "Boesinger, R. (1998): Qualitaetssicherungspapier PROKAS_B. Ingenieurbuero Dr. A. Lohmeyer, An der Rossweid 3, D-76229 Karlsruhe Air quality screening studies for the main street network of cities Dresden, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Aachen, Duisburg etc. Umweltatlas Dresden (1995-98), Environmental Guidebook of Dresden; published by the office of environmental protection of the city of Dresden Verkerhrsbedingte Schadstoffbelastung im Zusammenhang mit der Planung STUTTGART 21. Untersuchungen zur Umwelt STUTTGART 21, Heft 2, Ed.: Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart, Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Abteilung Stadtklimatologie. (The summary of this report will be integated in the web-site: /www.stadtklima.de/ before April 1998) CD-ROM Stadtklima 21. Version 1998, Ed.: Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart, Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Abt. Stadtklimatologie, Gaisburgstraße 4, D-70182 Stuttgart" 3/29/2011 18:22:27 114 "PPM" "MODEL DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM" "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, LHTEE" "mds@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 310 99 6060" "+30 310 99 6012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Buoyant" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models, Lagrangian models" "PC, Workstation" "PPM" "Puff-Particle Model (PPM)" "An old and unused model version is described in the following fields (Research model with user interface. Version 3.5)" "INFRAS Ltd." "Dr. Peter de Haan" "INFRAS Muehlemattstr. 45
    3007 Bern
    Switzerland" "+41-31-370 19 14" "+41-31 370 19 10" "peter@dehaan.ch" "http://www.dehaan.ch/" "Basic" "Near- to intermediate-range dispersion (up to 10 km downwind from the source). The focus of the PPM is on the correct description of dispersion, with separate treatments for the relative and absolute dispersion processes. Especially suited for risk assessment and research on the effect of averaging time. Suited for concentration fluctuation modeling." "The Puff-Particle Model (PPM) is a research model programmed in Fortran 77. The system consists of a user interface, the main model and a post-processor. A meteorological preprocessor is not included. For simpler configurations of receptors and sources, it is able to run on a PC." "The Puff-Particle Model (PPM) uses a new approach to problems of three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion from micro- to meso-scale. The pollutant particles are grouped in clusters treated as Gaussian puffs, which are dispersed making use of the concept of relative diffusion. The centre of mass of each puff is moved along a stochastic trajectory. This trajectory is derived from particle trajectories given by a Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model. In this way, the PPM retains the advantages of traditional puff models and those of particle models and is able to take into account the correct probability density function of the stochastic velocity components. The effect of meandering (caused by turbulent eddies larger than the puff but not resolved by the flow field) is simulated by the puff centre trajectories,yielding a complete description of dispersion. The PPM is validated using measurements from three tracer experiments in Copenhagen, Lillestr¿m and Kincaid. It is furthermore used to investigate the effect of aninhomogeneity in surface roughness upon dispersion characteristics." "The PPM is designed to simulate dispersion up to 10 km from the source. It does not possess parametrisations for deposition or chemistry." "the smallest time unit in the model is one second" "Limitations to the spatial and temporal resolution of input data such as flow fields arise from memory restrictions only." "see above" "The PPM disperses particles or puffs by the mean flow (which has to be supplied by the user) by use of either: a pure particle model; a pure puff model; or a combination of both techniques.
    The dispersion schemes available are 2 types of relative as well as 2 types of absolute dispersion.
    The buoyancy (plume rise) of emissions can betaken into account by 3 different schemes.
    The concentration estimation uses six different (user-specified)schemes." "The model can be run in a fast mode (with certain restrictions to turbulent velocity components in order to avoid time steps smaller than thousands of a second) or in a scientific mode (within any constrains)." "The PPM is a fully Lagrangian model. The particle model used belongs to the more advanced type following Thomson (1987). Further explanations can be found in the literature references given below." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The PPM has no meteorological or flow-field pre-processor. The modelaccepts a range of different input data, however, as a minimum, the userhas to specify a friction velocity, a Monin-Obukhov length, and a boundarylayer depth.
    The flow-field, either as a profile or gridded,has to be specified by the user." "Concentration at user-defined point receptors in space, as well as line and arc receptors, for which integrated and maximum concentrations are calculated as well." "A user interface is available which manages all input files and ensures their correctness. The user interface has no graphical elements, and is written entirely in Fortran 77. The model itself can then be run as a batch job." "The model is suited for individual use by scientists only. Other persons should address themselves to the contact address." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level: 2
    Several scientific papers (see references at the end). But very sparseuser manuals." "Level: 2
    The model has taken part in the Initiative on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling. TheCopenhagen, Lillestroem, Kincaid and Indianapolis data sets have beenperformed, with very good results. Results and a comparison with othermodels can be found in de Haan and Rotach (1998). " "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Is the Puff-Particle Model an accelerated particle or rather animproved puff model? It is both. It can be run in a pureparticle mode, or in a pure puff mode, or in a combined mode. Since it useshighly optimised concentration estimation techniques, it is ten times faster thentraditional particle models for the same accuracy. Users of puff modelswill find the simulation of meandering and convection more interesting.Driven in puff-particle mode, the PPM offers correctly dispersed puffs (relative dispersion) while still yielding thecorrect averaged statistics of a particle model (absolute dispersion)." "Runs on any machine with a Fortran 77 or Fortran 90/95 compiler. The generated outputfiles are in plain text format and can be processed by most programs." "CPU-time ranges from ca.2 minutes on a PC per simulated hour for a single source configuration, and the model driven in its fast mode, to 1 hour CPU on a workstation persimulated hour for highly complex, scientific simulations with high resolution. " "Requests for the model should be addressed to the contact address given above. Within the framework of scientific collaboration, the model is free of costs." "de Haan, P., and Rotach, M. W. (1995): A puff-particle dispersion model. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, 5, 350-359 de Haan, P., and Rotach, M. W. (1998a): A novel approach to atmospheric dispersion modelling: the Puff-Particle Model (PPM). Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 124, 2771-2792 de Haan, P., and Rotach, M. W. (1998b): The treatment of relative dispersion within a combined Puff-Particle Model (PPM). In: Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XII, S.-E. Gryning and N. Chaumerliac (eds.), Plenum Press, New York, 389-396 de Haan, P., and Scire, J. S. (1999): Prediction of higher moments of near-source concentration by simulating the meandering of pollutant puffs. Preprints 13th Conference on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Jan. 10-15, 1999, Dallas TX. American Meteorological Society, Boston, USA de Haan, P., Scire, J. S., Strimaitis, D. G, and Rotach, M. W. (1999): Introduction of a Puff-Particle approach for near-source dispersion into the CALPUFF model. In: Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XIII, S.-E. Gryning and E. Batchvarova (eds.), Plenum Press, New York de Haan, P. (1999): On the use of Density Kernels for Concentration Estimations Within Particle and Puff Dispersion Models. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 2007-2021" 3/29/2011 18:22:29 88 "STACKS" "J.J. Erbrink & R.D.A. Scholten" "STACKS@kema.nl" "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Ozone (O3), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "PC" "STACKS" "STACKS (Short-Term Air pollutant Concentra tions, Kema modelling System)" "Version: 4.1" "November 1999" "KEMA, Arnhem, NL" "Dr. J.J. Erbrink or Ing R.D.A. Scholten" "
    P.O.Box 9035
    6800 ET ARNHEM
    The Netherlands" "31 26 3 56 23 73" "31 26 4 45 16 43" "STACKS@kema.nl" "http://www.kema.com/services/consulting/hse/airquality/Default.aspx" "Basic" "Environmental Impact statements Evaluation of emission-reduction scenario" "Gaussian dispersion model with advanced meteorology, building downwash, NO2 formation and deposition" "The model STACKS is an advanced gaussian model in which sca- ling parameters are implemented and adjusted to many measurements. Dispersion parameters are continuous functions of turbulence parameters and, in addition, they are height dependent. Also, special attention has been paid to plume rise in vertically structured atmospheres. The main features are:
    Dispersion of both M-ey and M-ez using Taylors statistical theory; the necessary turbulence parameters are functions of boundary-layer scaling parameters, which also applies for time-scale Tl.
    The boundary-layer height during stable and neutral conditions is calculated with calibrated formulae (assuming stationariness) with scaling parameters as input. For the unstable periods during the daytime the growth model of Driedonks (1982) is adapted. The vertical temperature profile is modelled separately.
    Plume rise is computed with Briggs." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "hourly - yearly" "50 m - 30 km" "0 - 2000 m" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "mass in kg/s, volume flux (m3/s), stack dimensions, time-dependent emissions, heat output" "routine meteo data (wind, temperature, insolation (optional), cloud cover." "surface roughness, soil humidity, albedo, flat terain, building wake influence included, area source included" "surface roughness, soil humidity, albedo, flat terrain, building wake influence included, area source included" "height of calculations > roughness" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "vertical temperature should be modeled to apply the model to buoyant sources; (hourly) background concentrations: optional" "ground level concentrations, all percentiles, depositions (wet + dry)" "for PC-version: user friendly (Windows) environment is available" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "rather completely documented" "All relevant modules in STACKS have been evaluated separately; not only in The Netherlands but also other countries. The plume rise module e.g. has been validated during a measuring campaign in Poland and Germany. The resulting long-term concentration pattern has been evaluated with immission data from Dutch monitoring stations and with the extended data sets of Kincaid and Prairie-grass. Additional validation took place using measured data from a Spanish power station.
    STACKS is involved in the international inter-comparison works- hops that are running in the years 1992-1996. The aim of these workshops is to give recommendations about various concepts of dispersion models that should be used preferably." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "minutes to hours" "22 Mb disk space; 8Mb RAM" "commercial (Windows) PC-version available" "ERBRINK, J.J. and BANGE, P., 1992. Modeling dispersion and NO oxidation in power plant plumes. In: Proceedings of the 19th International technical meeting of NATO-CCMS on Air Pollution Modeling and its application, 29 September - 4 October 1991, Ierapetra, Greece. Plenum Press, New York. ERBRINK, J.J., 1994. The Advanced Gaussian model STACKS. In: Proceedings of the ERCOFTAC workshop on Intercomparison of advanced practical short-range atmospheric dispersion models, (Ed. J.C. Cuvelier), Manno, Switzer- land, 29 August-3 September 1993. ERBRINK, J.J., 1994. Use of Advanced Meteorology in the Gaussian model STACKS. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 74, pp 211-235. ERBRINK, J.J.; TIEBEN, H.C.; and COSEMANS, G. 1994. Application of different dispersion models to a site near the Belgium-Dutch order. In: Proceedings of the third workshop on harmonization within atmospheric dispersion Modeling for regulatory purposes. (Eds. G. Maes and J. Kretzschmar), 21-24 November, 1994 Mol Belgium. ERBRINK, J.J., 1995. Turbulent Diffusion from Tall Stacks. The use of advanced boundary-layer meteorological parameters in the Gaussian dispersion model STACKS, Ph.D. Thesis, Free University, Amsterdam April 1995, 228 pp. " 3/29/2011 18:22:31 89 "STEM" "Gregory Carmichael" "ARIANET srl (www.aria-net.it)" "gcarmich@icaen.uiowa.edu" "+39-02-27007255" "+39-02-25708084" "via Gilino 9, 20128 Milano, ITALY " "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Summer smog, Winter smog, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "STEM" "STEM (Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model)" "STEM-II: tropospheric chemistry with photochemical oxidants; STEM-III: addition of aerosol processes." "Centre for Global & Regional Environmental Research (CGRER)" "Prof. Gregory R. Carmichael" "
    Center for Global & Regional Environmental Research
    Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
    University of Iowa
    Iowa City
    IA 52240, U.S.A." "+1- (319) 335 3333" "+1- (319) 335 3337" "gcarmich@icaen.uiowa.edu" "http://www.cgrer.uiowa.edu" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "The STEM comprehensive model has been developed to provide a theoretical basis to investigate the relationships between the emissions, atmospheric transport, chemical transformation, removal processes, and the resultant distribution of air pollutants and deposition patterns. STEM model has then been used to address a wide series of policy issues in U.S., Asia and Europe, related to acidification, cloud chemistry, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols formation." "Three-dimensional Eulerian model." "STEM has been developped at several institutions, coordinated by CGRER. Starting from emissions (area and point sources), meteorology (wind, temperature, humidity, precipitations etc.) and a set of chemical initial and boundary conditions it simulates the pollutants behaviour in the selected domain.
    The results (concentrations fields and deposition fluxes, pollutant balances) can be used to analyze in detail pollutant formation and exchange mechanisms, to detect concentration levels and trends and to study effects of alternative emissions scenarios.
    Several pre- and post-processing tools have been developped for preparation, analysis, and visualization of i/o data, as well to interface the code with meteorological and emissions models. Beside operational applications, model development is continuously going on." "The model is mainly episodic and regional/mesoscale. It has not been used for any global simulation or for longer periods of time." "Time integration steps: minutes/seconds; results stored hourly or at multiple of hours." "Grid size typically between 4*4 and 80*80 km^2; typically 15 to 80 cells in each dimension; lat-lon, UTM or polar stereographic coordinates systems." "Variable vertical spacing, with" "Upwind Crank-Nicolson-Galerkin + Forester filtering, or spectrally constrained cubics." "ABL-scaling, or Blackadar-mixing." "Deposition velocity depending on land type, season, surface meteorology, surface wetness, by means of a big leaf resistance model after Walcek (1986) and Wesley (1989)." "
    Gas-Phase: Lurmann, Lloyd ed Atkinson (1986), including a detailed biogenic mechanism, or Atkinson, Lloyd and Winges (1982).
    Aqueous-phase: based on Chameides e Davis (1982), Chameides (1984), Jacob (1986).
    Actinic flux reduction effect from clouds.
    Particulates: kinetic approach - Zhang et al. (1994), Dentener et al. (1996); thermodynamic approach - Kim et al. (1993a,b), Kim et al. (1995).
    Clouds: ASM (Easter and Hales, 1984) or RSM (Berkovitwz et al., 1989) cloud models." "Operator splitting with fractional steps; adapted semi-implicit scheme for chemistry." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Hourly SO2, NOx, VOC, NH3, CO emissions at each grid location and (optionally) at a set of point sources. Plume rise and grid cells allocation is computed for each point source." "From a wide series of diagnostic/prognostic meteorological models; among the others have been used: CALMET, MINERVE, RAMS, MM5, ECMWF." "Topography height for each grid cell." "Either by background or coarse grid results in nested runs. Flexible assignment by means of a set of vertical profiles or full 3D fields." "At lateral and top boundaries. Either by background or coarse grid results in nested runs. Flexible assignment by means of a set of vertical profiles or a series of full 2D fields." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Land use for each grid cell." "Concentrations
    Deposition Fluxes
    Domain balances and processes contribitions" "Simulations managed by a single control file; easily replaceable i/o data format." "The user community is formed by several institutions and laboratories that works on development and testing of the model; among the others: CGRER (IA), Politecnico di Milano and ENEL (Milano, Italy), Kyushu University (Japan).
    The model has been also used by governmental and local authorities in different countries.
    Users of STEM should have a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and experience in the use of complex numerical models." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2. English." "
    Level 2:
    Kitada T., Carmichael G.R., Peters L. (1984) Numerical simulation of the transport of chemically reactive species under land and sea breezes circulation, J. Clim. App. Met. 23, 1153-1172.
    Hong M.-S., Carmichael G.R. (1986) Examination of a subgrid-scale parametrization for the transport of pollutants in a nonprecipitating cumulus cloud ensemble. Atmospheric Environment 20, 2205-2217.
    Chang Y.-S., Carmichael G.R., Ueda H., Kurita H. (1990) Diagnostic evaluation of the components of the STEM-II model. Atmospheric Environment 24A, 2715-2731.
    Shim S.-G., Carmichael G.R. (1991) The STEM-II acid deposition and photochemical oxidant model - II. A diagnostic analysis of mesoscale acid deposition. Atmospheric Environment 25B, 25-45.
    Mathur R., Saylor R.D., Peters L-K. (1992) The STEM-II regional-scale acid deposition and photochemical oxidant model - IV. The impact of emission reductions on mesoscale acid deposition in the lower Ohio River Valley. Atmospheric Environment 26A, 841-861.
    Calori G., Silibello C., Volta M., Brusasca G., G. Carmichael (1998) Application of a photochemical modelling system to an intense ozone episode over Northern Italy, APMS conference, Paris, 26-29.10.98.
    Carmichael, G. R., Uno I., Phadnis M. J., Zhang Y. and Sunwoo, Y. (1998) Tropospheric ozone production and transport in the springtime in east Asia, J. Geophysical Research, 103, 10649-10671." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Standard Fortran77." "About 12 to 72 hours on workstations (IBM RISC 6000, DEC Alpha, Pentium II300) for a typical photochemical application (e.g. three days episode on a 60*60*11 grid)." "A few hundreds of Mb, for a typical application." "Available to selected groups of scientists; please check with gcarmich@icaen.uiowa.edu" "Carmichael G.R., Peters L.K., Kitada T. (1986) A second generation model for regional scale transport / chemistry / deposition. Atmospheric Environment 20, 173-188. Lurmann F.W., Lloyd A.C., Atkinson R. (1986) A chemical mechanism for use in long-range transport/acid deposition computer modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research 91, 10905-10936. Carmichael G.R., Peters L.K., Saylor R.D. (1990) The STEM-II regional scale acid deposition and photochemical oxidant model - I. An overview of model development and applications. Atmospheric Environment 25A, 2077-2090. Kitada T., Carmichael G.R., Peters L. (1984) Numerical simulation of the transport of chemically reactive species under land and sea breezes circulation, J. Clim. App. Met. 23, 1153-1172. Hong M.-S., Carmichael G.R. (1986) Examination of a subgrid-scale parametrization for the transport of pollutants in a nonprecipitating cumulus cloud ensemble. Atmospheric Environment 20, 2205-2217. Chang Y.-S., Carmichael G.R., Ueda H., Kurita H. (1990) Diagnostic evaluation of the components of the STEM-II model. Atmospheric Environment 24A, 2715-2731. Shim S.-G., Carmichael G.R. (1991) The STEM-II acid deposition and photochemical oxidant model - II. A diagnostic analysis of mesoscale acid deposition. Atmospheric Environment 25B, 25-45. Mathur R., Saylor R.D., Peters L-K. (1992) The STEM-II regional-scale acid deposition and photochemical oxidant model - IV. The impact of emission reductions on mesoscale acid deposition in the lower Ohio River Valley. Atmospheric Environment 26A, 841-861. Calori G., Silibello C., Volta M., Brusasca G., G. Carmichael (1998) Application of a photochemical modelling system to an intense ozone episode over Northern Italy, APMS conference, Paris, 26-29.10.98. Carmichael, G. R., Uno I., Phadnis M. J., Zhang Y. and Sunwoo, Y. (1998) Tropospheric ozone production and transport in the springtime in east Asia, J. Geophysical Research, 103, 10649-10671." 3/29/2011 18:22:32 111 "MOGUNTIA" "MODEL DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM" "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, LHTEE" "mds@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 310 99 6060" "+30 310 99 6012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Summer smog, Air toxics, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships, Exposure" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Global (hemispheric to global scale)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Ozone (O3), Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "10 minutes to 1 hour" "PC, Workstation, Supercomputer" "MOGUNTIA" "MOdel of the Global UNiversal Tracer transport In the Atmosphere" "An old and unused model version is described in the following fields (several versions in circulation, cf. 12. Web based COACH tutorial under way)" "August 2005" "MOGUNTIA Global Modelling" "Peter Zimmermann" "Ludwigstr. 10
    D-65479 Raunheim, GER" "+49 6131 305 424" "pez@funke-consult.de , pez@mpch-mainz.mpg.de" "http://www.moguntia-global-modelling.de/" "Same as contact person" "Basic" "An interactive PC-tutorial version of MOGUNTIA is under development." "Simulation of the large scale transport of chemical trace constituents in the global troposphere and lower stratosphere from surface to 100hPa on the basis of monthly averaged climatological data." "Eulerian grid model. Three-dimensional in space. Diagnostic large scale." "The MOGUNTIA transport is based on the - adequately to the grid resolution - ensemble averaged continuity equation of partial masses of air in the spherical pressure coordinate system.
    The large scale advection is performed with monthly mean observed or GCM horizontal wind fields and corresponding vertical veloci-ties, which are derived in the model setup with special emphasis on mass conservation of the air [8].
    Subgrid scale processes subsumed under turbulent diffusion are parameterised as a func-tion of alti-tude and proportional to the day by day de-via-tions of the winds. The turbulent boundary layer diffusion coefficients are land/sea fraction weighted functions of the local ver-tical temperature gradient.
    Deep convection is performed explicitly in coincidence with statis-tics of cumulus cloud observations [5].
    Emissions, photochemical reactions, decay or physical removal processes are up to the user and his research purpose. Chemical codes of ozone formation in the course of methane oxidation [1] and sulfur chemistry [7] are available.
    The Galerkin Finite Difference formulation was applied to the parabolic partial differential equation to set up the Jacoby matrix and simplifies the integration into an itera-tive linear equation system (cf. 7. and 8.). This characteristic property allows in MOGUNTIA the nu-merical simulation of the transport even of subdivisions of atmospheric constituents and their chemical or decay products." "Large scale impact of emission sources on the tropospheric background air composition changes as long as they are not subject to climatic feedback." "The integration time step depends on the users problem
    A 2 hr step turned out to generally be short enough to provide stable results." "10°x10° grid." "100 hPa from surface to 100hPa" "The large scale transport including advection and turbulent diffusion is formulated in Galerkin finite differences.
    Deep convection is formulated along a vertical mass exchange shape function [5]" "K-diffusion depending on the day by day variance of the large scale winds, the surface roughness, and the vertical temperature gradient." "dry and wet - Scavenging cf. [7]." "Chemistry: Up to user (Ozone scheme: 2 step Predictor - corrector method)." "The transport is performed by iterative multiplication of the every tracer mixing ratio field with the Jacobi matrix from 7.
    Deep convection is performed explicitly inside every grid column based on Cb- cloud statistics.
    Chemistry and scavenging: Alternating with transport and convection (operator splitting)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Emissions of trace constituents in concideration on 10°x10°x100hPa grid resolution in d(mixing ratio) / s." "Monthly averaged wind fields incl. day by day variations, temperatures and humidity fields for model setup (Jacobi matrix) on 10°x10°x100hPa grid resolution." "Orography optional, see-land fraction per grid cell obliged, land-use data are problem dependent" "Global mean tracer mixing ratio in most cases sufficient. 3D variability develops during first model year(s)." "Upper boundary of model region (100 hPa) either closed (unrealistic in most cases) or concentration gradient prescribed or source term (e.g. for ozone) required." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Analised gridded wind fields and corresponding temperatures (ECMWF in use). Decay- / reaction- / photolysis- / deposition- coefficients, some time dependent all on 10°x10°x100hPa grid (problem dependent)." "Monthly mean global fields of mixing ratios and production / loss rates for every grid box and tracer in consideration." "UNIX system. Web browser interactive interface in preparation." "Key users and main co-developers:
    The Netherlands : Utrecht university, Inst. for Marine and Atmos. Res. (IMAU) and RIVM.
    France : Centre des Faibles Radioacitvités Laboratoire Mixte CNRS-CEA
    Sweden : Meteorologiska institutionen Stockholms universitet
    Italy : Ispra Environment Institute Commission of the European Communities
    Germany: MOGUNTIA Global Modelling.
    Chile : Ask Sweden." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "In progress: www.moguntia-global-modelling.de" "Level 3: The model transport is routinely tested versus observa-tions of chemically inert tracers with different lifetimes such as CFCs [8], 85Kr [9] , , ²²²Rn [5] and corrections are imposed if necessary. We also participate in the WRCP model intercomparison activity [6]." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "How can I get the model to my institute? cf. Availability, bring some fantasy and modelling experience and a lot of enthusiasm. Can I increase the spatial resolution or the frequency of meteorological input? Yes, in principle, but this would require a new derivation of the transport model equation and a different discretisation scheme, i.e. a new model!" "The one tracer version with open interfaces for users individual source-, chemistry-, and sink- scenarios is under development and will be available on CD-ROM later in 1998. " "From our experiences we expect a CPU time of less than 1 min for the pure transport of one tracer over one year in 2h timesteps on a 166MHz processor under Linux. The transformation modules are under responsibility of the user and depend on his topic of research." "Should not be problem for a Pentium- PC running LINUX" "Contact the contact person, who will inform the PIs of the institutes listed under 12." "[1] Crutzen, P.J., and P.H. Zimmermann, The changing photochemistry of the troposphere, Tellus 43AB, 136-151, 1991. [2] Dentener, F.J., and P.J. Crutzen, Reactions of N2O5 on tropospheric aerosols: impact on the global distributions of NOx, O3, and OH, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 7149-7163, 1993. [3] Dentener, F.J., Carmichael G.R. and Zhang Y., The role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 1996. [4] Dentener, F.J., Thesis, Utrecht, 1993. [5] Feichter, J. and P.J. Crutzen, Parameterisation of deep cumulus convection in a global tracer transport model and its evaluation with 222Rn, Tellus, B42, 100-117, 1990. [6] Kanakidou, M., and P. J. Crutzen, Scale problems in troposperic chemistry models: Comparison of results obtained with a three dimensional model, adobting longitudinally uniform and varying emissions of NOx and NMHC. Chemosphere, 26, 787-802, 1993. [7] Krol, M.C., Treatment of transport in MOGUNTIA, in Air pollution modelling and its application, S.-E. Gryning and M.M. Millan eds., volume 18, pp. 623-624, Plenum Press, New York, 1994. [8] Krol, M.C., and van Weele, Implications of variations in photodissociation rates for global tropospheric chemistry, Atm. Environ., 31, 1257-1273, 1997. [9] Krol, M.C., van Leeuwen, P.J., and Lelieveld, Global OH trend inferred from methylchloroform measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10697-10711, 1998. [10] Kanakidou, M., F.J. Dentener and P.J. Crutzen, 1993: A global three-dimensional study of the degradation of HCFC\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s and HFC-134a in the troposphere. Proceedings of STEP-HALOCSIDE/AFEAS Workshop on Kinetics and Mechanisms for the Reactions of Halogenated Organic Compounds in the Troposphere, Dublin, Ireland, March 23-25, 1993, Campus Printing Unit, University College Dublin, 113-129. [11] Langner, J., H. Rodhe, P.J. Crutzen, P. Zimmermann, Anthropogenic influence on the distribution of tropospheric sulfate aerosol, Nature 359 (1992) 712-715 [12] Lelieveld, J. and P.J. Crutzen (1994) Role of deep cloud convection in the ozone budget of the troposphere. Science 264, 1759-1761. [13] Lelieveld, J., Crutzen P.J. and Rodhe H. , Zonal average cloud characteristics for global atmospheric chemistry modelling, Report CM-76/GLOMAC 1. Department of Meteorology, University of Stockholm, Sweden, 1989. [14] Murgatroyd, R.J., Estimation from geostrophic trajectories of horizontal diffusivities in the mid-latitude troposphere and lower stratosphere, Q.J.R.Meteorol. Soc., 95, 40-62, 1969. [15] P. J. M. Valks, G. J. M. Velders: The present-day and future impact of NOx emissions from subsonic aircraft on the atmosphere in relation to the impact of NOx surface sources Ann Geophysicae 17 (1999) 8, 1064-1079 [16] Vested et al, Appl. Math. Modelling, 16, 506-519, 1992. [17] Volz, A. and K. Kley 1988, Ozone measurements made in the 19th century: an evaluation of the Montsouris series, nature, 332, 240--242. [18] Wefers M.: Numerische Simulation der globalen 3-dimensionalenVerteilung arider Aerosolpartikel ohne Berücksichtigung der nassen Deposition, Diplomarbeit am FB Physik der Universität Mainz, 1990. [19] Wefers M. and Jaenicke R., Global 3d Distribution of Desert Aerosol from a Numerical Simulation, In : AEROSOLS, Proc. Of the third international aerosol conference, Sept. 24-27,1990, Kyoto, Japan, Pergamon Press, pp 1086-1089. [20] Zimmermann, P., Ein dreidimensionales cumerisches Transportmodell fr atmosphärische Spurenstoffe, Thesis, Mainz, 1984. [21] Zimmermann, P.H., MOGUNTIA: a handy global tracer model, in Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications VI, edited by H. van Dop, pp.593-608, NATO/CCMS, Plenum, New York, 1988. [22] Zimmermann, P.H., J. Feichter, H.K. Rath, P.J. Crutzen, and W. Weiss, A Global three-dimensional source receptor model investigation using 85Kr, Atmospheric Environment, 23, No 1, 25-35, 1989. [23] Zimmermann, P.H., The impact of aircraft released NOx to the tropospheric ozone budget, In Schumann and Wurzel (eds.) , Impact of Emissions from Aircraft and Spacecraft upon the Atmosphere, DLR Mitteilungen 94-06, Oberpfaffenhofen und Köln, ISSN 0939-298X, 174-179, 1994. [24] Zimmermann, P.H., Source segregated analysis of the tropospheric background ozone budget over Europe from a global point of view, In: H. Hass and I. Ackermann, GLOBAL and REGIONAL ATMOSPHERIC MODELING, Proceedings of the first GLOREAM Workshop Aachen, GER, 1997. " 3/29/2011 18:22:34 110 "MODIM" "Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (MODIM)" "METservice@shmu.sk" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support" "Concentrations, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "PC" "MODIM" "MODIM 4.10 (MODelling of IMissions)" "Version 4.10" "Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute" "
    Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute
    Dpt. of Air Pollution
    Dumbierska 26
    041 17 Koice
    Slovak Republic" "+421 95 6323747" "+421 6320591" "METservice@shmu.sk" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of pollutant dispersion at the local and partly local-to-regional scales for regulatory and planning purposes. Application of MODIM is recommended by the Slovak Ministry of the Environment." "Straight-line, steady-state Gaussian plume model for point and area sources and model based on numerical solution of turbulent diffusion for line sources." "
    MODIM 4.10 is a model for calculations of dispersion of passive or buoyant, continuous release from single or multiple sources, that maybe point, area, line or array of line sources. The MODIM includes two models:
    a) Straight-line, steady-state Gaussian plume model for point and area sources (most of the expressions and parameters are taken from US EPA ISC2 Model - Pasquill - Gifford stability classes in rural mode and McElroy and Pooler data for urban turbulent diffusion).
    b) AUTOMOD model based on numerical solution of steady-state turbulent diffusion equation for line or array of line sources taking in to account street configuration and street canyons geometry. AUTOMOD model was developed by F. Hesek from Geophysical Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences. The AUTOMOD is included in MDS." "Homogeneous wind field Calm wind conditions are not taken into account Absence of complex chemistry." "Model is time independent so no time steps" "Grid distance 100 m (minimum); 51x51 grid points (maximum)" "Mixing height" "a) Application of Gaussian formula
    b) Numerical integration of stationary turbulent diffusion equation" "
    a) Application of Gaussian formula (Gaussian plume model).
    b) Numerical integration of discretized equations on a staggered grid by the finite difference method." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Source location, emission rate, stack parameters (height, inside diameter, gas exit velocity and temperature) for point sources. The emission for line sources are calculated from traffic flow (the number of passenger and duty vehicles per given time interval)." "Joint frequency tables of stability class, wind speed and wind direction and mixing height." "Street configurations (network) and street canyons geometry." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The long-term average and maximum short-term concentrations, exceedance of threshold values for all grid points and concentration isolines." "Windows (95, NT) user interface" "Ministry of the Environment, local authorities, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute and other environmental agencies, industry, etc." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2: manuals available only in Slovak (at present)." "Level 3: Model validated against air pollution measurements in the Slovak Republic." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? On the basis of monitoring data by applying appropriate statistical tools." "Pentium PC." "For the typical case of a 51x51 grids and 50 point sources, city with 350 streets and complex meteorology the calculation needs about 2 hours on Pentium PC 100MHz (Windows 95)." "Full installation needs about 10 Mbytes of hard disk space. Data files can occupy an additional 50 Mbytes." "Available commercially (ENVITECH Ltd. - see references). Contact persons see above." "Szabó, G.: Mathematical modelling of air quality (in Slovak). Research report UOPP SHMI, Bratislava, 1995, 49 p. Szabó, G.: Methodology of air pollution assessment from industrial sources (in Slovak). Zbornik prac SHMI, Vol. 40, Bratislava, 1997, p. 55-103. US EPA Users Guide for ISC2, Vol. I-III, Office for air quality planning, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, 1992. ENVITECH, Ltd. (distributor of MODIM 4.10 on commercial basis). Janka Krala 16, 911 01 Trencin, Tel: +421 831 520 330, Fax: +421 831 527 293, E-mail: envitech@mail.psg.sk, http: www.envitech.sk Hesek, F.: Mathematical modelling of air pollution from mobile sources in Bratislava and Kosice. Local studies of air quality in the cities of Bratislava and Kosice, Phare EU/93/AIR/22, Final report Air Quality Modelling, V6, Appendix A, 1998, 21 p. Hesek, F.: Using of the air pollution calculation method from road traffic for highway projecting, Contributions of the Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Ser. of Meteorology, 18, 1998, p. 76-83." 3/29/2011 18:22:35 113 "OPANA" "Roberto San Jose" "roberto@fi.upm.es" "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Eutrophication, Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Lagrangian models, Chemical models" "1 to 24 hours" "PC" "OPANA" "OPANA, Operational version of ANA model; ANA stands for Atmospheric mesoscale Numerical pollution model for urban and regional Areas." "Version 4.0" "June, 2006" "Environmental Software and Modelling Group, Computer Science School, Technical University of Madrid (Spain), Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Aristotle University Thessaloniki (AUT) for version 5.0 of MEMO model, NCAR/Pen" "Prof.-Dr. Roberto San Jose" "
    Environmental Software and Modelling Group,
    Computer Science School,
    Technical University of Madrid,
    Campus de Montegancedo,
    Boadilla del Monte, 28660 Madrid
    Spain" "91-336-7465" "91-336-7412" "roberto@fi.upm.es" "http://artico.lma.fi.upm.es/" "Provided by contact person." "Advanced" "OPANA has evolved to be a robust framework and platform to run different state-of-the-art models such as CAMx, CMAQ, CHIMERE, MM5, etc." "Simulation of chemical species dispersion at local and regional scale." "Three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, prognostic mesoscale model." "
    OPANA is a prognostic mesocale air quality model which allows to simulate the air concentrations of different chemical species (primary and secondary). It is composed by a mesocale non-hydrostatic meteorological transport model (REMEST), a chemical model (CHEMA), an emission model (EMIMA), a deposition model (DEPO), a friendly graphical user interface (OPANA-VIS) -developed in Tcl/Tk -, a built-in version of VIS5D (Wisconsin University, USA), a JAVA software interface (OPANA-JAVMR) to allow automatic download of meteorological information from NOAA web server. The model has usually operated for forecasting purposes and it is already installed at Madrid Community Environmental Office (the EMMA version), Principado de Asturias (a northern spanish autonomous region) and it is under developing the versions for Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain) and Leicester (United Kingdom) (under the DGXIII EQUAL project). Further planned applications are scheduled for Madrid City and Quito (Equator). The model is designed to operate under routine basis to forecast 5-7 days of air concentrations in model domain.
    OPANA has evolved during the last five years to be used as a platform in which several meteorological and dispersion models can be run in a safe and robust mode. OPANA - with different versions - has been used for air quality impact assessments (incinerators in Basque Country (Spain) and combined cycle power plants) by including MM5 and CMAQ. The EMIMO model is a module included in OPANA which is capable to produce reliable emission estimations for different pollutants by using last information produced by EU and other providers (GEIA, Edgar, etc.)
    OPANA - last version - is nowadays producing air quality forecasting services under daily basis in Leicester City Council (U.K.), Madrid Municipality (Spain), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain). It is used as industrial air quality forecasting impact system. This is a very sophisticated tool (which was the basis of the TEAP EUREKA project) which is producing air quality forecasting impacts for different industrial plants (power plants, cement companies, etc.) running in real-time every day over cluster computer platforms." "Since the system includes normally the state-of-the-art meteorological and dispersion models, most of the limitations and aproximations are those accepted in the scientific community which are being improved along the years as a consequence of the research work." "seconds. Simulated time period: 10-15 days." "1 - 10000 m, domain dimensions: 10 - 500 km." "cell height: 1 - 500 m (varying with height), total height: up to 10 km." "Piecewise parabolic method (PPM) which is a monotonic scheme with geometric non-linear adjustments to the parabolic concentration distributions; Bott scheme which is a forth order polinomial with positive definite flux limiter; Total Value Diminishing (TVD) which is a piecewise linear with flux limiting for montinicity (about 5 times faster than PPM and less numerical diffusion) and Walcek scheme which is a piecewise linear with monotonic limiters and flux adjustments at local extremes which preserves low resolved peaks. " "We used two convective boundary layer schemes: Blackadar and ACM with improved techniques such as adding local diffusion to ACM, vertixcaly continuos integration, smooth transition from stable to convective and faster matrix solver. Also, we have an updated eddy diffusion scheme." "Wesely (1989) is the deposition framework used for chemical gases. For aerosol chemistry we use the Binkowski and Shankar (1995) approach. Essentially these schemes are base on the resistance approach which assumes a canopy, aerdynamical and bulk resistance. The canopy resistance includes all characteristics of the surface." "The CBM-IV chemical mechanism in short and long modes are included in the system. The RADM model is also included and the SAPRC-99 chemical scheme is also included. These schemes simulate the chemical reactions in the atmosfere for organic and also inorganic reactions." "There are different solution techniques for these Eulerian models. The eddy diffusion formulation requires the solution of a linear matrix equation which is solved by the Thomas algorithm (Gaussian elimination of a tridiagonal magtrix without pivoting) followed by back substitution. To solve the Blackadar scheme it is necessary to solve a sparse linear matrix equation which is done similarly than for the first case. To solve the ACM model (Asymetric Convective Model) the method is also similar than the one use for the first case. In the case of the gas-phase chemistry we use the SMVGEAR technique or the QSSA." "The input data is: meteorological information provided by MM5 mesoscale model, this information includes boundary and initial conditions from the global GFS model. Emission data from the EMIMO model. Land use provided by USGS model or EU CLC2000 (100 m) model. Tography provided by GTOPO 30.
    Additionally, air quality monitoring data is provided to callibrate the model. The surface and vertical meteorological data can be included as assimilated data for the non-forecasted period. " "emissions are produced by the EMIMO model (developed by UPM in 2001). Assistance to complement emission data from local sources is recommended. EMIMO model is an emission model which estimates pollutant emissions per hour per grid cell (1 km) in a model domain. In order to estimate thos quantities, we use reference dagtabases such as: EMEP (50 km), Land use data (1 km), EDGAR emission inventory (one degree spatial resolution), CIESIN (world population), DCW (digital chart of the world), etc. The model uses surface bottom information and top emission data sets which are complemented respectively. The model is also capable to estimate source apportionment emissions because the reference data do." "The system in the actual version is using MM5 but other versions in the past were using REMEST which is based on the MEMO model (U. Karlsruhe). MM5 is a non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model to cover alpha and beta meteorological domains. The model is capable to estimate at different levels in height, more than 150 meteorological variables and derivate values such as TKE, surface flux, etc." "GTOPO 30 is usually enough, however for specific applications in Europe 100 m CLC2000 can be used and also at street level, local topography is necessary (including height of buildings)." "At global level, we use GSM (NOAA) to provide initial meteorological for all applications. Chemistry initial data is used from continental runs on real-time http://verde.lma.fi.upm.es/cmaq_eu" "Dispersion model is using boundary conditions from European realtime operational systems such as http://verde.lma.fi.upm.es/cmaq_eu" "The system is including several mathematical techniques to assimilate surface and vertical meteorological information. Future versions will include assimilation of air quality monitoring data sets." "Land use data, topography, assistance to complement emission inventory, air quality monitoring data" "The model is customer oriented so that most of the custom requirements can be fulfilled by customising the OPANA-VIS tool. The output allows the user to select any pollutant, at any time for any spatial location. Additionally, it is possible to visualize a 4D data by using a sophisticated java-vis5d interface." "Friendly user interface which can be easily customised to user specifications." "City Council Environmental Administrations or Regional Authorities, industry, etc." "Episodes" "Into the TEAP EUREKA tool, the system is currently being used to provide real-time forecasting industrial impact assessments for power plants and other industrial plants. The industrial air quality forecasting applications produced with OPANA with different versions are: ACECA and Cementos Portland Valderrivas in Toledo and Madrid (Spain) respectively. The ACECA system is operating for Iberdrola and Unión Fenosa since August, 2005 and Cementos Portland Valderrivas will start to operate in January, 2007. The air quality forecasts are accessible over the Internet by authoritites and company representatives simultaneously. The air quality forecasts are provided in all cases from the Technical University of Madrid Laboratories.
    See the following references:
    - Air Quality real-Time Operational System for Large Industrial Plants: an application of MM5-CMAQ modeling system. R. San José, J.L. Pérez and R.M. González. Air Pollution XII. Ed. WIT Press and Computational Mechanics, Inc. (2004). 12th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and management of Air Pollution, Rhodes, 2004. ISBN: 1-85312-722-1; ISSN: 1369-5886, pp. 245-253.
    - A real-time third generation air quality forecasting system for industrial plants (TEAP): An EUREKA (EU) project R. San José, J.L. Pérez and R.M. González. International Symposium on Earth System Sciences, 2004, Istanbul Turkey. Sep. 8-10, 2004. Istanbul University. ISBN 975-404-733-2 2004 Kelebek & Grafika Grup, Istanbul. Pp. 451 458.
    - The use of MM5-CMAQ air pollution modeling system for real-time and forecasted air quality impact of industrial emissions. R. San José, Juan L. Pérez and Rosa M. González. NATO Science Series IV Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ed. Springer (2005) , ISSN: 1568-1238, ISBN: 1-4020-3350-8." "Urban" "Into the TEAP EUREKA tool, the system is currently being used to provide real-time forecasting industrial impact assessments for power plants and other industrial plants. The industrial air quality forecasting applications produced with OPANA with different versions are: ACECA and Cementos Portland Valderrivas in Toledo and Madrid (Spain) respectively. The ACECA system is operating for Iberdrola and Unión Fenosa since August, 2005 and Cementos Portland Valderrivas will start to operate in January, 2007. The air quality forecasts are accessible over the Internet by authoritites and company representatives simultaneously. The air quality forecasts are provided in all cases from the Technical University of Madrid Laboratories.
    See the following references:
    - Air Quality real-Time Operational System for Large Industrial Plants: an application of MM5-CMAQ modeling system. R. San José, J.L. Pérez and R.M. González. Air Pollution XII. Ed. WIT Press and Computational Mechanics, Inc. (2004). 12th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and management of Air Pollution, Rhodes, 2004. ISBN: 1-85312-722-1; ISSN: 1369-5886, pp. 245-253.
    - A real-time third generation air quality forecasting system for industrial plants (TEAP): An EUREKA (EU) project R. San José, J.L. Pérez and R.M. González. International Symposium on Earth System Sciences, 2004, Istanbul Turkey. Sep. 8-10, 2004. Istanbul University. ISBN 975-404-733-2 2004 Kelebek & Grafika Grup, Istanbul. Pp. 451 458.
    - The use of MM5-CMAQ air pollution modeling system for real-time and forecasted air quality impact of industrial emissions. R. San José, Juan L. Pérez and Rosa M. González. NATO Science Series IV Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ed. Springer (2005) , ISSN: 1568-1238, ISBN: 1-4020-3350-8." "Regional" "Into the TEAP EUREKA tool, the system is currently being used to provide real-time forecasting industrial impact assessments for power plants and other industrial plants. The industrial air quality forecasting applications produced with OPANA with different versions are: ACECA and Cementos Portland Valderrivas in Toledo and Madrid (Spain) respectively. The ACECA system is operating for Iberdrola and Unión Fenosa since August, 2005 and Cementos Portland Valderrivas will start to operate in January, 2007. The air quality forecasts are accessible over the Internet by authoritites and company representatives simultaneously. The air quality forecasts are provided in all cases from the Technical University of Madrid Laboratories.
    See the following references:
    - Air Quality real-Time Operational System for Large Industrial Plants: an application of MM5-CMAQ modeling system. R. San José, J.L. Pérez and R.M. González. Air Pollution XII. Ed. WIT Press and Computational Mechanics, Inc. (2004). 12th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and management of Air Pollution, Rhodes, 2004. ISBN: 1-85312-722-1; ISSN: 1369-5886, pp. 245-253.
    - A real-time third generation air quality forecasting system for industrial plants (TEAP): An EUREKA (EU) project R. San José, J.L. Pérez and R.M. González. International Symposium on Earth System Sciences, 2004, Istanbul Turkey. Sep. 8-10, 2004. Istanbul University. ISBN 975-404-733-2 2004 Kelebek & Grafika Grup, Istanbul. Pp. 451 458.
    - The use of MM5-CMAQ air pollution modeling system for real-time and forecasted air quality impact of industrial emissions. R. San José, Juan L. Pérez and Rosa M. González. NATO Science Series IV Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ed. Springer (2005) , ISSN: 1568-1238, ISBN: 1-4020-3350-8." "OPANA model is having an on-line help and on-line manual." "OPANA was evaluated at the end of EMMA project (DGXIII, 1996-98) with excellent performance. The model has operated regularly in a range of 30 % of uncertainity. The application of the EU legislation relative to air quality model performance is usually fulfilled in more than 90 % of the monitoring stations and particularly good for NO2 and O3. Less accuracy is found for CO, SO2. Good performance (40 %) is found for PM10 and PM2.5. In the proposed rank, the most adequate level is 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data.
    The system has been tested again many data during the last 10 years. Correlation coefficients between observed and modelled data have reached up to 0,9 for specific monitoring stations and applications. The model has been evaluated agains the Ozone directive and the model validation procedure described in such a Directive. This means that the hour comparison between observed and measured data has been carried out by using the respective percentiles and checking the fulfillemtn of the 50 - 60 % relation. " "The model has been tested and compared with observational data in every air quality impact assessment (callibration phase) and in every real-time air quality forecasting system developed for urban and/or industrial areas since the system is callibrated with one year air quality monitoring data in the subjected area and surroundings.
    See some references:
    - The use of the Third Generation Models (MM5-CMAQ) to evaluate the impact of industrial plant emissions: TEAP, an operational air quality forecasting tool. R. San José, J.L. Pérez and R.M. González. 4th International Conference on Urban Air Quality: Measurement, Modelling and management. Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, 25-27, March, 2003. Ed. R. S. Sokhi and J. Brechler. (2003) ISBN: 0750309547, pp. 270 273.
    - Air Quality Impact Assessment Tool for Large Industrial and Power Plants for Real-Time and Forecasting Operational Objectives. R. San José, J.L. Pérez and R.M. González. Ninth International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 1-4, June, 2004, Vol. 2Ed. P. Suppan, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH. (2003), pp. 402-406. ISBN: 3-023704-45-3
    - A mesoscale study of large industrial emission impact over Madrid Mesoscale domain by using MM5-CMAQ Modelling system. R. San José, J.L. Pérez, R. Priego and R.M. González. Ed. Springer. 4th International Conference, LSSC 2003; Sozopol, Bulgaria, June 2003. Revised Papers. ISSN: 0302-9743. ISBN: 3-540-21090-3 Springer Verlag. Pp. 320-327." "Is the model ready to be applied in any city or it is necessary to customise the application? The model MUST be customised to the specific application of the user." "The model has been installed successfully in IBM/RISC/6000 and PowerPC(AIX), Alpha/DIGITAL/UNIX/500 and PCII (400 MHz) Linux. No special problems should be expected on other platforms." "Since the model is an operational version, all applications are customised to the power of the customer computer platform. Typical application: 11-13 hours CPU-time, 5 days simulation, 96 x 96 regional model domain, 4 km resolution, 15 vertical layers, surface layer: 20 m; nested domain: 10 x 18 km, 1 km resolution, 15 vertical layers (classical overnight execution). Nowadays, with the dual core processors, considerable improvement has been done on computer capabilities" "Minimum: 128 MB RAM, Hard disk: 4 GB. Typical application as above: 512 MB RAM, 12 GB Hard disk (Alpha-500-Digital, specfp95: 19). The system (MM5-CMAQ) requires a considerable amount of disk capacity: 10 - 100 Gbytes. Specific conditions are applied for the TEAP EUREKA tool with several processor working in parallel with more than 1 Terabyte of information. " "Conditions to have a licence of OPANA framework can be provided by the contact person." "Baker, J. I. and Hites, R. A., (2000) Is Combustion the Major Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans to the Environment? A Mass Balance Investigation, Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 2879-2885. Byun, D.W., C.J. Coats, D. Hwang, S. Fine, T. Odman, A. Hannaand K.J. Galluppi (1995b): Prototyping and implementation of multiscale air quality models for high performance computing. Mission Earth Symposium, Phoenix, AZ, April 9-13, 1993. 527-532. Byun D.W., A. Hanna, C.J. Coats, and D. Hwang (1995a): Model-3 air quality model prototype science and computational concept development. Transactions of Air & Waste Management Association Speciality Conference on Regional Photochemical Measurement and Modelling Studies, Nov. 8-12, San Diego, CA. 1993, 1997-212. Byun D.W., D. Dabdub, S. Fine, A.F. Hanna, R. Mathur, M.T. Odman, A. Russell, E.J. Segall, J.H. Seinfield, P.Steenkiste, and J. Young (1996): Emerging Air Quality Modelling Technologies for High Performance Computing and Communication Environmenta, Air Pollution Modelling and Its Applications XI, ed. S.E. Gryning and F. Schiermeier. 491-502. Byun, D.W., J.K.S. Ching, J. Novak and J. Young (1997): Development and implemntation of the EPAs models-3 Initial Operating version: Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, 1998a: Twenty-Second NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Applications, 2-6, June, 1997. Air Pollution Modelling and its Application XII ed. S.E. Gryning and N. Chaumerliac, Plenum Publishing Coorp. 357-368. Byun, D.W., J. Young, G. Gipson, J. Godowitch, F. Binkowski, S. Roselle, B. Benjey, J. Pleim, J.K.S. Ching, J. Novak, C. Coats, T. Odman, A. Hanna, K. Alapaty, R. Mathur, J. McHenry, U. Shankar, S. Fine, A. Xiu and C. Jang (1998). Description of the Model-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Proceedings of the American Meteorological Society 78th Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, Jan 11-16, 1998: 264-268. Cleverly, D. H., Schaum, J., Schweer, G., Becker, J., and Winters, D. (1997). The Congener Profiles of Anthropogenic Sources of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Chlorinated Dibenzofurans in the United States, Organohalogen Compounds, 32: 430-435. Cooter, E. J., and Hutzell W. T. (2002). A Regional Atmospheric Fate and Transport Model for Atrazine, 1: Development and Implementation. Environ. Sci. Technol.; 36(19); 4091-4098. Cooter, E. J.; Hutzell, W. T.; Foreman, W. T.; Majewski, M. S (2002). A Regional Atmospheric Fate and Transport Model for Atrazine, 2: Evaluation. Environ. Sci. Technol.; 36 (21); 4593-4599. Grell, G.A., J. Duddhia, and D.R. Stauffer, 1993: A description of the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-398-+IA. Horstmann, M. and McLachlan, M. S. (1998). Atmospheric deposition of semivolatile organic compounds to two forest canopies, Atmospheric Environment, 32: 1799-1809. Jacobson M. and Turco, 1994: SMVGEAR: A Sàrse-Matrix, vectorized Gear code for atmospheric models. Atmos. Environ. 28: 273-284. Pennise, D. A. and Kamens, R. M. (1996). Dibenzofurans and the Effect of Combustion Temperature particles generated from low- and high-temperature combustion. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 2832-2842. San José R., Cortés J., Prieto J.F and González R.M. (1998) Accurate ozone prognostic patterns for Madrid area by using a high spatial and temporal Eulerian photochemical model. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 52, pp. 203-212 (1998) Ed: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (ISSN: 0167-6369; ISBN: 0-7923-5127-4). NCEA (2001). National Database of Sources of Environmental Releases of Dioxin-like Compounds in the United States, EPA-600/R-01/012, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. San José, R., Pérez J.L. and Gonzzález R.M. (2005) The evaluation of the air quality impact of an incinerator by using MM5-CMAQ-EMIMO modeling system: North of Spain case study, Thrid International Symposium on Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional and Global scales. Pp. 461-470, 26-30 September 2005, Istanbul Turkey. Thomas, G. O., Jones, J. L., and Jones, K. C. (2002). Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Furan (PCDD/F) Uptake by Pasture. Environmental Science and Technology, 36: 2372-2378. Trapp, S. and Matthies, M. (1997). Modeling Volatilization of PCDD/F from Soil and Uptake into Vegetation, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 71-74." 3/29/2011 18:22:37 112 "OML" "Helge R. Olesen " "hro@dmu.dk" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Area - volume source, Multiple source" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Gaussian models" "More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe" "OML" "Operationelle Meteorologiske Luftkvalitetsmodeller" "OML-Point 2.1, June 2001/OML-Multi 5.0, December 2005" "December 2005" "National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University" "H.R. Olesen" "National Environmental Research Institute
    Aarhus University
    P.O. Box 358
    DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
    Att. H.R. Olesen" "+45 46 30 12 00" "+45 46 30 11 14" "hro@dmu.dk" "http://oml-international.dmu.dk" "Provided by contact person." "Basic" "If the meteorological input is available, basic use of the model can be mastered in an hour of work. Familiarity with the model requires somewhat more. Users outside Denmark will normally need processed meteorological data from local stations. The preprocessing of meteorological data is a rather specialized task, which involves running the preprocessor, and possibly adapting it to local conditions." "The OML model is a modern Gaussian plume model intended to be used for distances up to about 20 km from the source. The source is typically one or more stacks, and possibly also area sources. Typically, the OML model is applied for regulatory purposes. In particular, it is the recommended model to be used for environmental impact assessments when new industrial sources are planned in Denmark. The model can be used for both high and low sources; it is not suitable for complex terrain conditions. The model requires information on emission and meteorology on an hourly basis. It computes a time series of concentrations at user-specified receptor points, from which statistics are extracted and presented to the user." "OML is a modern Gaussian plume model, based on boundary layer scaling instead of relying on Pasquill stability classification. It belongs to the same class of models as UK-ADMS, AERMOD and HPDM." "The model describes dispersion of a passive or buoyant gas from a number of sources. It is characteristic for the OML model that it does not use traditional discrete stability categories, but instead describes dispersion processes in terms of basic boundary-layer scaling parameters, such as friction velocity, Monin-Obukhov length, and the convective velocity scale. Thus, before being used by the model, meteorological measurements must be processed by a pre-processor. In the OML model, the Gaussian dispersion parameters sigma-y and sigma-z are not - as in conventional operational models - functions only of stability category and distance from the source. Instead, they are continuous functions of several boundary layer parameters. The dispersion parameters are regarded as the result of contributions from several mechanisms: convective turbulence, mechanical turbulence, plume buoyancy and building downwash. Their dependence on source height is taken explicitly into account. The plume rise is modelled by methods proposed by Briggs (1984) supplemented by a number of extensions. In contrast to most conventional models, penetration of the plume into the atmosphere above the mixing layer is not simulated as an on/off process. Instead, the extent of plume penetration is considered.
    A simple photochemical scheme is implemented in order to allow assessement of NO2." "The model is Gaussian. It thus essentially assumes that in the horizontal plane the plume has a straight centre line, pointing along the assigned wind direction. The concentration distribution is Gaussian, both horizontally and vertically. Under low wind conditions, a Gaussian model does not perform well, because the basic assumptions underlying the model are violated. The model assumes stationary conditions. In its standard version, the model does not take account of deposition. The model calculates hourly averaged concentration values. Conversion to shorter averaging times is not simple. The model does not account for changes in turbulence regimes acting on a plume due to changes in surface characteristics, e. g. from land to water or vice versa. The model is not a complex terrain model, although it does include some simple algorithms to describe dispersion over slightly hilly terrain. The handling of building effects is based on simple methods, whereas in reality, aerodynamics in the wake of a building is an extremely complex matter. The primary intent of the building effect algorithm used in OML-Point is to improve concentration estimates applicable for distances beyond ca. five building heights downwind. Concentration estimates close to buildings should not be considered reliable." "The model is designed to work with input and output in the form of one-hour averages." "Concept not applicable (the model is a Gaussian plume model)." "Concept not applicable (the model is a Gaussian plume model)." "Gaussian plume" "Boundary layer scaling" "The version currently distributed does not account for deposition." "A simple photochemical scheme is implemented in order to allow assessement of NO2, based on information on background NO, NO2, O3 as well as radiation." "Not applicable (Gaussian plume model)" "As indicated above, OML has undergone evaluations based on the Model Validation Kit (www.harmo.org/kit). Details are given in the references.
    The performance for Kincaid can be considered good, for Copenhagen fair, for Lillestrom poor. Lillestrom represents difficult meteorological conditions.
    Other data sets for model performance evaluation are indicated in the section on Validation and evaluation. " "Specify emission strengths etc. for point sources and area sources. Further indicate data concerning buildings close to the source (in order to estimate building downwash)." "Before being used by the model, meteorological measurements must be processed by a pre-processor, the OML meteorological preprocessor. For use in Denmark, processed meteorological data are available off-the-shelf for many locations. The OML meteorological preprocessor has typically as input hourly meteorological measurements from a synoptic or analogous surface station, and twice-daily vertical profiles of temperature from a nearby radiosonde station. Output is in this case hourly values of turbulence parameters: most essentially sensible heat flux, Monin-Obukhov length, friction velocity and mixing height. More specialised versions of the preprocessor have been designed for non-standard input such as mast measurements instead of synoptic surface data. The main elements of the meteorological preprocessor have been documented in a number of publications, e.g. Olesen and Brown (1992) and Berkowicz and Prahm (1982)." "Specified in the form of terrain heights at receptor locations." "Not applicable" "Not applicable" "Not applicable" "Receptor data: position and height of receptors" "The usual output from a model run is a number of summary tables. The OML-Multi version allows far more flexibility in output than the OML-Point version. For OML-Multi, output tables include averages, 99-percentiles and many other statistics related to EU limit values. Tables can be produced on a monthly, yearly or overall basis, calculated at each receptor. OML-Multi can display the results in the form of simple maps. Further, the tables may be exported and subjected to further data processing such as graphical presentation etc. by third party software." "The model exists in two main versions, OML-Point 2.1 and OML-Multi 5.0. Both these versions have a Windows interface. OML-Multi allows the user to choose either English or Danish language for the menus." "The OML model is being widely used in Denmark by non-expert users in local environmental agencies, by consulting engineers and by large industries. If the meteorological input is available, basic use of the model can be mastered in an hour of work. Familiarity with the model requires somewhat more. Users outside Denmark will normally need processed meteorological data from local stations. The preprocessing of meteorological data is a rather specialized task, which involves running the preprocessor, and possibly adapting it to local conditions." "Urban" "The OML model has been adjusted into a version that is suitable for dispersion modelling along motorways, referred to as OML Highway.
    It was developed and tested based on a three-month experimental campaign, where NOX and NO2 were monitored at several distances up to 300 m from a motorway.

    References:
    Jensen, S.S., Løfstrøm, P., Berkowicz, R., Olesen, H.R., Frydendall, J., Fuglsang, K. & Hummelshøj, P. (2004): Air quality along motorways - measurement campaign and model calculations. National Environmental Research Institute. NERI Technical Report 522, 67 pp. (in Danish). http://www2.dmu.dk/1_Viden/2_Publikationer/3_Fagrapporter/rapporter/FR522.pdf

    Berger, J., Berkowicz, R., Walker, S-E., Denby, B., Løfstrøm, P., Ketzel, M. & Kukkonen, J.: Evaluation And Inter-Comparison Of Open Road Line Source Models Currently Being Used In The Nordic Countries: A NORPAC Project. 11th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, UK, July 2-5, 2007. Available at http://www.harmo.org/Conferences/Proceedings/_Cambridge/matchAuthor.asp?StrName=berger&topicID=0 " "Urban" "The OML model has been adjusted into a version that is suitable for dispersion modelling along motorways, referred to as OML Highway.
    It was developed and tested based on a three-month experimental campaign, where NOX and NO2 were monitored at several distances up to 300 m from a motorway.

    References:
    Jensen, S.S., Løfstrøm, P., Berkowicz, R., Olesen, H.R., Frydendall, J., Fuglsang, K. & Hummelshøj, P. (2004): Air quality along motorways - measurement campaign and model calculations. National Environmental Research Institute. NERI Technical Report 522, 67 pp. (in Danish). http://www2.dmu.dk/1_Viden/2_Publikationer/3_Fagrapporter/rapporter/FR522.pdf

    Berger, J., Berkowicz, R., Walker, S-E., Denby, B., Løfstrøm, P., Ketzel, M. & Kukkonen, J.: Evaluation And Inter-Comparison Of Open Road Line Source Models Currently Being Used In The Nordic Countries: A NORPAC Project. 11th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, UK, July 2-5, 2007. Available at http://www.harmo.org/Conferences/Proceedings/_Cambridge/matchAuthor.asp?StrName=berger&topicID=0 " "Urban" "The OML model has been adjusted into a version that is suitable for dispersion modelling along motorways, referred to as OML Highway.
    It was developed and tested based on a three-month experimental campaign, where NOX and NO2 were monitored at several distances up to 300 m from a motorway.

    References:
    Jensen, S.S., Løfstrøm, P., Berkowicz, R., Olesen, H.R., Frydendall, J., Fuglsang, K. & Hummelshøj, P. (2004): Air quality along motorways - measurement campaign and model calculations. National Environmental Research Institute. NERI Technical Report 522, 67 pp. (in Danish). http://www2.dmu.dk/1_Viden/2_Publikationer/3_Fagrapporter/rapporter/FR522.pdf

    Berger, J., Berkowicz, R., Walker, S-E., Denby, B., Løfstrøm, P., Ketzel, M. & Kukkonen, J.: Evaluation And Inter-Comparison Of Open Road Line Source Models Currently Being Used In The Nordic Countries: A NORPAC Project. 11th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, UK, July 2-5, 2007. Available at http://www.harmo.org/Conferences/Proceedings/_Cambridge/matchAuthor.asp?StrName=berger&topicID=0 " "Level 2: The user manual is a brief Getting-Started manual, whereas there is detailed help text associated with the model - this can be downloaded from the OML web site, http://oml-international.dmu.dk.
    The various parts of the model and the associated meteorological preprocessor have been described in many publications, the most detailed of which are reports by the Danish National Environmental Research Institute.
    A general description of the model and the contexts in which it is used is given by Olesen (1995a). A relatively detailed description of the model is given by Berkowicz et al. (1986) and Olesen et al. (1992). Extensive technical documentation is found in Olesen et al. (2007a). " "Level 2: The model has been tested against several experimental data sets (see the next sections)." "This section describes two types of model intercomparisons:

    A. Evaluations performed in the framework of a European model evaluation exercise in 1994, which allowed several models to be compared on an equal basis, using the so-called Model Validation Kit (www.harmo.org/kit, and Olesen, 1995b). These results are indicated as follows:
    For Kincaid, which is a 189 m tall, very buoyant power plant stack.
    For Copenhagen, which is a non-buoyant release from a height of 115 m.
    For Lillestrom, which is a non-buoyant release from a height of 36 m during Norwegian winter.

    For the Kincaid data set, as reported in Olesen (1995a), the following statistics were obtained for arc-wise maximum concentrations, considering data of Quality 3: Fractional Bias (FB) 0.135; observations within a factor of two (FA2): 0.55.
    For the Copenhagen data set (same reference), referring to cross-wind integrated concentrations: FB=0.57, FA2=0.57
    For the Lillestrom data set (same reference), referring to cross-wind integrated concentrations: FB=0.93, FA2=0.25.

    B. Model performance evaluations (model results compared with experimental data) in other contexts. These are briefly listed below.
    Borris, Denmark (experiment conducted 1992-1995, see Olesen et al., 2007a.)
    Prairie Grass, USA (1957, see Olesen et al., 2007a and Olesen et al., 2007b.)
    Indianapolis Power Plant, USA (1985, see Olesen, 1997 )
    Asnaes Power Plant, Denmark (1986 see Olesen et al., 1992.)
    Ensted, Power Plant, Denmark (1988, see Olesen et al., 1992.)
    Thompson`s wind tunnel data (1990, see Olesen et al., 2007a and Olesen et al., 2009). " "Can the model be applied in country X? Note the section on model limitations. In particular, the model is not suitable for mountainous terrain. Further, note some limitations of the meteorological preprocessor: (a) The Coriolis parameter is used for mixing height calculations. This approach is not reasonable close to the Equator. (b) In the preprocessor, some assumptions are made concerning the time of day for launching of radiosondes. These assumptions are only reasonable for longitudes between roughly 90 degrees East and 15 degrees West." "The model can run on any Pentium PC with Windows 9x, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7." "As a guide to the computational resources required, the computer time used by OML-Multi for calculations with one source in a net of 400 receptor points and with one year of meteorology is less than 5 seconds with a 2 Ghz PC." "10 MB disk space" "The following versions are currently distributed:
    OML-Point 2.1 (Guidelines version) Windows (in Danish only). The interface was last revised in June 2001. The core program has version date 960410.
    OML-Point is a version specifically intended for regulatory applications in Denmark.
    OML-Multi 5.0, Windows (in Danish and English). Updated December 2005.
    OML-Multi: used for point sources that cannot be considered collocated, and for area sources. It has much increased capabilities compared to OML-Point.
    The versions are final, operational versions. The OML meteorological preprocessor is not part of the model, but can be obtained free of charge on request.
    The prices are:
    The Guidelines version of OML-Point: D.kr. 1200 (approx. Euro 150, excl. VAT).
    OML-Multi: Euro 2100, excl. VAT).
    A demo version of OML-Multi (with limited lifetime) is available upon request to hro@dmu.dk." "Berkowicz, R. and Prahm, L.P. (1982): Sensible heat flux estimated from routine meteorological data by the resistance method. J.App.Met. 21, 1845-1864. Berkowicz, R., Olesen, H.R. and Torp, U. (1986): The Danish Gaussian air pollution model (OML): Description, test and sensitivity analysis in view of regulatory applications. In: Air Pollution Modeling and its Application V. C. De Wispelaere, F. A. Schiermeier, and N.V. Gillani (eds.). Plenum Press, New York. Olesen, H.R., Berkowicz, R.B, Løfstrøm, P. (2007a): OML: Review of model formulation. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. 130pp. NERI Technical Report No. 609, http://www.dmu.dk/Pub/FR609.pdf . Olesen, H.R., Berkowicz, R., Løfstrøm, P. (2007b): Evaulation of OML and AERMOD. 11th International conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, July 2-5, 2007. 5-page extended abstract at http://www2.dmu.dk/atmosphericenvironment/Docs/Evaluation_OML_AERMOD.pdf Olesen, H.R, R. Berkowicz, M. Ketzel, P. Løfstrøm (2009): Validation of OML, AERMOD/PRIME and MISKAM using the Thompson wind-tunnel dataset for simple stack-building configurations. Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 131:7383 Olesen, H.R. (1995b): The model validation exercise at Mol. Overview of results. Workshop on Operational Short-range Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Environmental Impact Assessment in Europe, Mol, Belgium, Nov. 1994, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 5, Nos. 4-6, pp. 761-784." "National Environmental Research Institute: OML-Multi 5.0 getting started. December 2005. Brief user`s guide that can be downloaded from the OML web site, http://oml-international.dmu.dk. This site also gives access to the detailed help text associated with the model. Olesen, H.R. and Brown, N. (1992, 2. edition): The OML meteorological preprocessor - a software package for the preparation of meteorological data for dispersion models. MST LUFT-A 122. National Environmental Research Institute, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark Olesen, H.R., Lofstrom, P., Berkowicz, R. and Jensen, A.B. (1992): An improved dispersion model for regulatory use - the OML model. In: Air Pollution Modeling and its Application IX, H. van Dop and G. Kallos (eds.). Plenum Press, New York. Olesen, H.R. (1995a): Regulatory Dispersion Modelling in Denmark. Workshop on Operational Short-range Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Environmental Impact Assessment in Europe, Mol, Belgium, Nov. 1994, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 5, Nos. 4-6, 412-417. Olesen, H.R. (1997): Pilot Study: Extension of the Model Validation Kit. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 8(3-6): 378-387." 3/29/2011 18:22:39 80 "REMOTA" "Andrzej Mazur" "andrzej_mazur@imgw.pl" "Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Lead (Pb), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "PC" "REMOTA" "REMOTA (REgional MOdel for Transport of Air Pollutants)" "REMOTA 2.0 (fully three-dimensional)" "Institute of Meteorology and Water Management" "Andrzej Mazur" "
    Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - Warsaw
    Division - Meteorology Centre
    61 Podlesna str.
    PL-01-673 Warsaw
    Poland" "+48 22 835 28 13" "+48 22 835 28 13" "andrzej_mazur@imgw.pl" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of pollutant dispersion at the regional scale" "Three-dimensional, Eulerian" "REMOTA is a simulation model which allows describing the dispersion of multiple pollutants. The processes horizontal advection and vertical diffusion, dry deposition and wet removal are accounted for in the model. The governing equations! are solved in terrain-following co-ordinates. The numerical solution is based on discretization applied on a staggered grid. Conservative properties are fully preserved within the discrete model equations. Advective terms are treated with the Bott\\'s type scheme with boundary conditions assumed zero at flow and open at outflow. Constant background, however, may be applied. Turbulent diffusion is described with the simple implicit scheme. The bottom boundary condition is the dry deposition flux, the top boundary condition is an open one." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Time step: 15 to 30 minutes (depends on grid size)" "Grid size: from 15 to 300km (user-defined), domain dimension (approx.) up to 3000 km" "User defined" "Bott\\'s type scheme, flux-type, 1st order explicit, conservative, transportive, positively defined, limited numerical diffusion; 3rd order polynomials used for fitting concentration." "Diffusion
    Implicit scheme, inducing matrix equation solved subsequently with the Gaussian elimination method. The dry deposition flux is used as bottom boundary condition, dry deposition velocity prescribed at each grid point for each pollutant." "Wet removal
    Simple decay approach, coefficient depending on rain intensity

    Aerosol specific processes
    Dry deposition using a dry deposition velocity approach" "The discretized equations are solved numerically. One-dimensional schemes are created for every dimension for advection and diffusion. They are applied sequentially for each time step. Source concentration is added at every time step." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are provided in mass units per second." "User should supply the model with U-, V-, Kz profile fields as well as precipitation intensity and dry deposition velocity fields. A simple PBL model is built for REMOTA producing U-, V-, W- and Kz-profiles at each grid point from surface data and temperature difference from two levels." "Orography height, surface type (sea-land mask) are to be provided for each grid location" "Initial concentration/deposition field may be optionally introduced" "See model description summary" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "An initial file containing control parameters is required Some MS Windows-based libraries/drivers are also required User has a possibility to set selected/all fields as constant values (predetermined)." "Concentration and deposition fields in SURFER" "PC-DOS operating system" "PC-DOS operating system" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2: Described in miscellaneous reports and conference presentations (see References)." "Level 2: Validated on the Institute of Forest Research data base (results for 1990)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "IBM PC compatible computers - 486 or higher (Pentium 133MHz recommended)" "One year simulation over the grid of 47x27 points, one pollutant, 5 layer version, takes approx. 4 hours using Pentium 133MHz" "Same case: Approx. 4 Mbytes needed for (all) output files." "Information on the conditions for obtaining REMOTA can be provided by the contact person." "Hrehoruk J., Grzybowska A., Mazur A., Frydzinska B., Bartnicki J., Modzelewski H., Bartnicka H., 1993: Regional Model for Atmospheric Transport of Heavy Metals over Poland. IMWM News 16(3), pp. 49-63 (in Polish). Bartnicki J., Bartnicka H., Hrehoruk J., Grzybowska A., Mazur A., Modzelewski H., Frydzinska B., 1994: The contamination of natural environment in Poland by heavy metals evaluated by the regional model for atmospheric transport. IMWM Research Papers, Series: Meteorology - 21 (in Polish). Bartnicki J., Hrehoruk J., Mazur A., Grzybowska A., 1995: Emission inventory and regional model for the atmospheric transport of heavy metals over Poland. Proceedings from Seminar & Workshop on Arctic Atmospheric Research: Pollution and Climate, Roskilde, Denmark, 16-18 March, 1995, NERI Technical Report No. 134 Mazur A., Bartnicki J., Hrehoruk J., Grzybowska A., 1995: Regional model for the atmospheric transport of heavy metals over Poland. Proceedings from 10th World Clean Air Congress and Exhibition, Espoo, Finland, 28 May - 2 June 1995, vol. 2, session B8, no. 316. Finnish Air Pollution Prevention Society. Mazur A., Hrehoruk J., 1997: The estimation of influence of industry-emitted heavy metals on the natural environment in Poland. Final report on application task A-6 (in Polish). Work sponsored by the Polish Ministry of Environment Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry. Mazur A., Hrehoruk J., 1997: Evaluation of two models for the long-range transport of pollutants in the frame of ETEX-Phase II Project. Proceedings from ETEX Symposium on Long-range Atmospheric Transport, Model Verification and Emergency Response, Vienna, 13-16 May 1997, pp. 137-139, European Commission EUR 17346 Mazur A., Hrehoruk J., 1997: The regional model for atmospheric transport of heavy metals over Poland. Chemia i Inzynieria Ekologiczna 4(4), pp. 529-549, (in Polish)." 3/29/2011 18:22:40 86 "SMOGSTOP" "Clemens Mensink" "VITO, Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Department of Integrated Environmental Studies" "clemens.mensink@vito.be" "Boeretang 200 B-2400 MOl Belgium" "Tropospheric ozone, Summer smog, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Public information" "Concentrations" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Ozone (O3)" "Chemically active" "Stochastic models" "Up to 10 minutes" "PC, Workstation" "SMOGSTOP" "SMOGSTOP (Statistical Model Of Groundlevel Short Term Ozone Pollution)" "SMOGSTOP 5.2" "March 2006" "VITO - Integral Environmental Studies - Atmospheric Processes" "Stijn Janssen" "
    Boeretang 200
    B-2400 Mol
    Belgium" "+32.14.33.59.67" "+32.14.32.11.85" "stijn.janssen@vito.be" "www.vito.be" "Basic" "Maximum daily ozone concentration forecasts for Belgium. Expandable to other countries, regions or cities." "
    Combination of:
    Statistical non-parametric model
    Artificial Neural Network model" "Statistical models are usually looking for relationships disregarding as much as possible the outliers. Ozone pollution forecasting is concerned with the opposite: we have to forecast the extremities (high ozone concentration levels) as good as possible and we are less interested in the forecasts for the mainstream ozone concentration levels. Where classic models failed to give accurate forecasts, the approach followed in the SMOGSTOP model performed well, considering the very limited number of input variables that the model uses (temperature related variables, wind speed, previous day maximum levels of ozone and morning concentrations of ozone).
    The model consists of two different types of statistical models. The first one is an artificial neural network, the second one is based on stratified pattern matching on the historical data base.
    Output is calculated for both types of models up to two days in advance. Expert judgment can select one of the outputs to publish in a forecast bulletin.
    The model uses data from meteorological stations and concentration data from 32 pollution measurement sites in Belgium.
    The model generates forecasts of maximum hourly concentrations of ozone per measurement site. The model then provides a module that interpolates these data over the Belgian territory using a novel interpolation technique, known as RIO. Especially in urbanized regions, the technique performs much better than standard interpolation techniques.
    The software is designed for PC platforms, WINDOWS based and accompanied by a user friendly interface. A Fortran version is developed for runs on Linux. With a limited effort to adapt the software, the model is easily transferable to other countries, regions and cities." "SMOGSTOP is trained on historical time series. Only summer data is taken into account. SMOGSTOP is operational in from April until September.
    The model only produces forecasts which are representative in the (direct) vicinity of the monitoring locations. In order to produce a spatial map from those point values, an additional interpolation module, called RIO, is provided." "Forecast for ozone day maximum." "Interpolation on a 4x4 km grid by the RIO model." "Forecasts are only made for ground level concentrations." "Not applicable." "Not applicable." "Not applicable." "Not applicable." "The model consists of two different types of statistical models. The first one is an artificial neural network, trained on a historical database. The strength of the neural network is its capability to deal with non-linear relations between input and output. Further, it can very flexibly handle a wide range of input variables and is extremely fast from a computational point of view.
    The second technique could be described as stratified pattern matching. The historical time series data are stratified into a number of classes according to the observed ozone concentration. On the basis of a subset of the explanatory variables, a probability for the ozone concentration to be in any one of the classes is calculated. Within each of the classes the closest match with historical data is sought. The corresponding ozone concentration, and the calculated class membership probabilities are used to generate the ozone forecasts. " "SMOGSTOP input data consists of forecasted meteo values (minimum and maximum temperature, wind speed) and near real-time ozone measurements. The local meteo forecasts can be taken from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The near real-time ozone measurements are collected from the telemetric network of the three Belgian regions (Flanders, Walloon, Brussels). Since SMOGSTOP runs in a fully automated operational mode, no profound quality checks can be applied on the input data. The real-time ozone measurements are not validated. " "No emission data is required. This is a strong advantage of the SMOGSTOP model." "The meteorological input consists of:
    Forecast of maximum temperature;
    Forecast of difference of maximum and minimum temperature;
    Forecast of average wind speed." "Since SMOGSTOP is a self-learning system, it is applicable for any terrain." "The initial conditions of the model consist of:
    Maximum ozone concentration on the previous day;
    Morning concentrations of ozone." "Not required." "Not applicable." "The SMOGSTOP-model relies on a historical data base of meteo values and ozone measurements. This data base is used by the statistical models to calculate a forecast result. None." "Forecasts (24, 48, 72 hours) of maximum hourly concentrations of ozone." "The software is designed for PC platforms, WINDOWS based and accompanied by a user friendly interface." "Environmental agencies, air quality network managers. For Belgium: SMOGSTOP is used by the Interregional Cell Air (IRCEL) in Brussels. Once the model is setup and configured, it is easy to use and to produce daily ozone forecasts." "Regional" "1) Title: Operational ozone forecast model
    2) Ref:
    - G. Lissens, C. Mensink and G. Dumont, (2000), SMOGSTOP: A new way of forecasting ozone concentrations at ground level. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 14, 418-424
    - S. Janssen, J. Hooyberghs, (2005) Annual report SMOGSTOP, VITO-report (in Dutch) 2006/IMS/R/0003.
    3) Project description: SMOGSTOP provides a daily forecast of maximum ozone concentrations in Belgium. The model is operational at IRCEL since 1996 and is used to inform the general public on forecasted ozone levels, up to two days in advance. Results are online available at: www.irceline.be" "1) Title: Operational ozone forecast model
    2) Ref:
    - G. Lissens, C. Mensink and G. Dumont, (2000), SMOGSTOP: A new way of forecasting ozone concentrations at ground level. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 14, 418-424
    - S. Janssen, J. Hooyberghs, (2005) Annual report SMOGSTOP, VITO-report (in Dutch) 2006/IMS/R/0003.
    3) Project description: SMOGSTOP provides a daily forecast of maximum ozone concentrations in Belgium. The model is operational at IRCEL since 1996 and is used to inform the general public on forecasted ozone levels, up to two days in advance. Results are online available at: www.irceline.be" "1) Title: Operational ozone forecast model
    2) Ref:
    - G. Lissens, C. Mensink and G. Dumont, (2000), SMOGSTOP: A new way of forecasting ozone concentrations at ground level. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 14, 418-424
    - S. Janssen, J. Hooyberghs, (2005) Annual report SMOGSTOP, VITO-report (in Dutch) 2006/IMS/R/0003.
    3) Project description: SMOGSTOP provides a daily forecast of maximum ozone concentrations in Belgium. The model is operational at IRCEL since 1996 and is used to inform the general public on forecasted ozone levels, up to two days in advance. Results are online available at: www.irceline.be" "Documentation status: 2 (in Dutch!)
    The annual reports give a rather good scientific documentation of the SMOGSTOP-model.
    Complete user manual is available in: G. Lissens, W. Debruyn, Smogstop: a parametric forecast model for episodes of increased air pollution, VITO-report (in dutch), E&M.RV9611" "Validation and evaluation level: 2.
    Every autumn since 1996, the SMOGSTOP forecast performance over the last summer period is evaluated. Statistical parameters and performance indicators are derived based on the (historical) forecast values and the summer measurements. As a result, model performance is quite extensively documented. Annual SMOGSTOP evaluation reports (since 1996, in Dutch) are available at VITO. " "The SMOGSTOP results are significantly better compared to two frequently used benchmark models: a regression model and an inertia model (using the previous day maximum as the forecast for the next day).
    For the summer of 2003 in Belgium (a rather hot summer with frequent (22) exceedances of the 180 µg/m3 norm), the benchmark models were able to predicted 8 and 10 out of the 22 ozone days respectively. The SMOGSTOP model forecasted 21 of 22 ozone days, two days in advance.
    In 2004, only 9 exceedances of the norm were observed. The benchmark models were able to predict 4 and 1 ozone days, respectively. The SMOGSTOP model forecasted 7 of the 9 exceedances. " "How can I produce a map of forecasted ozone concentrations? Along with the forecast model SMOGSTOP, an ozone interpolation tool is provided, known as RIO. RIO can be used to convert the forecasted point values into a spatial map of ozone forecasts. What is the minimum length of a historical data base, required to configure SMOGSTOP? In Belgium, new measurement stations are added in the data base when a 5-year time series of sampling data is available. 5 year seems to be an appropriate period to obtain statistically relevant results. " "SMOGSTOP exits as a Visual Basic and a Fortran program. The Fortran version runs on a Linux platform." "20 sec. runtime on PC 2 sec. runtime on a Linux platform 30 sec including graphical output by RIO" "1 Mbyte for the program, 70 Mbyte for the data (32 stations)" "Please contact Stijn Janssen (stijn.janssen@vito.be)" "G. Lissens, W. Debruyn, C. Mensink and G. Dumont, (2000) SMOGSTOP: A model for forecasting maximum daily ozone concentration in Belgium. Environmetrics 11, 511-521. G. Lissens, C. Mensink and G. Dumont, (2000) SMOGSTOP: A new way of forecasting ozone concentrations at ground level. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 14, 418-424 J. Hooyberghs, C. Mensink, G. Dumont and F. Fierens, (2006), Spatial interpolation of ambient ozone concentrations from sparse monitoring points in Belgium, J. of Environmental Monitoring, in press." 3/29/2011 18:22:42 87 "SPRAY" "Gianni Tinarelli" "ARIANET s.r.l." "g.tinarelli@aria-net.it" "http://www.aria-net.it/eng/index_eng.htm" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Lagrangian models, Stochastic models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "SPRAY" "SPRAY5 - Lagrangian particle dispersion model " 5 "July 2009" "Arianet S.r.l. - Aria Technologies SA" "Dr. Gianni Tinarelli (Arianet S.r.l.) - Christophe Olry (ARIA Technologies)" "Arianet Srl
    Via Gilino 9, 20128
    Milano
    ITALY ARIA Technologies
    8-10 rue de la Ferme
    92100 Boulogne Billancourt
    FRANCE" "++39-(0)2-27007255/27080920" "++39-(0)2-25708084" "g.tinarelli@aria-net.it - colry@aria.fr" "http://www.aria-net.it - http://www.aria.fr" "provided by contact person" "Intermediate" "SPRAY can be operated in different ways, corresponding of different levels of knowledge :
    - Two GUI (ARIA RISK and Spray Interface) allow an intuitive use of the model. In this case the major part of model parameters (Turbulence scheme, type of langevin equations used) are default and robust values set by the developers.
    - Editing 'by hand' the input ASCII files allows access to every options of the code, including turbulence scheme, type of langevin equation used. " "Simulation of inert pollutant, dense gas and light gas, buoyant plume and jets dispersion emitted by sources of several types over local to regional area in complex topography and terrain configurations. The model is also able to take into account the presence of obstacles at microscale. " "Lagrangian particle stochastic (Langevin equations) dispersion model for the simulation at local and microscale." "SPRAY is a Lagrangian model which simulates the transport, dispersion and deposition of pollutants emitted from sources of different kind over complex terrain and with the presence of obstacles, by following the path of marked fictitious particles in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The model is able to easily take into account complex situations, such as the presence of breeze cycles, strong meteorological inhomogeneities and non-stationary, low wind calm conditions and recirculations.
    Simulations can cover area ranging from very local (less than one kilometer) to regional (hundreds of kilometres) scales .
    The 5.0 version is based on the Thomsons 1987 formulation of the non-linear Langevin equations. It has been used either to take into account a large number of sources into regional areas over periods lasting up to about a year, or to perform real time simulations with satisfactorily time responses.
    Three dimensional mean wind fields over topography and around obstacles are given as input to the model. Turbulence variables can be given as input to the model, or optionally determined using a built-in code, based on Surface Layer and Boundary Layer parametrization profiles generated taking as input standard meteorological ground level data and land-use fields.
    Concentrations are computed using three dimensional boxes, and counting the number of particles within each of it. Plume rise of hot emission from stack is taken into account using a Briggs formulation. Algorithms for particle-oriented dry/wet deposition processes and for considering the gravitational settling are present. Dry deposition can be computed on ground and also on ceil/roof and on lateral faces of obstacles. Dispersion under generalized geometries like arches, tunnels and walkways can be performed.
    Dense gas dispersion is simulated using five conservation equations (mass, energy, vertical momentum and two horizontal momenta) that are integrated for each particle at each time step, based on Glandening et al (1984) and Hurley and Manins (1995). Plume spread at the ground due to gravity is also simulated by a method (Anfossi et al., 2009), based on Eidsvik (1980). " "The model, even though it can take into account the dispersion of different chemical species, it cannot simulate chemical transformations. " "BR>Variable time step chosen by the model (see solution techniques).
    Concentrations can be averaged over any time, usually more than 1 minute and of the order of ½ hour or 1 hour.
    Meteorological fields are accepted with fixed frequency greater than 1 min (usually ½ hour or 1 hour).
    Meteorological data are spatially and temporally interpolated at each particle position." "
    Particles are moved using meteorological fields defined on a horizontal regular grid.
    Grid step can range from 1m (microscale simulations with obstacles) to a suggested limit of about 4 km. Data at particle position are spatially interpolated using the neighbor grid points.
    Concentrations are computed using a horizontal regular grid chosen by the user." "
    Variable size, terrain-following meteorological grid to define the data to be used by the particles. Typically 10 to 30 vertical levels, generally with higher resolution (about 1 m for microscale simulation to 10 m) close to the ground. The vertical terrain-following grid for concentrations can be different from that of meteo data." "
    Thomsons 1987 non-linear Langevin equations with gaussian random forcing. Skewed and spatial-dependent probability density functions of the air velocity taken into account using optionally a bi-gaussian or a Gram-Charlier formulation." "
    Vertical profiles of turbulence statistics (sigmas, lagrangian time scales and skewness) generated by standard parameterization schemes (Hanna) and/or by using mixing length method (in presence of obstacles).
    Optionally, for microscale simulations, background standard PBL turbulence is added to TKE generated locally by obstacles.
    A connection to external fields generated by meteorological turbulence preprocessors and/or outputs from non-hydrostatic meteorological codes is available and typically used." "
    Dry deposition: Deposition can occur on ground, roofs/ceils and obstacle lateral faces. Dry deposition is a particle-oriented removal mechanism derived from a solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. A transition probability for a particle removal is computed as a function of deposition velocities. Horizontally homogeneous or 2D inhomogeneous deposition velocities, along with wall/roof/ceil texture attributes of buildings are model inputs.
    Wet deposition: Exponential decay process using species-dependent scavenging coefficients and precipitation rates given as input. Particles sheltered by a roof above are not affected by wet deposition.
    Gravitational settling: Using species-dependent settling velocities computed through particle diameters and densities. Cunningham slip-flow correction factors for smaller particles taken into account." "Langevin equation formulation, variable time step for non-linear Langevin equations, chosen by the model in order to fulfil Lagrangian and inhomogeneity time scales." "SPRAY works using 3d non-divergent wind and temperature fields, reconstructed using:
    Meteo data: any surface level data collected by a local measuring network (wind and atmospheric temperature are mandatory, solar radiation, atmospheric humidity and pressure, cloud cover, ground temperature are optional) at a typical temporal resolution ranging from 10min to 1 hour. Vertical profiles of wind/temperature from radiosoundings or measured by remote-sensing systems like Sodar and Rass.
    Terrain: DTM given by different sources (e.g. SRTM data, http://edcsns17.cr.usgs.gov/srtmdted/) at a spatial resolution ranging typically from 50m to 1 km.
    Land-use: Corine landcover mostly used (http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/dataservice/).
    Obstacles (optional) are given through a file describing each structure separately. The code maps each structure onto the target 3D grid defining free/full cells. A Digital Elevation Model (DTM) and obstacles together are also managed." "
    Position, geometry, mass and particle rates for each emitting source (points, lines, areas, volumes). Stack height, diameter, temperature and exit velocity if plume rise is activated for point sources.
    Emissions can be continuous (stationary or not), intermittent or impulsive, with a time resolution different from that of meteorological input fields." "Three dimensional wind and temperature fields given at fixed time intervals. Three dimensional fields of turbulence variables generated by an external model on the same grid (velocity variances, crosscorrelations, skewness, Lagrangian time scales) or, optionally, two dimensional fields of land use data and u*, Monin Obukhov lenght, Pbl Height and w* scaling parameters on the horizontal meteorological grid, to be used by the built-in turbulence parametrization scheme. " "Two dimensional Digital Elevation Model on the same horizontal grid used for meteorological fields." "Particle coordinates and velocities in case of a restart run. " "
    Ground particle reflection, taking into account the configuration of topography. Particles crossing the top of domain or lateral boundaries are lost.
    Reflection against obstacle lateral faces, roofs and ceils.
    Species-dependent deposition velocities if the dry deposition mechanism is active." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "
    Horizontally homogeneous or 2d inhomogeneous precipitation rate if the wet deposition mechanism is active.
    Particle diameters and densities if the gravitational settling is active.
    3d grid of wall/roof texture attributes and ASCII file giving the link between texture attributes and deposition velocities, if deposition on wall/roof/ceil is computed
    Initial density for a dense gas. " "Time averaged 3d concentration, 2d or (optionally) 3d deposition, 2d dosage fields, computed over grids and average time intervals chosen by the user. Different concentration/deposition arrays can be defined in order to both describe the impact of the different species emitted and/or separate the contribution of different sources.
    Particle informations such as coordinates, masses, emitting sources, age, saved at intervals chosen by the user. " "
    A GUI is available to run the code using a simplified set of input parameters.
    Graphical postprocessors for 2D or 3D visualizations have been developed using commercial packages. They can run both on PCs Windows 2000/XP and on Unix workstations and are not usually part of the model package but distributed separately." "A research group, formed by some institutions working on testing and developing the code. Among the others: CNR-ISAC (Turin, Italy, Dr. Anfossi) and University of Alessandria (Italy, Dr. Ferrero). Local authorities, research centers and consultants have acquired and are using the model for their own scopes." "Regional" "
    Assessment of the impact due to the industrial area near the harbor of Taranto (Italy).
    Relevant reference
    Gariazzo C., Papaleo V., A. Pelliccioni, G. Calori, P. Radice, G. Tinarelli (2005): Air Pollution Impact Assessment of a Complex Industrial-Urban Area by means of a Lagrangian Particle Model, 3rd International Symposium on Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional and Global scale. Istanbul, 26-30 Sept. 2005.
    Description
    The SPRAY dispersion model has been applied to simulate the dispersion of the whole emissions present in the industrial area of Taranto, using meteorological data collected in seasonal field campaigns. 3D short term hourly concentrations have been calculated for both total and specific sources, taking separately into account the contribution of industrial sources, traffic, domestic heating, fugitive and harbor emissions. Results show that the model is able to reproduce the measured SO2 and NOx concentrations. " "Episodes" "
    Assessment of the impact due to the industrial area near the harbor of Taranto (Italy).
    Relevant reference
    Gariazzo C., Papaleo V., A. Pelliccioni, G. Calori, P. Radice, G. Tinarelli (2005): Air Pollution Impact Assessment of a Complex Industrial-Urban Area by means of a Lagrangian Particle Model, 3rd International Symposium on Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional and Global scale. Istanbul, 26-30 Sept. 2005.
    Description
    The SPRAY dispersion model has been applied to simulate the dispersion of the whole emissions present in the industrial area of Taranto, using meteorological data collected in seasonal field campaigns. 3D short term hourly concentrations have been calculated for both total and specific sources, taking separately into account the contribution of industrial sources, traffic, domestic heating, fugitive and harbor emissions. Results show that the model is able to reproduce the measured SO2 and NOx concentrations. " "Urban" "
    Assessment of the impact due to the industrial area near the harbor of Taranto (Italy).
    Relevant reference
    Gariazzo C., Papaleo V., A. Pelliccioni, G. Calori, P. Radice, G. Tinarelli (2005): Air Pollution Impact Assessment of a Complex Industrial-Urban Area by means of a Lagrangian Particle Model, 3rd International Symposium on Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional and Global scale. Istanbul, 26-30 Sept. 2005.
    Description
    The SPRAY dispersion model has been applied to simulate the dispersion of the whole emissions present in the industrial area of Taranto, using meteorological data collected in seasonal field campaigns. 3D short term hourly concentrations have been calculated for both total and specific sources, taking separately into account the contribution of industrial sources, traffic, domestic heating, fugitive and harbor emissions. Results show that the model is able to reproduce the measured SO2 and NOx concentrations. " "Model description in peer reviewed journal(s)
    Journal of Applied Meteorology, Atmospheric Environment, Air Pollution Modelling and its Application X and XIII.

    User manual Available in English language." "The model has firstly been validated against analytical solution and reference datasets, referring to laboratory experiments and tracer campaigns. Following the initiative on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, validations on some of the proposed datasets have been performed and documented through a participation to all the workshops. The code has also been validated against air pollution monitoring networks at local and regional scale, to recostruct both episodes and impact patterns on yearly basis generated by emissions defined through complex inventories. Some of the validation activities are documented in the scientific literature listed below. Level 1. " "SPRAY validation in neutral-unstable conditions
    Relevant reference
    Brusasca G., Tinarelli G., Anfossi D.:
    Comparison between the results of a Monte Carlo atmospheric diffusion model and tracer experiments, Atmospheric Environment 23, 1263-1280.
    Description
    This application was a comparison between SPRAY results and the data from a tracer experiment performed by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The model performance is evaluated through the NMSE and relative mean bias indexes on the ground level concentration. SPRAY has been compared also with different gaussian models showing its superiority.

    SPRAY validation in stable conditions
    Relevant reference
    Brusasca G., Tinarelli G., Anfossi D.:
    Particle model simulation of diffusion in low windspeed stable conditions, Atmospheric Environment 26, 707-723.
    Description
    Comparison of the SPRAY model against the stable-low windspeed concentration experimental data collected by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1974. Simulations covered a wide and in some case extreme range of conditions. The Root Mean Bias (RMB) and Top-Ten Root Mean Bias (RMB-TT) indexes have been computed to assess the model performance. Provided that the wind meandering is correctly simulated (an ad-hoc algorithm is developed here) the model can give reasonable results. In the worst case a RMB value of 0.863 is reached.

    Validation of dense gas dispersion with SPRAY
    Relevant reference
    Domenico Anfossi, Dr., Gianni Tinarelli, Dr., Silvia Trini Castelli, Ph.D, Maxime Nibart, Christophe Olry, Julien Commanay:
    A new Lagrangian particle model for the simulation of dense gas dispersion (accepted for publication on Atmospheric Environment)
    Description
    To evaluate the MICRO-SWIFT-SPRAY ability to simulate the dispersion of heavy gases, its simulation performances are compared in detail to two field experiments (Thorney Island and Kit Fox) and to a chlorine railway accident (Macdona). Then, a comprehensive analysis considering several experiments of the Modelers Data Archive is presented. The statistical analysis on the overall available data reveals that the performance of the new MicroSpray version for dense-gas releases is generally reliable. For instance, the agreement between concentration predictions and observations is within a factor of two in the 72% up to 99% of the occurrences for the case studies considered. The values of other performance measures, such as correlation coefficient, geometric mean bias and geometric variance, mostly set in the ranges indicated as good-model performances in the specialized literature." "The model can be installed on a wide range of computer classes using different Fortran 90 compilers. " "PC AMD-Athlon XP 3000+ : typically 15 minutes of CPU time for a 24 hour run, considering one source at local scale (15x15 km2)." "Storage At minimum, 16 Mbytes of central memory are needed by the code and 100 Mbytes of storage space should be reserved to perform typical local scale simulations (50x50x15 grid points, 10000 particles moved, one source)." "A licence on the Availability has to be signed. " "Anfossi D., Desiato F., Tinarelli G., Brusasca G., Ferrero E., Sacchetti S. (1998): TRANSALP 1989 Experimental Campaign - part II: Simulation of a tracer experiment with Lagrangian particle models, Atmospheric Environment, 32, 7, 1157-1166. Breznik B., Boznar M., Mlakar P., Tinarelli G., (2002): Dose protectionusing dispersion models, 8th Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes. Sofia, 14-17 October, 409-413. Brusasca G., Tinarelli G., Anfossi D. (1989): Comparison between the results of a Monte Carlo atmospheric diffusion model and tracer experiments, Atmospheric Environment 23, 1263-1280. Brusasca G., Carboni G., Finardi S., Sanavio D., Tinarelli G., Toppetti A. (2001): Comparison of a Gaussian (ISC3) and a Lagrangian Particle Model (SPRAY) for Regulatory applications in Flat and Complex Terrain Sites Representative of Typical Italian Landscape, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Belgirate, Italy, May 28-31, 2001, 130-134. Calori G., De Maria R., M. Clemente, F. Lollobrigida, S. Finardi, G. Tinarelli (2003): Air quality integrated assessment in Turin urban area using atmospheric transport and dispersion models. 4th International Conference on Urban Air Quality Measurement, Modelling and Management, Prague, 25-27 March 2003, 214-217. Ferrero E., Anfossi D., Brusasca G., Tinarelli G. (1995): Lagrangian Particle Model: Evaluation against Tracer Data, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 5, N. 4-6, 360-374. Finardi S., Brusasca G., Calori G., Nanni A., Tinarelli G., Agnesod G., Pession G., Zublena M. (2002): Integrated air quality assessment of an alpine region: evaluation of the Mont Blanc tunnel re-opening effects, 8th Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Sofia, 14-17 October, 404-408. Gariazzo C., Papaleo V. , Pelliccioni A., Calori G., Radice P., Tinarelli G. (2007): Application of a Lagrangian particle model to assess the impact of harbour, industrial and urban activities on air quality in the Taranto area, Italy Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Issue 30, September 2007, Pages 6432-6444 Pacitti M., Mensio P., Brusasca G., Tinarelli G., Genon G., Marchese F., Nobile G., Malvasi G. (1997): Global evaluation of the activity of toxic and hazardous waste landfills using monitoring and modeling integrated system. Proc. of 5th International Conference Air Pollution 1997, 16-18 September, Bologna, Italy. Air Pollution V, modelling, monitoring and management, 517-526, Computational Mechanics Publications. Tinarelli G., Anfossi D., Brusasca G., Ferrero E., Giostra U., Morselli M.G., Moussafir J., Tampieri F., Trombetti F. (1994): Lagrangian particle simulation of tracer dispersion in the lee of a schematic two-dimensional hill, Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 33, N. 6, 744-756. Tinarelli G., Anfossi D., Bider M., Ferrero E., Trini Castelli S. (1998): A new high performance version of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model SPRAY, some case studies, Air Pollution Modelling and its Application XIII, Gryning S.E.and Batchvarova E. Eds., Plenum Press, New York, 23, 499-506 Tinarelli G.; Piersanti a:; Radice P.; Clemente M.; De Maria R. (2009): Microscale Modelling Simulations for the site characterization of air quality stations in an urban environment. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 2009; doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncp225 Urban J.T., Warner S., Platt N., Heagy J.F (2007): Assessment of HPAC Urban modelling capabilities using Joint Urban 2003 Field Trial Data, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes" 3/29/2011 18:22:43 84 "SAFE_AIR_II" "Elisa Canepa" "INFM - Department of Physics - University of Genova" "elisa.canepa@fisica.unige.it" "+39 010 353 6354" "+39 010 353 6354" "Via Dodecaneso 33 I-16146 Genova Italy" "Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Plume-rise models, Gaussian models, Lagrangian models" "10 minutes to 1 hour" "PC" "SAFE_AIR_II" "Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions _ Above Inhomogeneous Regions, Version II" "Release 1.1" "July 2007" "Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Italy" "Elisa Canepa" "
    CNR-INFM-CNISM - Department of Physics, University of Genoa
    Via Dodecaneso 33
    I-16146 Genoa, Italy" "+ 39 010 353 6385" "+ 39 010 353 6354" "elisa.canepa@fisica.unige.it" "http://www.fisica.unige.it/atmosfera/" "Provided by the contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of air motion and pollutant dispersion above complex orography at the local and local-to-regional scales." "Three-dimensional mesoscale model" "The SAFE_AIR II code (Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions _ Above Inhomogeneous Regions, Version II) has been implemented at the Department of Physics of the University of Genova (Italy). SAFE_AIR II simulates the transport and diffusion of airborne pollutants above complex terrain at local and regional scale. The previous version of this dispersion code has been selected by the Italian Agency for Environmental Protection and for Technical Support (APAT; http://www.sinanet.anpa.it/aree/atmosfera/qaria/Progetti/GuidaWEB/default.htm) to be inserted in their list of air pollution models to be used in air quality evaluation. SAFE_AIR II is extremely versatile in the sense that the user may select the level of complexity and detail, hence the computational effort may be easily adapted to the type of application (i.e. research or policy type).
    SAFE_AIR II consists mainly of three parts: two linked meteorological pre-processors - WINDS (Wind-field Interpolation by Non Divergent Schemes, Release 4.2) and ABLE (Acquisition of Boundary Layer parameters, Release 1.2) - and a code which simulates the airborne pollutant transport and diffusion (P6, Program Plotting Paths of Pollutant Puffs and Plumes, Release 2.3).
    WINDS is a diagnostic mass-consistent model which reconstructs the 3D wind field in complex terrain at mesoscale using available wind data. Release 4.2 of the code incorporates advances in numerical formulation. In fact, besides the SOR (Successive Over-Relaxation) iterative method, the ADI (Alternating Direction Implicit) iterative method has been implemented in order to achieve a non-divergent flow field. The ADI method is much more effective than the SOR method as far as converge of the code is concerned. It reduces up to 30 times computational time, especially for stable cases. The ABLE model, which was not present in the previous version of SAFE_AIR, calculates the horizontal distribution of relevant boundary layer parameters like mixing height , Monin -Obukhov length , friction velocity , convective velocity scale starting from routinely measured meteorological variables. A good parameterization of these micrometeorological parameters is indispensable to simulate diffusion of pollutant in the low atmosphere.
    P6 is a Lagrangian multisource model that make use of both Gaussian plume segments and puffs to simulate airborne pollutant dispersion, in such a way it allows to deal with numerical simulation of both non-stationary and inhomogeneous conditions. The emitted pollutant is divided into a sequence of elements, either segments or puffs whose dynamics is a function of local meteorological conditions. Since meteorological parameters vary with time and space, each element evolves according to different meteorological conditions encountered along its trajectory. Segments provide a numerically fast simulation of dispersion of air pollutants near their source during transport conditions; puffs allow a proper simulation of diffusion, both far from the source and during calm or low-wind situations. P6 is mainly designed for simulating air quality impact from point sources. However this code can also be correctly used for line, area, and volume sources.
    The P6 code gives the user large flexibility in:
    1.defining the computational domain, the meteorological and emission input, and the receptors locations;
    2.selecting plume rise formulae;
    3.selecting sigma-functions;
    4.selecting other options (e.g. penetration of the plume above the mixing height, reflection assumptions at the ground and at the top of the mixed layer, building downwash, etc.)." "The model is unable to treat:
    1.non-linear chemical reactions;
    2.situations in which the sources cover a big amount of the domain surface;
    3.instantaneous concentration fluctuations." "Time step: 15 minutes or 30 minutes or 1 hour . Simulated time period: several days" "Grid size: 20 - 2 000 m, domain dimension: 2 - 200 km (typically)" "Cell height: 10 - 1 000 m, total height: up to 5 000 m" "The advection of plume elements is determined by the 3D wind field output of the WINDS model. Standard deviations of the wind and Lagrangian time scales are provided, starting from the output of the ABLE model, following the CALPUFF model formulation and the Hanna formulation, respectively. " "Depending on the user choice, pollutant diffusion by atmospheric turbulence is simulated by means of both the well known semi-empirical dispersion sigma-functions (Pasquill-Gifford, Brookhaven, Briggs open country, and Briggs urban) and different dispersion sigma-functions (Mazzino, Draxler, Hanna and Strimaitis) which have a lesser degree of parameterization of the turbulence than the cited semi-empirical ones. In fact the sigma-fuctions of the second group do not make use of the stability class, but to take into account turbulence proprieties they are function of standard deviations of velocity fluctuations and Lagrangian time scales. " "Both dry and wet depositions for pollutants are computed by an exponential reduction of the pollutant mass." "A first-order chemical reaction scheme is adopted, in which the chemical transformation term reduces the mass of primary pollutant and increases the mass of secondary pollutant in each element." "WINDS is a mass-consistent model, it builds a three-dimensional wind field by the following two steps: first, an initial wind field is constructed, through an interpolation procedure, starting from available wind data at given points, then an adjustment is made to achieve a non-divergent flow field. The solving procedures to achieve a non-divergent flow field are based on and SOR (Successive Over-Relaxation) or ADI (Alternating Direction Implicit) iterative methods. WINDS can use different initialization possibilities: ground station data and/or geostrophic wind, observed vertical profiles (sodar, etc.), profiles coming from larger scale meteorological models (e.g. Limited Area Models), etc. WINDS is written in conformal coordinates that have several advantages with respect to Cartesian coordinates: the terrain surface is better represented, consequently, more accurate boundary conditions can be used and this allows higher resolution near the terrain surface. In neutral and stable atmosphere, the model uses the formulae of the vertical wind profile proposed by Zilitinkevich; in conditions of unstable atmosphere, the model uses some extensions of the cited formulae.
    ABLE is based on the energy balance method to determine the sensible heat flux at a reference point. In diurnal conditions, the scheme by van Ulden and Holtslag is used. In nocturnal conditions, we have adopted a semi-empirical approach as in the recent versions of both the CALMET and AERMOD codes. Using correction factors depending on the surface roughness the sensible heat flux reference value is extended to each grid point. The calculation of the sensible heat flux is strictly connected with the calculation of the friction velocity and the Monin-Obukhov length, which, in their turn, are relevant as far as the mixing height determination is concerned. After calculating the cited parameters in the entire simulation domain, the mixing height can be computed as a 2D field using different formulae for stable (night-time) and convective (day-time) conditions over land, while a different procedure is adopted over see. ABLE uses a slab model for the growth of the mixing height during day-time conditions as proposed by Batchvarova and Gryning. For the parameterisation in night-time conditions the user can select between different formulations, among them: the solution proposed by COST-710 of the Nieuwstadt formula, and the Venkatram expression. Over see the mixing height is calculated as in the CALMET code.
    P6 is a dynamic model based on the Gaussian formula, the plume is broken into independent elements (either segments or puffs)." "The developers of the SAFE_AIR_II model have not performed any input data validation processing, because, input data provided to the model are coming from research institutes, where the methods and/or the models used have proved the international validity and recognition. " "Location and height, exit diameter, emission rate of primary and secondary pollutant, volume flow rate, exit gas temperature and speed" "Interpolation options, input wind data (geostrophic wind, wind at the ground, vertical wind profiles, wind in LAM nodes, depending on the interpolation option chosen by user), stability class parameter according to Pasquill-Gifford, temperature, albedo, cloud cover, pressure" "Orography, roughness, characteristics of buildings" "Built by the code starting from input data" "Closed or no-flow-through boundaries conditions are adopted either at the bottom (earth surface) or at the top of the domain" "Not available." "The required input is depending on the complexity of the model run. Receptor locations, sigma-function to be used, output parameters Model control parameters, grid parameters" "SAFE_AIR II has a wide variety of output options. The code provides a full set of statistics of the concentration time series simulated at the receptor points (for both the primary and the secondary pollutants), and the dry deposition and wet deposition fields on a user selected grid. The statistics of the concentration comprise 15-minutes, 30-minutes and hourly concentration values. The SAFE_AIR II code also provides as an output detailed information about both the simulated 3D wind fields and the simulated 2D fields of mixing height, Monin -Obukhov length, friction velocity and convective velocity scale" "Windows user interface, the SAFE_AIR II outputs are print in a format fit to be used by the graphical program SURFER (Golden Software)" "The model is being developed and tested at the Department of Physics of the University of Genova, Italy. The model is being used for air quality assessments by ARPA Toscana (Italy), by the Italian Universities of Bari, Bologna, Firenze, Pisa and various firms. The University of Pisa is using the model in both the industrial area of Piombino (Italy) and the ʽ¡±leather districtʽ¨ situated between Pisa and Firenze (Italy). Furthermore, the JRC (Joint Research Centre) in Ispra (Italy) uses a software based on SAFE_AIR to simulate radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. Users of SAFE_AIR II should be meteorologists or engineers with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models; in any case we believe that also inexpert users can run the code after a suitable training period." "Urban" "This application is not a real project, but a spontaneous initiative of the research group who developed SAVE_AIR at the Department of Physics of the University of Genoa, therefore at the moment there is not an official project title, we just call it a waste incinerator in Genoa?!. This initiative has been suggested by a current debate among citizens about the construction of a hypothetical incinerator plant in project in the city of Genoa.
    A public web page has been established, in this web page it is possible to find explanations about both the waste incinerator project and correlated legislation, but especially the simulations results (ground level concentration maps) of a set of daily simulations of pollution due to the hypothetical incinerator plant in project in the city. In order to obtain prognostic results the SAFE_AIR model is coupled with the meteorological BOLAM Limited Area Model.
    http://www.fisica.unige.it/atmosfera/inceneritore.htm [in Italian]
    Reference: A. Buzzi, M. Fantini, P. Malguzzi, F. Nerozzi (1994) Validation of a limited area model in case of Mediterranean cyclogenesis: surface fields and precipitation scores. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 53, 137-153." "Episodes" "This application is not a real project, but a spontaneous initiative of the research group who developed SAVE_AIR at the Department of Physics of the University of Genoa, therefore at the moment there is not an official project title, we just call it a waste incinerator in Genoa?!. This initiative has been suggested by a current debate among citizens about the construction of a hypothetical incinerator plant in project in the city of Genoa.
    A public web page has been established, in this web page it is possible to find explanations about both the waste incinerator project and correlated legislation, but especially the simulations results (ground level concentration maps) of a set of daily simulations of pollution due to the hypothetical incinerator plant in project in the city. In order to obtain prognostic results the SAFE_AIR model is coupled with the meteorological BOLAM Limited Area Model.
    http://www.fisica.unige.it/atmosfera/inceneritore.htm [in Italian]
    Reference: A. Buzzi, M. Fantini, P. Malguzzi, F. Nerozzi (1994) Validation of a limited area model in case of Mediterranean cyclogenesis: surface fields and precipitation scores. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 53, 137-153." "Urban" "This application is not a real project, but a spontaneous initiative of the research group who developed SAVE_AIR at the Department of Physics of the University of Genoa, therefore at the moment there is not an official project title, we just call it a waste incinerator in Genoa?!. This initiative has been suggested by a current debate among citizens about the construction of a hypothetical incinerator plant in project in the city of Genoa.
    A public web page has been established, in this web page it is possible to find explanations about both the waste incinerator project and correlated legislation, but especially the simulations results (ground level concentration maps) of a set of daily simulations of pollution due to the hypothetical incinerator plant in project in the city. In order to obtain prognostic results the SAFE_AIR model is coupled with the meteorological BOLAM Limited Area Model.
    http://www.fisica.unige.it/atmosfera/inceneritore.htm [in Italian]
    Reference: A. Buzzi, M. Fantini, P. Malguzzi, F. Nerozzi (1994) Validation of a limited area model in case of Mediterranean cyclogenesis: surface fields and precipitation scores. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 53, 137-153." "Level 1: Users guide available in English." "Level 2: The model evaluation of SAFE_AIR Version I was performed using field data (from i. Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center tracer experiments, flat terrain, convectively unstable and neutral conditions; ii. TRC NAWC Ilo, Peru, tracer experiments, complex coastal area, non-stationary and non-homogeneous conditions) and laboratory data (from i. EPA wind tunnel Rushil experiments, two-dimensional schematic hill, neutral conditions; ii. CRIACIV wind tunnel experiments, obstacles, neutral conditions). The model evaluation of SAFE_AIR II is under development." "As far as the simulation of the pollutant concentrations is concerned, SAFE_AIR has been compared with:
    1) IFDM, INPUFF, OML, UK-ADMS, and HPDM models using the MEAN, SIGMA, BIAS, NMSE, COR, FA2, FB and FS statistical indices. In comparison with the other models, SAFE_AIR performs like OML and HPDM which are the best models among the comparison ones. Furthermore, unlike the same comparison models except for HPDM, our model is not encumbered with too many modelled vanishing concentration values.
    Reference: E. Canepa, L. Dallorto and C.F. Ratto (2000) About the plume rise description in the dispersion code SAFE_AIR. International Journal Environment and Pollution, Vol. 14, Nos. 1-6, pp. 235-245.
    2) ISC3 (rural and urban) and ADMS 2 models using the FB, FS, FA2, NMSE, WNNR and NNR statistical indices. Results show appreciable differences between different models. ADMS 2 shows a good agreement with measured data; good results can be obtained also from SAFE_AIR code using Brookhaven ċ-function; on the contrary, results obtained using ISC3 model are not in the same range of agreement.
    Reference: A. Corti, D. Contini, E. Canepa, and C.F. Ratto (2001) Comparison of the performances of several dispersion numerical codes against wind tunnel measurements on a two-stacks small scale model. Ingegneria del vento in Italia 2000. Proceedings of 6¢X Convegno Nazionale di Ingegneria del Vento, IN-VENTO-2000, 18-21 June 2000, Genova, Italy, G. Solari, L.C. Pagnini, G. Piccardo editors, pp. 175-182.
    3) DIMULA (rural, urban and roughness), ISC3 (rural and urban) and ADMS2 models using the FB, FS, FA2, NMSE, WNNR and NNR statistical indices. Results show noticeable differences among the applied models, strongly dependent on the used ċfunctions; the applied models show a tendency to underestimate on average experimental measurements and to have lesser simulated concentrations spreading than measured ones. Concerning ground level concentrations only, best results are given by SAFE_AIR using Brookhaven ċ-function option. Model validation procedure with reference to the complete set of measured concentrations, relative to both ground level and vertical profiles, allows to affirm that compliance with experimental data is improved, in particular as far as the ADMS2 code is concerned. On the whole the best results are given by SAFE_AIR using Briggs rural ċ-function option.
    Reference: A. Corti, M. Zanobini and E. Canepa (2001) Use of Wind Tunnel measurements for mathematical model comparison and validation. 2nd International Conference on Air Pollution Modelling and Simulation APMS2001, 9-13 April, 2001, Paris, France. Conference proceedings, pp. 341-354.
    Activity 1) has been performed in the framework of L. Dallorto master thesis. Activity 2) and 3) have been performed in the framework of the PRIN Italian project ACME CUE." "Can I use the model to simulate an urban area? Yes, you can, but you must take into account that both the model cannot simulate photochemical reaction and the receptors point cannot be placed too close to the sources." "SAFE_AIR II is a Windows/DOS application, the system requirement are highly dependent on the userʽ¦s parameters. Generally a Pentium I with 64 Mb RAM and 10 Mb of free space on HD is sufficient." "The CPU time is a function of the dimensions of the currently processed application: approximately, to carry out a simulation, the code takes some minutes." "The required dynamic memory consists of about 15 Mbytes and the required mass memory consists of about 3 Mbytes for a typical simulation (anyway, this datum is just approximate, in fact the necessary mass memory facilities are a function of the dimensions of the currently processed problem, i.e., of dimension of the major arrays, e.g., number of sources and receptors, number of three-dimensional cells, etc.)." "Prof. Corrado F. Ratto, INFM - Department of Physics - University of Genova
    Email: ratto@fisica.unige.it
    Fax: +39 010 353 6354
    Postal Address: Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova Italy
    Personal Web Page:http://server1.fisica.unige.it/~ratto/" "E. Canepa, F. Modesti and C.F. Ratto (1998) About the present version of the dispersion code SAFE_AIR Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 74-76, pp. 305-314. E. Canepa, F. Modesti and C.F. Ratto (2000) Evaluation of the SAFE_AIR code against air pollution field and laboratory experiments. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34(28):4805-4818. E. Canepa, L. Dallorto and C.F. Ratto (2000) About the plume rise description in the dispersion code SAFE_AIR. International Journal Environment and Pollution, Vol. 14, Nos. 1-6, pp. 235-245. " "C. Busillo, F. Calastrini, M. Carpentieri, A. Corti, G. Gualtieri, E. Canepa (2004) Meteorological input for atmospheric dispersion models: an inter-comparison between new generation models. 9th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 1-4 June 2004, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, pp. 23-27. E. Canepa and P.J.H. Builtjes (2001) Methodology of model testing and application to dispersion simulation above complex terrain. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 16, Nos. 1-6, pp. 101-115. E. Canepa and C.F. Ratto (2002) SAFE_AIR algorithms to simulate the transport of pollutant elements: a model validation exercise and sensitivity analysis. Environmental Modelling & Software, 18(4):365-372. E. Canepa, F. DAlberti, F. DAmati, and G. Triacchini (2007) The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental releases. Science of the Total Environment. Volume/Issue 373/1 pp. 32-42 M. Cavallaro, E. Canepa and E. Georgieva (2007) The SAFE_AIR II dispersion model: description and statistical evaluation of its dispersion module against wind tunnel data from area sources. Ecological Modelling, Volume/Issue 202/3-4 pp. 547-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.11.018 A. Corti, M. Zanobini and E. Canepa (2001) Use of Wind Tunnel measurements for mathematical model comparison and validation. 2nd International Conference on Air Pollution Modelling and Simulation APMSʽ¦2001, 9-13 April, 2001, Paris, France. Conference proceedings, pp. 341-354. A. Corti, E. Canepa, D. Contini and M. Zanobini (2001) Use of wind tunnel measurements for mathematical model comparison and validation. 7th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 28-31 May 2001, Belgirate, Italy. Conference proceedings, pp. 93-97, European Commission, JRC, Environment Institute. E. Georgieva, E. Canepa and C.F. Ratto (2001) The determination of the mixing height: an extended version of the SAFE_AIR dispersion model. Millenium NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, 15-19 May 2000, Boulder, Colorado, USA, Air pollution modeling and its application XIV, pp. 719-720, Gryning and Schiermeir, eds., Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publisher, New York, USA. E. Georgieva, E. Canepa, G. Bonaf£c, E. Minguzzi (2003) Evaluation of ABLE mixing height algorithms against observed and modelled data for the Po Valley, Italy. 26th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 26 ʽV 30 May 2003, Istanbul, Turkey. Preprints, p. 396-403. C.F. Ratto (1996) The AIOLOS and WINDS codes. In: D.P. Lalas and C.F. Ratto (editors) Modelling of atmospheric flow fields. World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore. " 3/29/2011 18:22:45 85 "SEVEX" "Alexis Dutrieux" "ATM-PRO sprl (http://www.atmpro.be)" "alexis.dutrieux@atmpro.be, alexis.dutrieux@skynet.be" "+ 32 (0)67 84 33 04" "+ 32 (0)67 84 33 09" "Rue Saint-André 7, BE-1400 Nivelles, Belgium" "Air toxics, Industrial pollutants, Chemical emergencies" "Regulatory purposes and compliance, Emergency planning, Public information" "Concentrations" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Area - volume source" "Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Dense" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models, Lagrangian models" "Workstation" "SEVEX" "SEVEX (SEVeso EXpert system)" "version 1.3a" "Ministere de l" "Mr. Georges VAN MALDER (1) , Dr. Alexis DUTRIEUX (2)" "
    Ministere de la Région Wallonne (1)
    D.G.R.N.E.-D.P.P.G.S.S.
    Avenue Prince de Liège, 15,
    B-5100 Jambes
    Belgium

    ATM-PRO s.p.r.l. (2)
    Consulting in Environment & Software Development
    Rue Saint-André, 5
    B-1400 Nivelles
    Belgium" "++ 32 (0)81 32 58 57 (1), ++ 32 (0)67 84 33 04 (2)" "++ 32 (0)81 32 59 82 (1), ++ 32 (0)67 21 36 28 (2)" "G.VanMalder@mrw.wallonie.be (1), alexis.dutrieux@skynet.be & alexis.dutrieux@atmpro.be (2)" "http://www.wallonie.be/dgrne/home.htm (1), http://users.skynet.be/www.ATM-PRO.com/index.html (2)" "
    G.VanMalder@mrw.wallonie.be (1)
    alexis.dutrieux@skynet.be (2)" "Basic" "The fields of applications of SEVEX are :
    - Simulation of accidental release from chemical activities
    - Risk Area mapping taking into account toxicity, over-pressure and radiation
    - Emergency response planning preparedness and training
    SEVEX is suitable for accidental release from single or multiple pipe, vessel or pool sources. The release can be continuous, transient or catastrophic. At this stage, 34 chemical substances are considered in the data base. Its extension to the most common substances is in progress.
    SEVEX is not a real time software but intends to produce IN ADVANCE the most realistic mapping of risk areas around chemical industries in order to build up effective and manageable Emergency Response Plans." "Following the Model Evaluation Group (MEG) protocol [1] SEVEX can be considered at once as an intermediate model and a fundamental one. The dense gas module is a box model and it can be coupled to two different passive dispersion models : a 2-D Gaussian and a 3-D lagrangian particle ones. The lagrangian particle model is coupled to a 3-D meteorological model which solves the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations to compute the wind field over complex terrain." "The SEVeso EXpert system or SEVEX is a software designed to estimate risks zones around chemical activities, in particular the « Seveso-type » industries (cfr. the European SEVESO Directives). It has been developed by the Walloon Region of Belgium in collaboration with the « Faculte Polytechnique de Mons », the « Universite Catholique de Louvain », the « Universite de Liege » and the SOLVAY s.a. company.
    SEVEX computes all the aspects and consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials (toxic or flammable) through a set of coherent scientific models :
    [1] The source term module (SEVEX-SOURCE) that includes calculations of : gaseous, liquid and two-phase flow rates, jet dispersion, aerosol vaporisation, pool formation and evaporation, dense gas dispersion, unconfined vapour cloud explosion (UVCE) and fireball thermal radiation (BLEVE). For quick assessment purposes allowing to design most relevant scenarii and situations the SEVEX-SOURCE module can be coupled to simple Gaussian dispersion model.
    [2] The 3-D meso-meteorological module (SEVEX-MESO) that is a 3-D numerical model solving the simplified Navier-Stokes equations for the wind flow in a vorticity mode. This model takes into account the topography and the main surface characteristics such as roughness length, heat and radiation transfer between the surface and the atmosphere which extend up to 2000 m. Computations are made for different synoptic wind speeds and directions during cloudy days and clear nights. Those situations have been chosen because they lead to worst dispersion conditions.
    [3] The 3-D dispersion module (SEVEX-TOXIC) that is a Lagrangian dispersion model. It simulates passive transportation and dispersion of particles of toxic or irritating substances at a rate and in a state given by the SEVEX-SOURCE module. The wind fields and turbulence characteristics are taken from the SEVEX-MESO module.
    These different modules are linked together and implemented into a user-friendly interface. Starting from a source description (or accidental release scenario) deduced from a safety analysis, SEVEX enables to produce maps directly usable by emergency planning teams. These maps show various danger zones considering toxicity, overpressure and heat effects. Three levels of danger are taken into account : temporary diseases, permanent injuries out door and danger indoor. SEVEX maps show also where no danger is expected. These information enables to define clearly the behaviour to adopt facing the danger : no change in behaviour, avoiding exposure advised, self-confinement or evacuation.
    The outputs of SEVEX are compiled into a Data Base of potential accident maps showing accidental scenario information (substance, effects, danger to public, meteorological conditions, …), realistic mapping of risk zones corresponding to defined thresholds and behaviour to adopt. In case of an emergency, this so-called SEVEX Atlas provides an immediate answer or anticipated decision about the behaviour to adopt and the instructions to enforce in each danger zone.
    Such anticipated decisions are the only way to avoid the chaos of misleading orders. Indeed SEVEX prevention policy is to be prepared to the worst realistic situations. This will lead to conservative decisions for better conditions. SEVEX integrates in each level of the analysis the inherent uncertainties of emergency situations and builds up the most suitable emergency plan on the basis of the very few certainties available.
    SEVEX limits the problem to realistic danger extent and leads to an effective emergency response." "SEVEX is not a real-time emergency response tool.
    SEVEX do not consider chemical reactions and multicomponent material.
    SEVEX handles topography with slopes up to ~ 10 %.
    SEVEX atmosphere goes up to 2000 m.
    Indoor concentration are not predicted. They are supposed equal to outdoor ones.
    No model for fire smoke
    In the dense gaz module the topography is not taken into account
    Pool evaporation model only used if continuous flow." "Domain extent: 37km x 37km
    Grid resolution:
    1km x 1km for the wind field calculations by SEVEX-MESO 0.1km x 0.1km for the concentration calculations by SEVEX-TOXIC" "As far as the SEVEX software integrates a series of interlinked modules, the reader is referred to the SEVEX Evaluation document [3], where more information concerning the various schemes used in the software are given." "The SEVEX software is designed as an integrated modular code. Each part or module has been tested, verified and validated." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Two levels of inputs are necessary. A first set is needed to produce the SEVEX Atlas (A). The second one enables to use the SEVEX Atlas in practical situations of emergency once the SEVEX Atlas exists.
    (A) Production of the SEVEX Atlas :
    Site description : topography, land use (as a standard a 5 land types data base provides : emissivity, roughness length, albedo and heat capacity) and corresponding scanned road map (or equivalent)
    Accidental scenario : substance involved, description and type of storage, description of potential leak (these information are produced from a safety study)
    (B) Use of SEVEX Atlas
    synoptic wind speed and direction,
    substance involved,
    accident type,
    time of the day (day or night)" "The SEVEX software is build in such a way that a sequence of steps is to be performed in order to produce the risk zones maps (taking into account concentration/radiation/pressure effects). Each step offer the possibility to produce some outputs, either at screen (tables, summaries, graphs or maps) or on paper. These different steps are :
    CASE - potential release data base definition : flow rates (liquid, vapor and total), released quantities, …
    METEO - wind field data base definition : wind field at 10 m height overplotted on the topography and/or the land use digitised maps,
    SCENARIO - combination of CASE and METEO items : iso-contour plot of individual event risk areas corresponding to the pre-defined levels of danger (three), overplotted on digitised road-map,
    ACCIDENT - combination of SCENARIO items : map providing :
    Information about the danger
    Description of the accident scenario
    Description of meteorological conditions
    Danger Tresholds (cfr. toxicity, overpressure and/or heat) with respect to health effects
    Behaviour to adopt in each risk zone
    Road map and overplotted risk areas necessary to prepare the emergency response This is the main output of SEVEX. It takes into account the uncertainties of any accidental situtation (e.g. fluctuation of wind direction, released quantity, …) through a combination of various SCENARIO items. From each of these items, SEVEX will only keep and map the maximising effects. This is necessary with respect to the required enforcement of conservative decisions in the crisis situation." "At this stage SEVEX is a software based on UNIX platforms (OSF Motif interface). (A MS-Windows based PC-interface is forseen for the beginning of 1999)." "Ministry of Environment of the Walloon Region of Belgium
    Solvay S.A.
    SEVEX is made for Agencies in charge of civil protection, industrials and consultants" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2: rather good scientific documentation and less complete users manual (to be improved in the new version in preparation)." "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because major limitations in the measured data.
    An extensive evaluation has been performed by ATM-PRO s.p.r.l in 1997 [3]. It is based on the guidelines of the Model Evaluation Group of the European Commission [4],[5]. It considers the model description, the database description, the scientific assessment, the user oriented assessment, the verification and the validation of SEVEX. Indeed it takes into account the integrated and multi-module structure of SEVEX.
    The databases used for the validation of SEVEX are listed in chapter 2 of this evaluation report. These validations concern : leakage flow rate, dense gas, 2-D passive dispersion, UVCE, BLEVE, 3-D meso-meteorological fields and 3-D passive dispersion models.
    Many references enable the reader to assess the scientific basis of SEVEX." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Is SEVEX able to run in Real Time mode ? No, SEVEX is made to be prepared in advance to provide the right answer/order in case of an emergency. To tackle this objective SEVEX takes into account the many uncertainties (source location and intensity, wind direction and speed, …) that can appear from real situation in order to build up realistic accidental scenarios. From these, the emergency teams can organise their work avoiding chaos coming out contradictory or undefined orders. Is SEVEX difficult to use ? SEVEX has to be used by well-skilled person in order to build up scenarios and implement their calculations into the software. Then, once the SEVEX ATLAS, considering all potential accident and meteorological situations, is produced, anybody will be able to manage an emergency situation. Indeed, from very simple informations (substance, night/day time, wind direction and wind speed) one map can be easily selected from the SEVEX Atlas. This map provides information about the substance and the potential risk it induces, about the accident scenario, about the danger levels and the map showing road map and risk zones overplotted. This is transmitted to rescue teams which have prepared the emergency response plan in order to improve time reaction and decision making process." "IBM RISC 6000 (power PC), Silicon Graphics (MIPS R 4000) (PC version under construction)" "Memory requirements: 32 MB RAM (minimum) Storage device requirements: 1GB (minimum)" "A commercial version of SEVEX will be soon available (January 1999)." "[1] Cartage Th., Major Industrial Hazards : The SEVEX Project Determination of Risk Areas for Emergency Planning, Computational Methods in Applied Sciences 96, p. 176-183, 1996. [2] Delvosalle, C.,J. M. Levert, F. Benjelloun, GH. Schayes, B. Moyaux, F. Ronday, E. Everbecq, T. Bourouag, and J. P. Dzisiak, Major industrial hazards : The SEVEX Project - source term and dispersion calculation in complex terrain, 20th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application (Valencia, Nov. 29 - Dec. 3), ed. Gryning and Millan, Plenum, p. 357-365, 1993 . [3] Dutrieux A. and E. Dubois. SEVeso EXpert system software evaluation (final report). Evaluation report produced by ATM-PRO s.p.r.l. under contract with the Walloon Ministry of Environment, 77 pp., 1997. [4] EC Model Evaluation Group. Model Evaluation Protocol - Version 5, may 1994, EC DGXII, 1994. [5] Model Evaluation Group: Heavy Gas Dispersion Evaluation Protocol. In: Model Evaluation Group Seminar: The evaluation of models of heavy gas dispersion, Rauwse Meren (Mol), Belgium, 25 November 1994. [6] Ronday F., E. Everbecq, T. Bourouag, J.F. Deliège, J.P Dzisiak, C. Delvosalle, J-M Levert, F. Benjelloun, G. Schayes and J. Castel-Branco, Assessment and validation of the SEVEX PROJECT, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, 5, n° 4-6, pp 645-654, 1995. [7] RW/UCL/ULG/FPMs/SOLVAY, Ils anticipent les accidents majeurs, lEcomanager, n° 27, October 1996. [8] Schayes, G. and J. Smitz, P. Thunis, and L. Lesage, The SEVEX project, an integrated dispersion and contamination calculation for complex terrain and accidental releases. Air Pollution Modelling and its applications, Vol. VIII, Plenum Press, 643-648, 1990. [9] Van Malder G., Determining Risk areas for emergency planning. Methodology and Tools Developed in the Walloon Region, Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Volume II. Edited by J.J. Mewis, H.J. Pasman and EE. De Rademaeker (Eds) Elsevier Science B.V., 1995." 3/29/2011 18:22:47 108 "IVL" "Jana Moldanova" "Swedish Environmental Research Institute" "jana.moldanova@ivl.se" "+46 31 7256213" "+46 31 7256290" "IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 470 86, SE-402 58 Göteborg, Sweden" "Tropospheric ozone, Air toxics" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Lagrangian models" "PC, Workstation" "IVL" "IVL-model (IVL = Swedish environmental research institute, Institutet för Vatten- och Luftvårdsforskning) CAM model (Chemistry of Atmospheric Mercury)" "IVL" "Dr Jana Moldanova" "IVL
    Box 470 86
    402 58 Gothenburg
    Sweden" "+46 31 7256 200" "+46 31 48 21 80" "jana.moldanova@ivl.se" "http://www.ivl.se/" "Basic" "Simulation of photochemical transformations in trajectories or in plumes Calculation of POCP values (Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials)" "Lagrangian 1-dimensional trajectory, mesoscale chemical model" "The IVL photochemical trajectory model describes the chemical development in an air mass following a trajectory in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the layer above. The model, which has been revised at IVL to fit Swedish conditions (Andersson-Sköld et al., 1992; Pleijel et al., 1996), was originally developed from the Harwell model (Derwent, 1990) . Today, the chemical scheme of the IVL-model explicitly describes the decomposition of around 80 VOC and includes in total more than 700 chemical species participating in around 2000 chemical and photochemical reactions (Andersson-Sköld, 1995).
    The CAM model describes the chemical behaviour inside a fog then followed for a period of some days. The processes covered are emissions into and deposition out of the fog air, transport in and out of fog droplets, as well as the chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and in the fog droplets, including association onto particles." "Weather statistics, not real-time weather used." "Time step 10-12 to 1000 seconds, simulated time period, days to weeks" "Grid size: 1m -10 km" "boundary layer as a mass of air" "Andersson-Sköld (1995), Simpson et al., (1993), Pleijel and Munthe (1995)" "FACSIMILE/CHEKMAT (Curtis and Sweetenham, 1987), employing Gear" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Emissions in kg/hour/gridsquare and in kg/hour for a point source Weather statistics Trajectory pathway or wind statistics " "Air concentration development of chemical components Deposition development of chemical components" "Industrial plant owners, local and governmental authorities, scentists The model can be used only by a highly skilled person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 2: Documentation in scientific papers and reports." "Level 3: (Lindskog and Moldanovà, 1994)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Workstation or PC" "The model is not a public domain programme." "Andersson-Sköld Y. (1995) Updating the chemical scheme for the IVL photochemical trajectory model, IVL-report B 1151, IVL, Box 470 86, 402 58 Göteborg, Sweden. Andersson-Sköld Y., Grennfelt P. and Pleijel K. (1992) Photochemical ozone creation potentials: a study of different concepts, J. Air & Waste Management Ass., 42, pp 1152-1158. Curtis A.R. and Sweetenham W.P. (1987) FACSIMILE/CHEKMAT User\\'s manual. AERE R 12805, Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire, England. Derwent R.G. (1990) Evaluation of a number of chemical mechanisms for their application in models describing the formation of photochemical ozone in Europe, Atmos. Environ., 24A, pp 2615-2624. Gear, C. W. (1969) The automatic integration of stiff ordinary differential equations. Information Processing 68, Ed. A. J. H. Morell, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1969, pp. 187-193. Lindskog A. and Moldanová J. (1994) The influence of origin, season, and time of the day on the distribution of individual NMHC measured at Rörvik, Sweden, Atm. Environ., 28, pp 2383-2398. Pleijel K., Altenstedt J. and Andersson-Sköld Y. (1996) Comparison of chemical schemes used in photochemical modelling - Swedish conditions, IVL-report B 1151, IVL, Box 470 86, 402 58 Göteborg, Sweden. Pleijel K. and Munthe J. (1995) Modelling the atmospheric mercury cycle - chemistry in fog droplets, Atmos. Environ., 29, No. 12, pp 1441-1457. Simpson D., Andersson-Sköld Y. and Jenkin M.E. (1993) Updating the chemical scheme for the EMEP MSC-W oxidant model: current status, EMEP MSC-W Note 2/93. " 3/29/2011 18:22:49 109 "METPHOMOD" "Silvan Perego" "silvan.perego@bluewin.ch" "Tropospheric ozone, Eutrophication, Summer smog, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3)" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Supercomputer" "METPHOMOD" "METPHOMOD (meteorology and chemistry model)" "V2.2 operational" "June, 2006" "Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de la pollution de l" "Silvan Perego" "Tannenweg 8,
    CH-5210 Windisch" "+41 79 456 1161" "silvan.perego@bluewin.ch" "http://www.giub.unibe.ch/klimet/metphomod/" "Provided by contact person" "Intermediate" "Simulation of the development of summer smog over very complex terrain under fair weather conditions." "Three-dimensional, prognostic, fully coupled meteorological and chemical mesoscale air dispersion model" "METPHOMOD is a single program which includes modules for air motion, turbulence, radiation, ground-atmosphere ineractions, gas phase chemistry, and deposition. The model uses a cartesian grid. Complex topography is considered, by dividing grid points into the two categories normal and underground. While having some problems in representing fine topographical features, this approach has the advantage to be simple straightforward and efficient, and to produce only little numerical error in high mountain areas and on strong slopes (> 45o). Transport is calculated using the PPM based transport scheme. The nonhydrostatic pressure is evaluated, by solving an elliptic equation derived from the mass continuity equation. The turbulence module implements the k-e turbulence closure scheme proposed by Apsley, and solves turbulence with an implicit solver. The program includes a chemical interpreter. The chemical reaction are listed in an input file. The program then automaticly generates the equations it needs, to solve the chemical system. A specific strength of METPHOMOD is its clear and well defined user interface. A user normally does not need to go into the code or recompile the program for any task. The program includes a help facility and automaticly controls the consistency of inputs. " "METPHOMOD was written for the mesoscale and for clear sky conditions. It does not include modules for clouds, aerosols and heterogenous chemistry (in fact it includes a module for stratus type clouds. Since there is no coupling between this module and the radiation module up to now, and because normally stratus-type clouds are rather unimportant for summer smog episodes, this module is of very limited use). For a grid resolution below about 500m, the turbulence closure scheme is not longer valid. The size of the model domain is limited by the inability of the program to consider the spherical surface of the earth. The long execution time of the program, normally limits its application to a couple of days." "Time Step: 1 - 60 seconds, simulated time period: limited by computing power, normally some days." "Grid Size: 500-10000m, domain size 10 - 500km" "Cell height: 20 - 1000m (varying with height), total height 2000-15000m" "PPM or multidimensional mpdata (Smolarkievicz 1984)" "k-e closure or transilient turbulence type closure" "Resistance type model" "A chemical interpreter is included within the model, i.e. the chemical equations can be specified through a well formed input file. No recompilation normally is needed, when a chemical mechanism is updated. The model comes with a predefined input file for the RACM mechanism." "The modeling domain is represented by a grid of rectangular cubes. All values are stored in the center of the cube. The dynamics then are solved with the method of Rhie and Chow, in the form proposed by Clappier. The method includes the solution of an elliptic pressure equation. This is done with a preconditioned conjugated gradient procedure. The solution procedure strictly keeps mass consistency.
    The k-e Turbulence parametrisation in the form proposed by Apsley is used to calculate turbulence. In this scheme, prognostic equations for turbulent kinetic energy and for the dissipation rate are used. The surface layer is parametrised according to the Monin-Obhukov theory, and the parametrisation of Businger.
    The chemical equation system is solved with a technique based on Gong & Cho. In each time step, and in each grid cell the species are automaticly seperated into fast and slow ones. The fast species then are solved with an implicit, the slow ones with an explicit integration step." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Emissions depend on the chemical scheme which is used. They are provided in mol/(m2*sec)." "Initial values for horizontal winds, temperature, humidity, pressure-field. Border-Values for horizontal winds, temperature, humidity" "In each surface cell: Height above sea levels, surface roughness, albedo, ground heat capacity and diffusivity, leaf area index, plant water content, deposition resistance values." "Horizontal wind speeds, virtual potential temperature, humidity and initial concentration of chemical species." "The same as for the initial conditions, plus some parameters that specify the pressure field. The pressure can be specified explicitely or via a geostrophic wind speed." "The model does not include standard data assimilation procedures. It lies in the responsiblilty of the user to prepare a consitent set of input data. Historically the model has been initialised by using measurment data (from point measurement, aircraft measurements, and soundings) or by nesting the model domain within the result sets of a larger scale model." "Wind velocity componentes, temperature, humidity, pressure, air density, turbulence data, radiation data, concentration of species, chemical production rates of species, deposition rates, cumulated deposition." "The program works with input-files which have some similarity to a programming language, i.e., they underly a specific syntax, which is tested by the program. Errors and inconsistencies in the input file are automaticly found by the input-file parser and are reported to the user. Input and output fields are stored in netCDF Files. This file format can be analysed by many tools." "The following institutions presently are using METPHOMOD:
    Geographisches Institut der Universitaet Bern, Gruppe fur Klima und Meteorologie,
    Laboratoire de la pollution de l air et de sol. Ecole polytechnque de Lausanne." "Urban" "

    POLLUMET study

    Description:

    Calculations in the development of summer smog on the Swiss plateau. Simulation of the intensive measurement periods of the project. simulation of abatement strategies." "Urban" "

    POLLUMET study

    Description:

    Calculations in the development of summer smog on the Swiss plateau. Simulation of the intensive measurement periods of the project. simulation of abatement strategies." "

    POLLUMET study

    Description:

    Calculations in the development of summer smog on the Swiss plateau. Simulation of the intensive measurement periods of the project. simulation of abatement strategies." "The users manual can be downloaded from the Metphomod Home-Page at http://www.giub.unibe.ch/klimet/metphomod/" "Model validation against analytical solutions
    Transportation of a cone in a three dimensional circular wind field
    Flow over a ridge
    Flow around obstacles
    Sea breaze simulation
    Integration of simple chemical reaction systems etc...
    Model evaluation
    Comparisons of model results with measurements of the POLLUMET field campaign 1993." "Relevant reference

    A comparitive study for the ability of different mesoscale models to forecast photocemical pollution events in the grenoble area, Eric Chaxel, et. al., Proceedings of the 14th International Conference „Transport and Air Pollution 2005, Graz

    Description A summer smog episode of three weeks in the city of Grenoble has been simulated with various mesoscale air pollution models. And the results have been compared to each other and with measurement results." "METPHOMOD was successfully ported to the following UNIX platforms: Sun Solaris, IBM AIX, DEC UNIX, SGI-IRIX, Linux. A parallel version based on the PVM-Library exists. It, therefore, works efficiently on parallel architetures, such as workstation clusters, or parallel computers." "The CPU time strongly depends on the complexity of the simulation (number of grid points, chemical mechanism, grid cell sizes, etc.) and on the hardware used. On a normal PC the following calculation times are typical:
    - Meteorology only, 50x50x20 pts, ca. 5-20 minutes for a simulated day.
    - Combined meteorological/chemical simulation with RACM in place. Ca. 4 hours for a full day." "Depends heavily on the complexity of the simulation. A typical run with about 50x50x20 grid points and full RACM chemistry requires about 20 MB of RAM." "The model has been put under the GNU free software license and can be downloaded freely from the internet." "Perego S. (1996), Ein numerisches Modell zur Simulation des Sommersmogs, Geographica Bernensia G47, Bern. ISBN 3-906151-05-0. Perego S. (1999), MetPhoMod V2 Users manual, (download from or view at http://www.giub.unibe.ch/klimet/metphomod/) Perego S. (1999), Metphomod - A numerical Mesoscale Model for the Simulation of Regional Photosmog in complex terrain: Model description and Application during Pollumet 1993 (Switzerland); Meterol. Atmos.Phys. 70, 43-69." 3/29/2011 18:22:50 102 "BUO-FMI" "Juha Nikmo" "juha.nikmo@fmi.fi" "Air toxics, Industrial pollutants, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "Up to 10 minutes" "PC" "BUO-FMI" "BUO-FMI (Dispersion from strongly buoyant sources - Finnish Meteorological Institute)" "Version 3.0" "September 2003" "Air Quality Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute" "Mr Juha Nikmo, Prof Jaakko Kukkonen" "Finnish Meteorological Institute,
    Air Quality Research,
    Erik Palménin aukio 1,
    FI-00560 Helsinki, Finland" "+358 9 19291" "+358 9 1929 5403" "juha.nikmo@fmi.fi , jaakko.kukkonen@fmi.fi" "http://www.fmi.fi/research_air/air_17.html" "Provided by contact persons" "Advanced" "The model can be used to estimate the atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles, emitted from typical fires in warehouses and chemical stores." "The Eulerian model adopted is a hybrid approach, involving both a Gaussian plume model and a gradient transfer (K-theory) approach." "The model has been developed by the Finnish Meteorological Institute within the project Dispersion from Strongly Buoyant Sources (1994-1997), under the Environment programme of the European Union. The project is a cooperative research project between the Atomic Energy Authority Technology plc (AEAT, in the United Kingdom), Integral Science and Software (ISS, in the United Kingdom), the Meteorological Institute of the University of Hamburg (UH) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The project addresses the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants emitted from typical fires in warehouses and chemical stores. Such fires may represent a major hazard to people and the environment, and the fire plumes may contain a variety of harmful or toxic chemical compounds.
    BUO-FMI is a local-scale dispersion model applicable for buoyant or passive continuous plumes. The model is based on atmospheric boundary layer scaling theory. The source region and plume rise is modelled according to Martin et al. (1997). After the plume rise, Gaussian equations are used in both the horizontal and vertical directions. After a specified transition distance, gradient transfer theory is applied in the vertical direction, while the horizontal dispersion is still assumed to be Gaussian. The dispersion parameters and eddy diffusivity are modelled in a form, which facilitates the use of a meteorological pre-processor. We have also presented a new model of the vertical eddy diffusivity, which is a continuous function of the height in the various atmospheric scaling regions. The model also includes a treatment of the dry deposition of gases and particulate matter, but wet deposition has been neglected." "The model does not allow for chemical transformation, wet deposition or inhomogeneous terrain. Further, the plume trajectories are not computed by this model." "Steady state continuous release is assumed." "The horizontal scale is less than 30 km and the vertical scale is in general equal to the boundary layer height. The spatial resolution in horizontal and vertical direction is of the order of 1 m." "See horizontal resolution." "An Eulerian approach is realized in the model for the advection, diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants in the atmosphere. The model applies a two dimensional advection-diffusion equation. Plume rise is modelled according to Martin et al. (1997)." "Turbulence is modelled using a scaling approach based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory." "Dry deposition of gases and particulate matter is described following the resistance model concept. Wet deposition has been neglected." "The model does not use chemistry." "Structured programming was applied to design a highly modular code. The numerical testing of the various submodels showed that their behaviour is theoretically correct and produces numerically reasonable values. The functioning of the program is robust, and it has been thoroughly tested numerically. We have adopted a finite difference (Crank-Nicholson) numerical procedure for solving the atmospheric diffusion equation (ADE). The accuracy of the numerical model was examined, by comparing its predictions against two analytic solutions of the ADE." "Valid data ranges are defined for all input data. Error or warning message is issued if a value outside the range is entered. Also a basic consistency check is performed on the input data.
    EMISSIONS
    Information on the source term includes the following: the pollutant species, the emission rate of released gas and particles, the temperature of released gas, the mass fraction of released gas, the diameter and density of the particles, the release height, the source diameter and the source location.
    METEOROLOGY
    Information on the meteorological conditions includes the following: the Monin-Obukhov length, the mixing height, the surface roughness length, the air temperature at ground level, the mean wind speed measured at a reference height and wind direction. As an alternative option, the user can input the Pasquill stability class, instead of the Monin-Obukhov length.
    The Monin-Obukhov length, the mixing height and the surface roughness length can be obtained from direct measurements or, using meteorological pre-processing models, from routine weather observations (e.g. van Ulden and Holtslag, 1985; Karppinen et al., 1998; Fisher et al., 1998).
    OTHER
    Information on dry deposition includes the canopy resistance. For numerical values, the reader is referred to Walmsley and Wesely (1996) and Voldner et al. (1986)." "Information on the source term includes the following: the pollutant species, the emission rate of released gas and particles, the temperature of released gas, the mass fraction of released gas, the diameter and density of the particles, the release height, the source diameter and the source location." "Information on the meteorological conditions includes the following: the Monin-Obukhov length, the mixing height, the surface roughness length, the air temperature at ground level, the mean wind speed measured at a reference height and wind direction. As an alternative option, the user can input the Pasquill stability class, instead of the Monin-Obukhov length." "Applicable only for flat terrain." "The model does not incorporate initial conditions." "The model does not incorporate boundary conditions." "Not available." "Information on dry deposition of gases includes the canopy resistance." "The model output consists of: maximum ground level concentration, plume center-line concentration, advection velocity and deposition flux." "Windows user interface." "Users of BUO-FMI should be scientists or engineers with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models." "Regional" "1. Project title
    Airborne impurities and their effects in the Kainuu region
    2. Relevant references
    Kemppainen, S. and Markkanen, S.-L. (eds.), 2000. Ilman kautta tuleva kuormitus, sen alkuperä ja vaikutukset (in Finnish). Kainuun Ympäristökeskus, Alprint Kajaani, 144 p.
    3. Short description
    A modified version of the model (includes a treatment for wet deposition and chemical transformation of sulphur dioxide) has been applied for an air quality study in eastern Finland (Kemppainen and Markkanen, 2000). The project studied airborne pollution in Kainuu (in eastern Finland) by means of measurements and model computations, its sources and their respective roles in the total figure. The effects of pollution on the nature were studied by means of bioindicators, and the sulphur dioxide concentration of air was monitored by a continuously operating measurement station located in the eastern part of the region, close to the Finnish-Russian border. In addition, the project applied lichen mapping to study air quality in the towns of Kajaani and Kuhmo, and in the municipalities of Hyrynsalmi, Paltamo, Sotkamo and Suomussalmi." "1. Project title
    Airborne impurities and their effects in the Kainuu region
    2. Relevant references
    Kemppainen, S. and Markkanen, S.-L. (eds.), 2000. Ilman kautta tuleva kuormitus, sen alkuperä ja vaikutukset (in Finnish). Kainuun Ympäristökeskus, Alprint Kajaani, 144 p.
    3. Short description
    A modified version of the model (includes a treatment for wet deposition and chemical transformation of sulphur dioxide) has been applied for an air quality study in eastern Finland (Kemppainen and Markkanen, 2000). The project studied airborne pollution in Kainuu (in eastern Finland) by means of measurements and model computations, its sources and their respective roles in the total figure. The effects of pollution on the nature were studied by means of bioindicators, and the sulphur dioxide concentration of air was monitored by a continuously operating measurement station located in the eastern part of the region, close to the Finnish-Russian border. In addition, the project applied lichen mapping to study air quality in the towns of Kajaani and Kuhmo, and in the municipalities of Hyrynsalmi, Paltamo, Sotkamo and Suomussalmi." "1. Project title
    Airborne impurities and their effects in the Kainuu region
    2. Relevant references
    Kemppainen, S. and Markkanen, S.-L. (eds.), 2000. Ilman kautta tuleva kuormitus, sen alkuperä ja vaikutukset (in Finnish). Kainuun Ympäristökeskus, Alprint Kajaani, 144 p.
    3. Short description
    A modified version of the model (includes a treatment for wet deposition and chemical transformation of sulphur dioxide) has been applied for an air quality study in eastern Finland (Kemppainen and Markkanen, 2000). The project studied airborne pollution in Kainuu (in eastern Finland) by means of measurements and model computations, its sources and their respective roles in the total figure. The effects of pollution on the nature were studied by means of bioindicators, and the sulphur dioxide concentration of air was monitored by a continuously operating measurement station located in the eastern part of the region, close to the Finnish-Russian border. In addition, the project applied lichen mapping to study air quality in the towns of Kajaani and Kuhmo, and in the municipalities of Hyrynsalmi, Paltamo, Sotkamo and Suomussalmi." "Documentation status level 2: Model description in peer reviewed journal(s). The model has been described in publications Nikmo et al., 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1999." "Level 1: Model validation against analytical solutions (Nikmo et al., 1997 and 1999). The accuracy of the numerical solver of the atmospheric diffusion equation has been examined, by comparing its predictions against analytic solutions for two specific cases; the numerical deviations from these solutions were less than 2 %, for the selected example cases.
    Level 2: Model validation against reference dataset (Nikmo et al., 1999). The model has been validated against the Kincaid experimental field data (Olesen, 1995a)." "The model has been tested against the Kincaid experimental field data (Olesen, 1995a). Measured hourly maximum concentrations on each monitoring arc was compared against model predictions. The statisctical parameters calculated included mean concentration based on all data points considered (mean), fractional bias (FB), normalised mean square error (NMSE) and correlation coefficient (COR). The number of data points was N = 253.
    The Monin-Obukhov length has been estimated with the FMI meteorological pre-processor. We have applied the predicted values of the mixing height, provided together with the experimental data. The final plume rise and partial penetration through the top of mixing layer was estimated by the model presented by Briggs (1984). Two model options were used: Kz-profile was estimated by the model of this study (Nikmo et al., 1999) and by OBrien (1970).
    The statistics for using the Kz-profile of this study: mean = 39.0, NMSE = 1.56, COR = 0.136 and FB = -0.085. The statistics for using the Kz-profile of OBrien (1970): mean = 38.72, NMSE = 1.49, COR = 0.156 and FB = -0.078. The observed value of mean = 35.81.
    The model predictions for the mean concentration agree with measured data within 9% accuracy. The fractional bias (FB) is negative for both cases, implying a slight overprediction. These values of the statistical performance measures are comparable, compared with those found for other corresponding models, tested against the Kincaid dataset (Olesen, 1995b). " "What was the reason to have two separate regions corresponding to the Gaussian model and the K-theory model? Actually, the Gaussian equation can be obtained as a solution of the K-equation. It is known from basic diffusion theory that K-theory is not valid, if the characteristic length and time scales for changes in the mean concentration field are large, compared with the corresponding scales for turbulent transport. We therefore included an option to use Gaussian modelling near the source, if the source dimensions are small. However, the computer program can easily bypass the Gaussian modelling regime, if the user considers this to be appropriate. Can this model be applied to the stack gas emissions? The model has originally been developed to describe dispersion from strongly buoyant area sources. But in principle, it should be applicable also for moderately buoyant small area sources, like stack gases. Which are the differences in your treatment of plume rise from the models, either simple analytical ones or based on the complete set of conservation equations, present in the literature? The basic conservation laws are the same, which have been utilised, for instance, by Briggs. However, there are also substantial differences, for instance, in describing the penetration of inversion layers and in allowing for atmospheric boundary layer structure. For more detailed description see Martin et al. (1997)." "PC, running Windows 95/98/NT/ME/2000/XP." "The computation time on a PC-pentium computer is about 5 secs." "The program requires about 1 MB free disk space." "The model is not a public domain program. Available within research co-operation." "Martin, D., Webber, D.M., Jones, S.J., Underwood, B.Y., Tickle, G.A. and Ramsdale, S.A. (1997), Near- and intermediate-field dispersion from strongly buoyant sources, AEAT/1388, Final Report. Nikmo, J., Kukkonen, J., Valkama, I. and Rantakrans, E. (1995), Mathematical modelling of the atmospheric dispersion of strongly buoyant plumes. In: Anttila, P., Kämäri, J. and Tolvanen, M. (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th World Clean Air Congress, Espoo, Finland, May 28 - June 2, 1995, Volume 2, The Finnish Air Pollution Prevention Society, Helsinki, paper 250. Nikmo, J., Tuovinen, J.-P., Kukkonen, J., Valkama, I. and Rantakrans, E. (1996), Modelling local scale plume dispersion from industrial fires. Proceedings of the Industrial Fires III Workshop, 17.-18.9.1996, Risø, Denmark. European Commission, EUR 17477 EN, p. 321-332. Nikmo, J., Tuovinen, J.-P., Kukkonen, J. and Valkama, I. (1997), A hybrid plume model for local-scale dispersion. Publications on Air Quality 27, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, 65 p. Nikmo, J., Tuovinen, J.-P., Kukkonen, J. and Valkama, I. (1999), A hybrid plume model for local-scale dispersion. Atmos. Environ. 33, pp. 4389-4399. " "Briggs, G.A. (1984) Plume rise and buoyancy effects. In: Randerson, D. (ed.), Atmospheric science and power production. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/TIC 27601, p. 327-366. Fisher, B.E.A., Erbrink, J.J., Finardi, S., Jeannet, P., Joffre, S., Morselli, M.G., Pechinger, U., Seibert, P. and Thomson, D.J. (eds.) (1998). Harmonisation of the pre-processing of meteorological data for atmospheric dispersion models. European Commission, COST Action 710 Final report, EUR 18195 EN. Karppinen, A., Kukkonen, J., Nordlund, G., Rantakrans, E. and Valkama, I. (1998) A dispersion modelling system for urban air pollution. Finnish Meteorological Institute, Publications on Air Quality 28. Helsinki, 58 p. Kemppainen, S. and Markkanen, S.-L. (eds.), 2000. Ilman kautta tuleva kuormitus, sen alkuperä ja vaikutukset (in Finnish). Kainuun Ympäristökeskus, Alprint Kajaani, 144 p. OBrien, J.J., 1970. A note on the vertical structure of the eddy exchange coefficient in the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 27, pp. 1213-1215. Olesen, H.R. (1995a) Datasets and protocol for model validation. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 5, 693-701. Olesen, H.R. (1995b) The model validation exercise at Mol: overview of results. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 5, 761-784. van Ulden, A.P. and Holtslag, A.A.M. (1985) Estimation of atmospheric boundary layer parameters for diffusion applications. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 24, 1196-1207. Walmsley J.L. and Wesely, M.L., 1996. Modification of coded parametrizations of surface resistances to gaseous dry deposition. Atmos. Environ. 30, pp. 1181-1188. Voldner, E.C., Barrie, L.A. and Sirois, A., 1986. A literature review of dry deposition of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen with emphasis on long-range transport modelling in North America. Atmos. Environ. 20, pp. 2101-2123." 3/29/2011 18:22:52 103 "CAR-FMI" "Ari Karppinen - Jari Harkonen" "Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Air Quality, Dispersion Modelling Group" "ari.karppinen@fmi.fi, Jari.Harkonen@fmi.fi" "Erik Palminen Aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki, Finland" "Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Ozone (O3), Benzene, PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models, Chemical models" "10 minutes to 1 hour" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "CAR-FMI" "CAR-FMI, Contaminants in the Air from a Road - Finnish Meteorological Institute" "Version 3.0" "October 2007" "Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)" "Dr Jari Harkonen, Dr Ari Karppinen" "Finnish Meteorological Institute
    Air Quality Research
    P.P.Box 503
    00101 HELSINKI, Finland" "+358 9 1929 1" "+358 9 1929 5403" "Jari.Harkonen@fmi.fi , Ari.Karppinen@fmi.fi" "http://www.fmi.fi/" "Provided by contact person." "Basic" "The model evaluates atmospheric dispersion and chemical transformation from a network of line sources in local scale.
    The model requires information on emissions and meteorological parameters on an hourly basis.
    It computes time series of concentrations and related statistics at user-specified receptor points.
    The model is planned for the applied research of environmental inluences of traffic emissions." "Finite line-source Gaussian model, combined with a meteorological pre-processing model based on atmospheric boundary layer scaling." "
    The modelling system includes an emission model, a dispersion model, statistical analysis of the computed time series of concentrations and a graphical Windows-based user interface.
    The meteorological data for the model is evaluated by the FMI meteorological pre-processor.
    The emission model classifies light- and heavy-duty vehicles into seven categories and computes emission factors of the compunds as a function of travel speed.
    The dispersion model allows for a network of finite line source emissions of inert (CO, NOx) and reactive (NO, NO2, O3) gases and exhausted fine particulate matter (PM2.5). It includes an analytical solution for the chemical cycle NO-O3-NO2.
    The Gaussian dispersion parameters are functions of boundary layer variables, and their dependence on source height is also accounted.
    The model includes the influence of a finite mixing height on the plume dispersion. The system computes statistical concentration parameters from the hourly time series, which can directly be compared to air quality guidelines and limit values.
    The modelling system evaluates the time variation of the regional background concentrations based on the data from a monitoring station situated outside the urban area. Urban background concentration is used in suburban areas. If there is no suitable monitoring station available, concentrations from a regional dispersion model (EMEP) or spatially interpolated values of measurements are used. " "
    The Gaussian plume model assumes stationary meteorology and emissions during the dispersion (one hour in this model).
    Non-exhaust PM-emissions are not included in the model, because of the poor knowledge of the non-exhaust emission factors.
    The chemistry in case of overlapping plumes is not solved in the PC-version. The main frame version applies sorting of emissions in the direction of the flow.
    The model does not allow for the influence on dispersion of individual buildings and obstacles, or inhomogeneous terrain. The model can be used in moderately flat regions." "1 hour" "Domain dimension: up to 10 km, adjustable calculation grid." "Domain dimension: mixing height, grid size not explicitly limited." "Gaussian plume" "Atmospheric boundary layer scaling theory." "Dry deposition is included in the treatment of particulate matter." "The chemical transformation of nitrogen oxides is modelled by using the so-called receptor-oriented discrete parcel method. This model includes the basic reactions of nitrogen oxides, oxygen and ozone, but the influence of hydrocarbons is neglected." "Analytical solution of the finite line -source dispersion including deposition." "For all input data: only some basic consistency check for emission data and meteorological input. The real validation of the input data is left to the user.
    For meteorological and background data a temporally continuous input is required." "Required parameters include: the pollutant species, the hourly emission time-series, the effective source height and the geographical coordinates of the line sources." "Meteorological measurements are processed by a pre-processor (MPP-FMI); the input includes three-hourly data from synoptic stations and twice-daily vertical profiles (of temperature, wind and humidity) from a radiosonde station. Optionally input directly from an operational NWP-model can be utilized." "Specified as terrain heights at receptor locations and the roughness length." "Not applicable." "Not applicable." "Background concentrations can be assimilated directly from observations if representative background measurements exists. No assimilation of urban AQ-measurement data. " "Coordinates of the line sources. Daily traffic volumes of the vehicle categories and travellin speed. Seasonal and diurnal traffic weights. One year hourly time series of meteorological parameters and the background concentrations are needed. The details are explained in the User`s Guide. The receptor locations generated by the model can be replaced by giving the receptor locations directly as input." "The model output consists of hourly concentrations at each 3D-grid point. The highest hourly, daily and monthly means are computed.
    Also averages of 8-hour, 2nd-highest daily and yearly concentrations are computed. In addition, any integer percentiles of the compounds can be computed." "The CAR-FMI program has an easy-to-use Windows interface. The results can be analysed and presented utilizing the GIS (Geographic Information System) MapInfo." "The model is technically easy-to-use, but the proper interpretation of results requires a sufficient knowledge in air pollution science." "Urban" "
    PM2.5 modelling in Helsinki Metropolitan Area.
    The comparison of the daily averaged values with the corresponding measurements showed a satisfactory agreement (R2=0.6;N=365). However, the model presented has several limitations. The accuracy of the LRT model depends critically on the chemical composition of long range transported PM2.5. Also the evaluation of the contribution from combustion and non-combustion emissions originated from local traffic causes big uncertainties. (Karppinen et al., 2004ab, 2005)" "Urban" "
    PM2.5 modelling in Helsinki Metropolitan Area.
    The comparison of the daily averaged values with the corresponding measurements showed a satisfactory agreement (R2=0.6;N=365). However, the model presented has several limitations. The accuracy of the LRT model depends critically on the chemical composition of long range transported PM2.5. Also the evaluation of the contribution from combustion and non-combustion emissions originated from local traffic causes big uncertainties. (Karppinen et al., 2004ab, 2005)" "Urban" "
    PM2.5 modelling in Helsinki Metropolitan Area.
    The comparison of the daily averaged values with the corresponding measurements showed a satisfactory agreement (R2=0.6;N=365). However, the model presented has several limitations. The accuracy of the LRT model depends critically on the chemical composition of long range transported PM2.5. Also the evaluation of the contribution from combustion and non-combustion emissions originated from local traffic causes big uncertainties. (Karppinen et al., 2004ab, 2005)" "Level 3. The model is documented in publicly available reports and publication series (for instance, Harkonen et al, 1996, Kukkonen et al.2001, Karppinen, 2002 and Harkonen, 2002)." "Level 4. The predictions of the model have been validated against the results of the field measurement campaigns, conducted near major roads (Walden, et al., 1995, Harkonen et al.,1997, Kukkonen et al., 2001).
    The modelling system has also been tested extensively against results from urban measurement networks (Karppinen et al., 2000a,b and Kousa et al, 2001)." "
    Intercomparison with CALINE4/US-EPA.
    The agreement between measured and predicted datasets was good for both models, as measured using various statistical parameters. For instance, for the hourly NOx and NO2 data and predictions, the index of agreement values range from 0.77 to 0.88, and from 0.83 to 0.92 for the evaluations of the CAR FMI and CALINE4 models, respectively. The largest values of the fractional bias (FB) are 0.34 and 0.33 for the evaluations of the CAR FMI and CALINE4 models, respectively (Levitin et al, 2005)." "Can I get/buy the code? What is the price? Contact ari.karppinen -at- fmi.fi. Can I use CAR-FMI for street canyon calculations? No. Does CAR-FMI include the meteorological model ? No. You shoud create you own meteorological input based on measured data or NWP-model." "The PC-version (written in Fortran 90): Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP.
    The mainframe version of the model has been written in Fortran 77.
    A parallel processor version of the program has been written originally for the Cray C-97 supercomputer, currently it is installed on the SGI Altix 3700 BX2 Linux suprercomputer. The program can also be executed (with/without the parallel processor routines) in any unix/linux mainframe or workstation computer." "The computation time depends on the number of sources, the number of receptor points and the extent of the emission and meteorological time series. The computational times vary from seconds to a couple of tens of hours (for very extensive applications) CPU - time on mainframe computer." "The program requires about 1 MB free disk space." "CAR-FMI is not a public domain program. Available within research co-operation." "Härkönen, J., Valkonen, E., Kukkonen, J., Rantakrans, E., Jalkanen, L. and Lahtinen, K. (1995): An operational dispersion model for predicting pollution from a road. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 5, Nos. 4-6, 602 - 610. Härkönen, J., Valkonen, E., Kukkonen, J., Rantakrans, E., Lahtinen, K., Karppinen, A. and Jalkanen, L. (1996): A model for the dispersion of pollution from a road network. Finnish Meteorological Institute, Publications on Air Quality 23. Helsinki, 34 p. " "Karppinen A., M. Kauhaniemi,J. Härkönen, J. Kukkonen, A: Kousa, T. Koskentalo, 2005. Evaluation of a model for predicting fine particle concentrations. Abstract book of the conference: 2005 AAAR Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies. Abstract 10C-3, p.84. http://www.aaar.org/PMAbstractBookDec29fnl.pdf). Levitin, J., Härkönen, J., Kukkonen, J. and Nikmo, J., 2005. Evaluation of the CALINE4 and CAR FMI models against measurements near a major road. Atmos. Environ. 39, pp. 4439-4452. Harkonen J., Walden J. and Kukkonen, J., 1997. Comparison of model predictions and measurements near a major road in an urban area. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 8, Nos. 3-6, p. 761-768. Karppinen, A, J. Kukkonen, T. Elolähde, M. Konttinen, T. Koskentalo and E. Rantakrans, 2000a. A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution, Model description and applications in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Atmos. Environ. 34-22, pp 3723-3733. Karppinen, A, J. Kukkonen, T. Elolähde, M. Konttinen and T. Koskentalo, 2000b. A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution, Comparison of model predictions with the data of an urban measurement network. Atmos. Environ. 34-22, pp 3735-3743. Kukkonen, Jaakko, Jari Härkönen, Jari Walden, Ari Karppinen and Kaisa Lusa, 2001. Evaluation of the dispersion model CAR-FMI against data from a measurement campaign near a major road. Atmos. Environ. 35-5, pp. 949-960. Ottl, D., J. Kukkonen, R.A. Almbauer, P.J. Sturm, M. Pohjola and J. Härkönen, 2001. Evaluation of a Gaussian and a Lagrangian model against a roadside dataset, with focus on low wind speed conditions. Atmos. Environ. 35, pp. 2123-2132. Kousa, A., J. Kukkonen, A. Karppinen, P. Aarnio, T. Koskentalo, 2001. Statistical and diagnostic evaluation of a new-generation urban dispersion modelling system against an extensive dataset in the Helsinki Area. Atmos. Environ., Vol 35/27, pp 4617-4628. Kukkonen, Jaakko, Jari Härkönen, Jari Walden, Ari Karppinen and Kaisa Lusa, 2001. Validation of the dispersion model CAR-FMI against measurements near a major road. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 16, Nos. 1-6. Karppinen, A., 2001. Meteorological pre-processing and atmospheric dispersion modelling of urban air quality and applications in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Finnish Meteorological Institute, Contributions No. 33, ISBN 951-697-552-6, University Press, Helsinki, 94 p. Härkönen, J., 2002. Regulatory dispersion modelling of traffic-originated pollution. Finnish Meteorological Institute, Contributions No. 38, FMI-CONT-38, ISSN 0782-6117, University Press, Helsinki, 103 p. Tiitta, P., Raunemaa, T., Tissari, J., Yli-Tuomi, A., Leskinen, J., Kukkonen, J., Härkönen, J. and Karppinen A., 2002. Measurements and modelling of PM2.5 concentrations near a major road in Kuopio, Finland. Atmos. Environ. 36, pp. 4057-4068. Karppinen, A., Kukkonen, J., Härkönen, J., Kauhaniemi, M., Kousa, A., Koskentalo, T., 2004a. A modelling system for predicting urban PM2.5 concentrations: numerical results and evaluation against the data in Helsinki. In: Proceeding of the 9th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 1-4 June 2004, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Vol. 2. pp. 65-69. Karppinen, A., Kauhaniemi, M., Härkönen, J., Kukkonen, J., Kousa, A., Alaviippola, B., and Koskentalo, T., 2004b. Evaluation of a PM2.5 model in Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Proceedings of the NOSA Aerosol Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, 11-12 November 2004, pp. 43-44. Srimath, S., 2006. Measurement and Modelling of Aerosols in Urban Environments, PhD Theses, Univeristy of Hertfordshire, UK. 200 p. Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Hongjun Mao, Srinivas T. G. Srimath, Shiyuan Fan, Nuttida Kitwiroon, Lakhumal Luhana, Jaakko Kukkonen, Mervi Haakana, K. Dick van den Hout, Paul Boulter, Ian S. MacCrae, Steinar Larsen, Karl I. Grjerstad, Roberto San Jose, John Bartzis, Panos Neofytou, Peter van den Breemer, Steve Neville, Anu Kousa, Blanca M. Cortes and Ingrid Myrtveit, 2007. An integrated multi-model approach for air quality assessment: development and evaluation of the OSCAR air quality assessment system. Environmental Modelling and Software. (in print). M.A. Pohjola, L. Pirjola, A. Karppinen, J. Härkönen, H. Korhonen, T. Hussein, M. Ketzel, and J. Kukkonen, 2007. Evaluation and modelling of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentration measurements nearby a major road in Helsinki - Part I: Modelling results within the LIPIKA project. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4065-4080." 3/29/2011 18:22:53 100 "AEROPOL" "Marko Kaasik " "mkaasik@physic.ut.ee" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Plume-rise models, Gaussian models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC" "AEROPOL" "AEROPOL (AERO-POLlution)" "Version 4.2" "24.01.2006" "University of Tartu, Hendrikson & Ko Ltd." "Marko Kaasik" "Institute of Physics University of Tartu 50090 Tartu, Estonia " "+372 7375563" "+372 7375550" "mkaasik@physic.ut.ee" "http://rubiin.physic.ut.ee/~mkaasik" "Provided by contact person" "Intermediate" "Modelling of inert pollutant dispersion and (dry and wet) deposition at the local and local-to regional scale (up to 100 km)." "Gaussian model, Pasquill stability classification" "AEROPOL is a steady-state Gaussian dispersion model, which includes Plume rise (based on Briggs formulae), wet deposition (scavenging integrated along the path of precipitations in the atmosphere) and dry deposition (deposition velocity concept for gases). Multiple reflections of the gas plume from underlying surface and capping inversion are considered (partial adsorption at each reflection), for coarse particles complete deposition at the underlying surface. Building effects to stack gas dispersion are included. Dispersion parameters (Briggs rural or urban), wind profile and mixing height are treated as functions of Pasquill stability. Routine ground-based meteorological information is sufficient to run AEROPOL. Concentration near the underlying surface, dry and wet deposition flux (separately and summarised) are calculated. Annual, seasonal or time series averaging could be performed, computing the output values for each meteorological situation separately. Each situation in the sequence is assumed static. The area sources (e.g. built-up areas) are interpreted as arrays of point sources defined with the precision of a Cartesian grid cell. Two options for a line sources: (1) array of point sources (highly accurate, resources consuming) and (2) array of line segments (less resourse consuming). " "Flat terrain, no street canyons, no curved trajectories of air masses, only permanent sources." "Time step: 6 hours or more (for maximal domain size), simulated time period: not limited." "Recommended grid size: 10 - 1000 m, domain dimensions: 0.1 - 100 km. Max. 500 times 500 grid cells, no more technical restrictions. " "No vertical grid is needed, as model is based on analytical formulae and designed to predict the ground-level concentrations and deposition fluxes." "Horizontally uniform straightforward wind, power law for height dependence." "Gaussian plume, Briggs´ dispersion parameters. " "Bulk deposition velocity (specific for each gaseous pollutant), complete deposition of Gaussian plume at the underlying surface for particles." "Scavenging rates (specific for ech pollutant); integrated along the path of falling precipitation to produce the wet deposition flux" "No numerical methods used." "Parallel calculation with meteorological data from ECMWF and HIRLAM (Finnish Meteorological Institute) short-term forecast databases were made for local fly ash episode in December 2002 near Narva power plants, Estonia. Significant differences in wind directions and critical stratification conditions for vertical transport (vertical flow, turbulent transfer) were found. Impact of meteorological parameters to the transport and deposition of fly ash was significant, the model run with HIRLAM meteodata resulted in slightly better agreement with deposition measurements. " "The emissions are provided in g/s for point sources, g/s per line segment for line sources and g/s per grid cell for area sources." "
    Option 1: wind speed and direction at 10 m height, temperature at 2 m, total and lower cloud amounts (10 point system), precipitation amount.
    Option 2: wind speeds and directions at 10 m height and one user-specified height, net radiation flux, temperature at 2 m, precipitation amount." "Not needed (uniform underlying surface assumed)." "None (stationary situation)." "No information needed outside the grid (sources may be in- or outside)." "No built-in data assimilation or preprocessing modules. Source emissions, coordinates, instantaneous meteorological parameters etc. are required in input. See also: Input requirements. " "Source data file (MS Excel)
    Meteorological data file (ASCII)
    Admixture (pollutant) data file (ASCII)
    Grid description (dimensions, resolution, special points) file (ASCII)
    Source parameters: Source height, opening diameter, gas output velocity and temperature, dimensions of buildings near the source.
    Micro-physical data on admixture: Deposition velocity, scavenging rate (for gases), particle diameter and density (for particles), wash-out coefficient (for gases)" "Average and maximal concentrations (mg/m3) through the meteorological data series, dry, wet and total deposition fluxes (mg/m2 per day) for each grid location." "Windows 95 to Windows XP user interface is available. No experience, whether it works with Windows Vista. For ver. 4.2 the MS Excel external support is needed for developing and storing the source data files. " "Some research institutions and environmental consultants in Estonia. Also used as a training programme for environmental education in Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian Marine Education Center.
    Users of AEROPOL should have medium-level computer skills (MS Windows in general, data bases, ASCII data files). Special meteorological education is not necessary, but experience with geographical data processing is recommended." "Regional" "Title:
    Technical Assistance for Mainland Connections of Corridor No I at Tallinn in Estonia.
    Relevant references:
    Kaasik, M., Lukk, T., Kartau, K., Dovnar, T. (2006), Nowcasting and forecasting the street pollution dispersion for Tallinn metropolitan area. In: 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air pollution Modelling and its Applications, Preprints, Leibniz-Institute for tropospheric Research, Leipzig, 291 - 292.
    Technical Assistance for Mainland Connections of Corridor No I at Tallinn in Estonia. Draft Feasibility Study Report (2005), August 2005 (available in Tallinn City Council).
    Description.
    Corridor I project in Tallinn - reconstruction of streets connecting the passenger port of Tallinn with main roads to Riga-Vilnius (Via Baltica) and St. Petersburg. Concentration fields of NO2, CO and PM2.5 from street transport for Tallinn city before (nowadays) and after reconstruction were modeled. Results of dispersion calculations constituted a part of criteria for selection one from 8 reconstruction alternatives. Assessment was carried out in 2005-2006. The maximal hourly concentrations of CO and NOx fit within the 60% deviation limits with respect to monitored values, established by directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999. Concentrations of CO were moderately under- and NO2 overpredicted. No monitoring for PM2.5 exists in Tallinn. " "Urban" "Title:
    Technical Assistance for Mainland Connections of Corridor No I at Tallinn in Estonia.
    Relevant references:
    Kaasik, M., Lukk, T., Kartau, K., Dovnar, T. (2006), Nowcasting and forecasting the street pollution dispersion for Tallinn metropolitan area. In: 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air pollution Modelling and its Applications, Preprints, Leibniz-Institute for tropospheric Research, Leipzig, 291 - 292.
    Technical Assistance for Mainland Connections of Corridor No I at Tallinn in Estonia. Draft Feasibility Study Report (2005), August 2005 (available in Tallinn City Council).
    Description.
    Corridor I project in Tallinn - reconstruction of streets connecting the passenger port of Tallinn with main roads to Riga-Vilnius (Via Baltica) and St. Petersburg. Concentration fields of NO2, CO and PM2.5 from street transport for Tallinn city before (nowadays) and after reconstruction were modeled. Results of dispersion calculations constituted a part of criteria for selection one from 8 reconstruction alternatives. Assessment was carried out in 2005-2006. The maximal hourly concentrations of CO and NOx fit within the 60% deviation limits with respect to monitored values, established by directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999. Concentrations of CO were moderately under- and NO2 overpredicted. No monitoring for PM2.5 exists in Tallinn. " "Title:
    Technical Assistance for Mainland Connections of Corridor No I at Tallinn in Estonia.
    Relevant references:
    Kaasik, M., Lukk, T., Kartau, K., Dovnar, T. (2006), Nowcasting and forecasting the street pollution dispersion for Tallinn metropolitan area. In: 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air pollution Modelling and its Applications, Preprints, Leibniz-Institute for tropospheric Research, Leipzig, 291 - 292.
    Technical Assistance for Mainland Connections of Corridor No I at Tallinn in Estonia. Draft Feasibility Study Report (2005), August 2005 (available in Tallinn City Council).
    Description.
    Corridor I project in Tallinn - reconstruction of streets connecting the passenger port of Tallinn with main roads to Riga-Vilnius (Via Baltica) and St. Petersburg. Concentration fields of NO2, CO and PM2.5 from street transport for Tallinn city before (nowadays) and after reconstruction were modeled. Results of dispersion calculations constituted a part of criteria for selection one from 8 reconstruction alternatives. Assessment was carried out in 2005-2006. The maximal hourly concentrations of CO and NOx fit within the 60% deviation limits with respect to monitored values, established by directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999. Concentrations of CO were moderately under- and NO2 overpredicted. No monitoring for PM2.5 exists in Tallinn. " "Brief users guide and scientific description in Estonian and English. " "Level 3. Validated against the Lillestrom and Copenhagen data sets (incl. to the model validation kit of Initiative on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes), fair agreement. Validated against deposition data sets in the north-eastern part of Estonia from 1985 and 1996-2001 (based on snow pollution data), rather good agreement. Validation against the urban air pollution measurements (NOX and SO2 with Palmes tubes), 1999-2001." "Comparision with Model Validation Kit of Initiative on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes (www.harmo.org), cross-wind integrated concentrations:
    1. Lillestrom data set:
    fractional bias (FB) 0.099
    fractional standard deviation (FS) 0.125
    Pearson correlation coefficient (COR) 0.219
    fraction in factor 2 (FA2) 0.300
    2. Copenhagen data set:
    fractional bias (FB) 0.099
    fractional standard deviation (FS) 0.004
    Pearson correlation coefficient (COR) 0.642
    fraction in factor 2 (FA2) 0.826
    Kincaid data set (Quality 3 subset):
    fractional bias (FB) 0.243
    fractional standard deviation (FS) 0.244
    Pearson correlation coefficient (COR) 0.126
    fraction in factor 2 (FA2) 0.572" "Advantages compared with more simple models, e.g. Raduga and Efir based on the former USSR standard OND-86 (M.Y. Berlyand) Deposition fluxes included, applicable to low-level (incl. street) sources, larger worldwide application and validation of Gaussian scheme. " "No problems recognised under Windows 95 to XP. No experience with Windows Vista." "The largest tasks so far: about 150000 output grid points, 2000 sources and 8 meteorological situations - computation time 5 hours. Computation time is nearly proportional to the prdouct of grid size, number of sources and nuimber of meteorological situations. " "The module AEROPOL.EXE takes about 1 MB on disk, data files produced in one run max. 100 MB (usually far less). No memory problems are recognised while running at a PC with 0,5 GB RAM. " "The model is not on the market as finalised and commercialised product yet. If interested on purchasing the model, please communicate with the contact person. We will consider each order individually to configure the product according to customer´s needs. That will take some time. Previous versions (up to 2.3) are freely available. " "Kaasik, M., Kimmel, V. (2004) Validation of the improved AEROPOL model against the Copenhagen data set. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 20, 1-6, pp. 114-120. Kaasik, M., Rõõm, R., 1997: Estonian Science Foundation, Grant 186, Air Pollution Modelling and Forecast, Final Report, 60 p. (available from contact person)." "Kaasik, M., Kimmel, V., Kaasik, H. (2001) Air quality modeling system for a medium-sized town: a case study in Estonia, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 16, 1-6, pp. 519-527. Kaasik, M. (2000) Parameterisation of atmospheric boundary layer in the numerical model of air pollution transport. Dissertationes Geophysicales Universitatis Tartuensis, 12, Tartu University Press, Tartu, 67p. Kaasik, M. (2000) Validation of models AEROFOUR and AEROPOL using the model validation kit established at Mol, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 14, 1-6, pp. 160-166. Kaasik, M., 1996: Atmospheric transport and deposition of technogenic calcium: model estimation and field measurement, Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Ecol. 6, 41 - 51. " 3/29/2011 18:22:55 101 "AUTOMOD" "Marian Ostrožlík" "AUTOMOD savba.sk" "geofostr@savba.sk" "Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "PC" "AUTOMOD" "AUTOMOD (Automobile Model)" "Version 2.0 " 1993 "Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences" "Marian Ostrozlik" "
    Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences
    Dubravska cesta 9
    842 28 Bratislava
    Slovakia" "+421 7 54912912" "+421 7 54775278" "geofostr@savba.sk" "http://gpi.savba.sk/" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of air pollution from road traffic in a city." "Three-dimensional, Eulerian, diagnostic local scale model" "AUTOMOD is a diagnostic local scale model, which predicts concentration of pollutants emitted by traffic in the built-up urban area. AUTOMOD is based on the numerical solution of the stationary turbulent diffusion equation. The standard finite differences method is used. The boundary conditions respect street configuration and street canyons geometry. The AUTOMOD includes four independent moduls: GRID, GRIDMAX for computing of long-term and maximum short-term concentrations; KALIB, ULICE for computing of street canyon concentrations." "Absence of complex chemistry" "The model is designed to work with input and output data in the form of 1 hour or 30 minute averages" "Grid size: up to 25000 m, domain dimension: max 51 x 51 grid points" "Mixing height." "Numerical integration of stationary turbulent diffusion equation. Wind velocity and vertical diffusion coefficient profiles are taken as a function of stability. " "The discretized equations are solved numerically on a staggered grid by the finite differences method." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are calculated from the traffic flow (the number of passenger and duty vehicles per given time interval)." "Joint frequency table of stability class (Pasquill/Gifford), wind speed and wind direction. Mixing height pre-processor of meteorological statistic from raw measurements is not a part of the model." "The streets structure and street canyons geometry concentrations from stationary urban sources are edit (output from Gaussian model see MDS MODIM 4.10), as well as regional background data (if available)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "All input data are created and controlled by the input data editor." "The long-term average and maximum short-term concentrations for all grid points (numerical and graphical). The pollutant concentration in individual streets (in 1.5 m height and in the height of the buildings on the both sides of the streets)." "MS-DOS operating system" "Various governmental and local authorities are using the model in the Slovak Republic. The AUTOMOD users dont need to be specialists with background in atmospheric sciences." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Manual available in Slovak language." "Model was validated in different traffic situations and street configurations in Bratislava and Kosice (L-3)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results. By applying appropriate statistical tools (see Hesek, 1992, 1998-Phare.)" "Any PC" "PC 486, 120 MHz Long-term calculation for a city with 350 streets or links calculation domain 25 km x 25 km (51 x 51 grids) and for six stability categories and four wind speed classes the computing time is 61 minutes. The computing time for street-canyon concentrations for the same case is 5 minutes." "The model is not freely available. The contact person can provide information on the conditions for obtaining AUTOMOD" "Hesek, F.: Stationary model of air pollution by cars. Contributions of the Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Ser. of Meteorology, 12, 1992, p. 60-74 Hesek, F.: Methodology for calculation of automobile air pollution (in Slovak), Meteorologické zprávy, 48, 1995, No. 2, p. 33-36 Hesek, F.: Mathematical modelling of air pollution from mobile sources in Bratislava and Kosice. Local studies of air quality in the cities of Bratislava and Kosice, Phare EU/93/AIR/22, Final report Air Quality Modelling, V6, Appendix A, 1998, 21 p. Hesek, F.: Using of the air pollution calculation method from road traffic for highway projecting, Contributions of the Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Ser. of Meteorology, 18, 1998, p. 76-83." 3/29/2011 18:22:56 106 "HARP" "Petr Pecha" "pecha@utia.cas.cz" "Nuclear emergencies" "Emergency planning" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source)" "Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Plume-rise models, Gaussian models, Semi-empirical models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours" "PC" "HARP" "HARP- HAzardous Radioactivity Propagation" "last update: December 2009" "December 2009" "ENERGOPROJECT Prague; Institute of Information Theory and Automation, Czech Academy of Sciences" "Petr Pecha" "Institute of Information Theory and Automation,
    Pod vodarenskou vezi 4
    182 08 Prague 8, Czech Republic" "+420 2 6605 2009" "+420 2 688 4903" "pecha@utia.cas.cz" "Provided by contact person" "Intermediate" "Assessment of radiological consequences of radioactive discharges to atmosphere due to routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides during normal operation of nuclear power plants. Program NORMAL calculates the annual-average values of near-ground and plume centre-line activity concentration in air, deposited activity on ground and the corresponding doses." "Single-point flow model / 3-D meteorological fields in 160 x 160 around NPP. Gaussian straight-line dispersion model (optionally BOX model) / segmented Gaussian plume model(hybrid plume-puff model)." "DETERMINISTIC VERSION: Accidental short-termed releases of radionuclides to atmosphere at different heights of the source are analysed. The accidental releases are characterized in general by variable release intensity of the radioactive products and strong dependence on changes of meteorological conditions in the site vicinity. Single point flow model and basic Gaussian plume model are used for the simplest cases having the character of marginal studies or estimation for the „worst case of hypothetical situations. Other optional models (segmented Gaussian plume model, ATSTEP algorithm for hybrid plume-puff model ) are offered to user for analysis of more complicated problems.
    The radioactive plume is depleted by dry and wet deposition as well as radioactive decay. For some nuclides the creation of daughter products is taken into account. Daughter products will grow into the plume with the decay of the parent radionuclide. The source depletion model accounts for reduction of concentration downwind due to the removal mechanisms.
    The models are semiempirical in nature and other phenomena could be more or less successfully considered (effect of plume rise on the effective height of emission due to initial vertical momentum and influence of upward buoyancy force caused by the heat capacity of releases, near-standing building wake effect, consideration of the mild changes in terrain orography, multiple reflection on inversion layers). Several options are offered for dispersion parameters SIGMAy (x) and SIGMAz (x) from the input menu and user can select the proper one according to his consideration (urban or rural areas).
    Further transport of radionuclides through the living environment to the human body is modelled taking into account 5 possible pathways (cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, inhalation from resuspension, ingestion). Dynamic modelling of radionuclides transport through food chains is adopted. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH: Modelling of uncertainty propagation through the atmospheric dispersion and deposition model, food chain model and dosimetric model. Provides right basis for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis and introduction of advanced procedures of consequence assessment. In ensures to follow the recent trends in risk assessment methodology insisting in transition from deterministic procedures to the probabilistic approach which enables to generate more informative probabilistic answers on assessment questions. The most important feature insists in development of a special data assimilation techniques and their application in the early and late stages of radiation accident. Algorithm of the HARP system seemd to be sufficiently fast and acceptably accurate for sequential Monte Carlo calculations and application of recursive procedure of the particle filter Bayesian assimilation technique. " "Based on Pasquill classification of the atmospheric stability, no detailed modelling of the mixing layer structure and characteristics, unable to account for complex terrain; real time dependence of release intensity is approximated by stepwise segments with constant parameters of the release and weather conditions" "Consecutive calculation with 1 hour time step. Propagation up to 36 hours." "The solution is performed on a polar grid (16 directions of the windrose, 35 radial distances up to 100 km from the source )" "Two vertical levels are analysed: near-ground level and a effective height. Vertical shape is assumed as Gaussian " "Single-point model with options (each segment travels in its original direction all the time and/or all material travels in the current wind direction)" "Gaussian straight-line solution, segmented Gaussian model, hybrid plume puff model (algorithm ATSTEP), simplified puff solution (in preparation)" "Experimental values for velocity of dry fallout (with further discrimination for elemental, organic or aerosol forms); washout is dependant on intensity of precipitation and physical-chemical form of radionuclides." "technique Calculations taking into account stepwise changing of the release intensity and meteorological situation. Numerical procedures for description of movement of segments over the terrain. Calculation of the external irradiation from the radioactive cloud and deposited activity based on semifinite models. Dynamic modelling of radionuclide transport through the food chains." "Detailed comparison with COSYMA and RODOS runs. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Source term is given such a total release of activity in Bq for each radionuclide during the accident period, relative release rates are adopted for each segment" "Wind direction, wind speed category, Pasquill weather category, rain intensity for each grid area, data for inversion situations. Alternatively detailed meteorological forecast in ALADIN format provided by the Czech meteorological service." "Landuse characteristics, elevations and roughness of the terrain on the given polar grid" "See meteorology" "See meteorology" "The system HARP was developed for purposes of data assimilation in both in the early and late stages of radiation accident. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Gridded population density for each age category, database of the nuclear data, production / consumption data. For assimilation procedure: online connection to meteorlogical forecast and radiation measurement." "Plume centre-line and near-ground concentration of activity in air (below plume centre-line, average, marginal), deposited activity on the ground, velocity of deposition, total activity intake into the human body, doses from the external irradiation and committed doses from internal irradiation." "User-friendly interactive support for entering of data input and subsequent immediate graphical presentation of results on the screen. Extensive interactive output subsystem for browsing of results." "The product is used in ENERGOPROJECT Prague for purposes of Safety reports, verification of the compliance with regulatory guides; assimilation procedures are tested in National Radiation Protection Institute (online connection with meteorological forecast and radiation measurements from terrain. " "Regional" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 1, 3 manuals ( Methodology, User Guide, Comparative analysis) available in the Czech language, Czech and English interactive versions ( with detailed Czech or English HELPs) of the software." "Level 2: Extensive comparison of all results with European code COSYMA and partially with RODOS ATSTEP algorithm (documented in the III. part of the HARP manual)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Any PC with common configuration" "About 1 minute of CPU time (CELERON 333A) for a scenario segmented into 5 segments, 10 20 minutes for more detailed ATSTEP calculations (with visualisation on the screen)" "about 2 MB for program and 2.5 MB for input data and output files" "Owner of program: ENERGOPROJECT Prague
    Contact person:
    Mrs. E. Pechova
    tel.: +420 2 41006121
    E-mail: pechova@egp.cz" "Pecha Petr, Hofman Radek: Integration of data assimilation subsystem into environmental model of harmful substances propagation , 11-th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling , Eds: Carruthers D.J., Cambridge, GB, 02.07.2007-05.07.2007 Pecha Petr, Hofman Radek, Pechová E.: Training simulator for analysis of environmental consequences of accidental radioactivity releases , Proc. of the 6th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation , Eds: Zupanèiè Borut, Ljubljana, SI, 09.09.2007- 13.09.2007 Pecha Petr, Hofman Radek: HARP - A Software Tool for Decision Support during Nuclear Emergenccies , TIES 2009 - The 20th Annual Conference of International Environmetrics Society, Handling Complexity and Uncertainty in Environmental Studies, (Bologna, IT, 05.07.2009-09.07.2009) Pecha Petr, Hofman Radek, Šmídl Václav: Bayesian tracking of the toxic plume spreading in the early stage of radiation accident , ESM'2009 The 2009 European Simulation and Modelling Conference, Eds: Al-Akaidi Marwan, (Leicester, GB, 26.10.2009-29.10.2009) Hofman Radek, Šmídl Václav, Pecha Petr: Data assimilation in the early phase of radiation accident using particle filter , The Fifth WMO International Symposium on Data Assimilation, Eds: Kepert Jeffrey D. (Melbourne, AU, 05.10.2009-09.10.2009) " "Pecha Petr, Hofman Radek, Šmídl Václav: Simulation of random 3-D trajectories of the toxic plume spreading over the terrain, The Fifth WMO International Symposium on Data Assimilation, Eds: Kepert Jeffrey D. (Melbourne, AU, 05.10.2009-09.10.2009) Pecha Petr, Hofman Radek, Kuèa Petr: Lessons learned from former radiation accidents on development of software tools for effective decision making support, 11th In. Conf. on Present and Future of Crisis Management. (Praha, CZ, 23.11.2009 - 24.11.2009), ISBN 978-80-254-5913-3. Pecha Petr, Hofman Radek, Kuèa P.: Assimilation Techniques in Consequence Assessment of Accidental Radioactivity Releases - the Way for Increase of Reliability of Predictions , Proceedings of ECORAD-2008 , Eds: Strand Per, Int. Conf. on Radioecology & Environmental Radioactivity, (Bergen, NO, 15.06.2008-20.06.2008) Hofman Radek, Pecha Petr : Data Assimilation of Model Predictionsof Long-time evolution of 137Cs Deposition on Terrain , Proceedings of IGARS 2008 - IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. (Boston, USA, 6.7. 11.7. 2008). Paper ID: 2227. Pecha Petr, Hofman Radek: Fitting of Segmented Gaussian Plume Model Predictions on Measured Data , Proceedings of ESM2008 European Simulation and Modelling Conf., - Modelling and Simulation 2008. (LeHavre, FR, 27. 29. 10. 2008). Rep. No. RISK_02, pp 544 548. ISBN 978-90-77381-44-1. " 3/29/2011 18:22:58 107 "IMSM" "Kostadin Ganev" "kganev@geophys.bas.bg" "Acidification, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Source-receptor relationships" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "PC" "IMSM" "IMSM (Integrated Multi-Scale Model)" "two versions: IMSM-b (basic problem), IMSM-c (conjugated problem)" "Institute of Geophysics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences" "Kostadin Ganev" "Akad. G. Bonchev str. Block 3,
    Sofia 1113,
    Bulgaria" "+359 2 979 37-08" "+359 2 700 226" "kganev@geophys.bas.bg" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of pollutant dispersion and functions of influence at local, local-to-regional and regional-to-continental scale" "Three-dimensional, Eulerian" "The IMSM (see 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) aims at producing an embracing and complex evaluation of the air pollution, accounting for the specific characteristics of the different transport scales. IMSM incorporates several coordinated air pollution transport models:
    - 3-D Eulerian pollution transport model;
    - air pollution mass-balance relations for each of the pollutants in an arbitrary sub-region D1 of the integration domain D, and for a time period [0-T]:

    P = Q + F + P0 + Pin (Pd + Pg + Pout + Pwet) ,
    where Q is the emission, P- the total quantity in the moment T, P0 is the initial quantity, Pd is the dry deposition, Pq is the pollution quantity which had passed the upper boundary of D1, Pwet is the wet deposition (washed-out pollution quantity), Pout are the wastes of the given pollutant due to chemical transformations, Pin are the influx of the given pollutant due to chemical transformations, F is the pollution quantity which had passed the side boundaries of D1 (F>0 means inflow and F<0 means outflow of the pollutant). The mass-balance components are calculated for predefined sub-regions and also for each grid cell.
    - functions of influence problem, concerning ecologically important pollution characteristics of a given protected region. The most popular of them are K1 - the time averaged pollution quantity, K2 º F, K3 º Pd and K4 º F.
    The IMSM accounts for to 10 interacting Sulphur, Nitrogen and Ammonia compounds, using the standard EMEP chemical transformation scheme10.
    In dependence of the transport scale specifics an appropriate combination of dynamics and transport models are chosen and so three basic operational regimes of the IMSM exist - IMSMLC (local scale), IMSMIM (intermediate local to regional scale), IMSMLR (local to continental scale)
    - IMSMLC describes the pollution transport in the local domain around a given source with horizontal spatial scale < 30km. It contains a splited-up 3D Eulerian model, which treats the vertical diffusion numerically, and applies a Gaussian distribution in horizontal direction. It utilises a PBL model (stationary or evolutionary) parameterized either in accordance with the resistance laws, accounting for inversions, baroclynicy, terrain slope, or in accordance with the Pasquill-Turner stability classes.
    - IMSMLR describes the pollution transport in the continental scale area (~103km). It treats the above stated set of models numerically, using the standard EMEP discretization (D=150 km) and emission inventory 10. A PBL model parameterized by external aerologo-synoptical parameters is used for reconstructing the necessary profiles of meteorological parameters.
    IMSMIMIM describes intermediate (in respect with the LR and LC scales) sub-grid effects of pollution in a grid nested in the standard EMEP one, with a more detailed emission inventory and accounting of topography effects. The mass-balance diagnostic model DIAMO (see 11,1,2,4) is used for the purpose, with a procedure for coordinated surface and aerological data interpolation, especially designed in correspondence of the physical-geographic specifics of the country. A hydrostatic b-mesoscale model 12 can also be used as meteorological pre-processor." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "time step - 15 seconds to 30 minutes, simulated time period - some hours to several days (synoptic episode)" "grid size 500 to 150000 m, domain dimension - 20 to 5000 km" "the level heights are defined by the user" "Van Lear scheme, flux-type for the basic and advection type for the conjugated problem, 1st order explicit in time, conservative, monotonic, transportive, positively defined, limited numerical dispersion." "Simplest implicit scheme with accuracy of 1st order in time and 2nd order in space. Horizontal diffusion coefficients are constants (defined by the user), the vertical diffusion coefficient is a field. The dry deposition velocity is prescribed at each grid point for each pollutant." "Wet removal Simplest decay approach, coefficient depending on rain intensity. For the sulphur and nitrogen compounds the EMEP wet removal schemes10 can also be used. Aerosol specific processes The gravitational settling velocity of pollutants carried by aerosols is prescribed by the user." "The discretized equations are solved numerically on an Arakawa C-type staggered grid. If (i,j,k) is the mass point, U is defined in point (i+1/2,j,k), V - in (i,j+1/2,k), W and Kz - in (i,j,k+1/2). One dimensional schemes are created for every dimension for transformations, advection and diffusion. They are applied sequentially for each time step (splitting approach). The splitting-up scheme for the functions of influence problem is conjugated to the scheme for the basic problem." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are provided in mass units per second. For the high sources (i,j,h,strength) is necessary, for the surface sources: (i,j,strength)." "Only 850 hPa U-,V- and Teta-fields as well as surface Teta-field are necessary as meteorological input. A simple PBL model is built in IMSMLR producing U-, V-, W- and Kz-profiles at each grid point. The roughness and Coriolis parameter fields are preset additional input to the PBL model. When DIAMO is used as a meteorological pre-processing model, wind data from ground stations and aerological soundings may also be used, when available. When the hydrostatic b-mesoscale model 12 is used as meteorological pre-processor the surface temperature may optionally be calculated by the model." "Orography height, surface type (sea-land mask) are to be provided for each grid location." "Initial concentration field is optionally introduced (spin-up field)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "A run-file with control data is read. An informational file for the sub-regions (for example different countries) is also necessary - a number is attached to each horizontal grid point, which corresponds to the number by which the given sub-region is denoted." "Concentration fields for given layers, as well as all the fields of the above described mass-balance components in SURFER\\'s GRD-format. Tables of the mass-balance components for the predefined sub-regions. Intermediate and final outputs are provided. Averaging of concentrations for predefined period is available. " "PC-DOS operating system" "None" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Described in different reports and conference presentations (see Reference). No documentation available for the moment." "Comparisons with the Rojen background station data 1 and with measurements in the city of Thessaloniki 13." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "IBM PC compatible computers - 486 or Pentium" "The model is based on economic schemes, which means that the number of arithmetic calculations for one time step is proportional to the number of grid points. One time step simulation over a 48x54x15 grid, one pollutant, lasts less then a minute on 100 MHz Pentium." "For the same case: 620 K RAM." "1. E.Syrakov, K.Ganev, N.Godev, E.Georgieva and E.Bogdanov, A telescopic approach for coordinated study of the air pollution at long-range and regional transport over a complex terrain, in: Special Environmental Report No.17 Changing Composition of the troposphere - Extended Abstracts of the WMO Technical Conference. Sofia, Bulgaria, 23 - 27.10.1989 , WMO No.724, 189 - 192 (1989) 2. E.Syrakov, K.Ganev and N.Godev, Long-range transport of sulfur and nitrogen, taking into account the influence of the synoptic conditions, orography and arranged vertical motions. (in Bulgarian), Bulgarian Geoph. J. v.XIV, 1, 11-27 (1988) 3. E.Syrakov, K.Ganev and N.Godev, Estimation of the mutual pollution of different regions at distant and regional transport. (in Bulgarian), Bulgarian Geoph. J. v.XIV, 4, 10-21 (1988) 4. E.Syrakov and K.Ganev, Modeling of sulphur and nitrogen compounds transport within the PBL under nocturnal and convective conditions. (in Russian), Z. Meteorol., 39, 2, 81 - 88.(1989) 5. E.Syrakov and K.Ganev, Study of the Environmental Impact of the Thermal Power Plants (in Bulgarian), Annex No.12, Energoproect Archives, Sofia (1993) 6. E.Syrakov and K.Ganev, Transport, chemical transformations and characteristics of pollution in local scales. (in Bulgarian), Bulgarian Geoph. J., v. XX, No 3, 5-25 (1994) 7. K.Ganev and E.Syrakov, Treatment of chemical transformations in atmospheric pollution modelling. (in Bulgarian), Bulgarian Geoph. J., v. XX, No 4, 77-89 (1994) 8. K.Ganev and E.Syrakov, 1995: Application of the method of functions of influence on the problem of reduction of thermal power plants effects on the environment. Bulgarian Geoph. J., v. XXI, No 1, 12-23.(1995) 9. J.-P.Tuovinen, K.Barret and H.Styve, Transboundary Acidifying Pollution in Europe: Calculated Fields and Budgets 1985-93, Meteorological synthesizing center-WEST, Oslo (1994) 10. E.Georgieva and N.Godev N., 1987, Interpolation of wind data taking into account the relief-some results and problems (in Bulgarian), Bulgarian Geoph. J. v.VIII, 4 (1987) 11. K.Ganev, Numerical study of the local flow systems in the Kozloduy NPP region - some preliminary results. 18th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, Wiesbaden, 1993. (Also published in Bulgarian Geoph. J., v. XIX, No 1, 9 - 23) (1993). 12. Zerefos Ch, K.Ganev, A.Vasaras, D.Syrakov, K.Kourtidis, M.Tzortziou, M.Prodanova, E.Georgieva, On the summer episodes of total SO2 contents in the air column over the city of Thessaloniki, XXIII International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Applications, 28.09-02.10. 1998, Varna, Bulgaria (accepted for presentation) (1998)" 3/29/2011 18:22:59 104 "CAR-International" "J. den Boeft" "j.denboeft@mep.tno.nl" "Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Lead (Pb)" "PC" "CAR-International" "CAR-International" 2 "TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation" "J. den Boeft" "P.O. Box 3427300 AH ApeldoornThe Netherlands" "+31 55 549 3304" "+ 31 55 549 3252" "j.denboeft@mep.tno.nl" "Basic" "In addition to the TNO Traffic Model, which is rather elaborate, a number of simple models have been developed that are also used outside 'TNO. The best known of these is CAR (Calculation of Air pollution from Road traffic), which has been administered by the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Enviromnental Protection (RIVM) since its development. One of the prime considerations in developing CAR was that it should be possible to apply the model using readily available input data. The English-language version, CAR INTERNATIONAL, can be adapted by local user anywhere in the world to their own specific circumstances. Today, CAR is employed by a large number of Dutch municipal authorities, and many consultancy agencies have also integrated CAR in their own computer systems." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "emission factors; number of cars; percentage of heavy duty vehicles; driving speed" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "annual average concentrations and percentiles (5 to 30 metres form road axis" "Yes" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Model description in peer reviewed journal(s)
    Yes
    Complete user manual
    Yes
    Report on machine code specifications
    No" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "small" "500 Kbytes" "Yes" 3/29/2011 18:23:01 105 "EMAP" "Dimiter Syrakov" "dimiter.syrakov@meteo.bg" "Acidification, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Lead (Pb), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC" "EMAP" "EMAP (Eulerian Model for Air Pollution)" "Several versions: EMAP_S (SO2-SO4), EMAP_A (aerosol - Cd, Pb, POP),EMAP_E (passive inert gas), EMAP_M(EMEP/MSC-E mercury scheme built in)" "National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology Bulgarian Academy of Sciences" "Dimiter Syrakov" "National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology 66 Tzarigradsko chaussee, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria" "+-3592 975 39 86/87/88/91/92, +3592 8072 754" "+-359 2 88 03 80 / 88 44 94" "dimiter.syrakov@meteo.bg" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Simulation of pollutant dispersion at the local-to-regional and regional-to continental scale" "Three-dimensional, Eulerian" "EMAP is a simulation model which allows describing the dispersion of multiple pollutants. The processes as horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical diffusion, dry deposition, wet removal, gravitational settlings (aerosol versions) and some chemical transformation (sulphur version, mercury version) are accounted for in the model. Within EMAP, the semi-empirical diffusion-advection equations for scalar quantities are solved. The governing equations are solved in terrain-following co-ordinates. Non-equidistant grid spacing is settled in vertical directions. The numerical solution is based on discretization applied on staggered grids. Conservative properties are fully preserved within the discrete model equations. Advective terms are treated with the TRAP scheme, which is a Bott type one. The advective boundary conditions are zero at income and open boundary at outcome flows. Turbulent diffusion is described with the simplest schemes explicit in horizontal and implicit in vertical directions. The bottom boundary condition is the dry deposition flux, the top boundary condition is optionally open boundary and hard lid type. The lateral boundary conditions for diffusion are open boundary type. In the surface layer a parameterization is applied permitting to have the first computational level at the top of the Surface Layer (SL). It provides a good estimate for the roughness level concentration. It accounts also for the act of continuous sources on the earth surface." "Calm wind conditions, rapidly changing weather conditions" "Time step: 15 seconds to 30 minutes.
    Simulated time period: some hours to year" "Grid size: 500 - 25000 m, domain dimension: 20 - 3000 km" "log-linear gridding, parameters defined by the user " "Marchuks splitting technology. One dimensional schemes are created for every dimension for advection and diffusion. They are applied sequentially for each time step, the order reversed at the next time step. The discretized equations are solved numerically on an Arakawa C-type staggered grid. Source concentration is added at every time steps." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are provided in mass units per second. For the high sources (i,j,h,strength) is necessary, for the area sources: (i,j,strength)." "Only 850 hPa U-,V- and Teta-fields as well as surface Teta-field are necessary as meteorological input. A simple PBL model is built in EMAP producing U-, V-, W- and Kz-profiles at each grid point. It provides also u* and SL universal profiles necessary in SL parameterization. The roughness and Corriolis parameter fields are preset additional input to the PBL model." "Orography height, surface roughness and surface type (sea-lend mask) are to be provided for each grid cell." "Initial concentration field is optionally introduced" "See model description summary" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "A run-file with control data is read" "Concentration and deposition fields in SURFERs GRD-format layer by layer. Intermediate and final outputs are provided. Averaging of concentrations for predefined period is available." "PC-DOS operating system" "None" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Described in different reports and conference presentations (see Reference). No documentation available for the moment." "Participation in ETEX-II inter calibration study - ranged 9th among 34 models. Validated on the data base of 1996 EMEP/MSC-E intercalibration exersiof heavy metal models (Cd). Took part in the EMEP/MSC-E intercalibtation exercises for Pb (see Gusev A., I.Ilyin, G.Petersen, A.van Pul A., D.Syrakov, 2000, Long-range Transport Model Intercomparison Studies, EMEP/MSC-E Technical Note 2, Moscow) and Hg (see Artz R.S., R.O.Bullock, J.Christensen, M.Cohen, A.Dastoor, D.Davignon, R.R.Draxler, R.Ebinghaus, I.Ilyin, J.Munthe, G.Petersen, A.Ryaboshapko, D.Syrakov, 2002, Progress Report. Intercomparison Study of Numerical Models for Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Mercury. Stage II. Comparison of modelling results with observations obtained during short-term measuring campaigns., EMEP/MSC-E Technical Note 10/2002, Moscow; Ryaboshapko A., R.Artz, R.Bullock, J.Christensen, M.Cohen, A.Dastoor D.Davignon, R.Draxler, R.Ebinghaus, I.Ilyin, J.Munthe, G.Petersen, D.Syrakov, 2003, Intercomparison Study of Numerical Models for Long-Range Atmospheric transport of Mercury. Stage II. Comparison of modeling results with observations obtained during short-term measuring campaigns, EMEP/MSC-E Technical Report 1/2003, Moscow; Ryaboshapko A, R.Artz, R.Bullock, J.Christensen, M.Cohen, R.Draxler, I.Ilyin, J.Munthe, J.Pacyna, G.Petersen, D.Syrakov, O.Travnikov, 2005, Intercomparison Study of Numerical Models for Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Mercury. Stage III. Comparison of Modelling Results with Long-term Observations and Comparison of Calculated Items of Regional Balances, EMEP/MSC-E Technical Report 1/2005, Moscow)" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "???" "IBM PC compatible computers - 486 or Pentium" "One year simulation over the EMEP 50x50 km grid (111x117 points), one pollutant, 5 layer version, lasts 24 hours on 75 MHz Pentium" "For the same case: 16 Mbytes RAM. Disk space: 2-5 Mbyts needed for the output files." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining EMAP can be provided by the contact person." "Bulgarian contribution to EMEP, Annual reports for 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, NIMH, EMEP/MSC-E, Sofia-Moscow. Syrakov, D., (1995), On a PC-oriented Eulerian Multi-Level Model for Long-Term Calculations of the Regional Sulphur Deposition, in Gryning S.E. and Schiermeier F.A. Air Pollution Modelling and its Application XI, NATO Challenges of Modern Society, Vol. 21, Plenum Press, N.Y. and London, pp. 645-646. Syrakov, D., (1996), On the TRAP advection scheme - Description, tests and applications, in Geernaert G., A.Walloe-Hansen and Z.Zlatev , Regional Modelling of Air Pollution in Europe. Proceedings of the first REMAPE Workshop, Copenhagen, Denmark, September 1996, National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark, pp. 141-152. Syrakov, D., M. Galperin, (1997) On a new Bott-type advection scheme and its further improvement, in H. Hass and I.J. Ackermann , Proc. of the first GLOREAM Workshop, Aachen, Germany, September 1997, Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen, pp. 103-109. Syrakov D. and M. Galperin, (1997) A model for airborne poli-dispersive particle transport and deposition, Proc. of 22nd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, 2-6 June 1997, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 111-118. Syrakov D. and Prodanova M. (1997) Bulgarian Long-range Transport Models - Simulation of ETEX First Release, in K.Nodop , Proc. of ETEX Symposium on Long-range Atmospheric Transport, Model. Verification and Emergency Response, 13-16 May 1967, Vienna (Austria), Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, ISBN 92-828-0669-3, 141-144. Syrakov D. and Yordanov D. (1997) Parameterization of SL Diffusion Processes Accounting for Surface Source Action, , Proc. of 22nd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, 2-6 June 1997, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 111-118. Yordanov D., Syrakov D., Djolov G. (1983) A barotropic planetary boundary layer, Boundary Layer Meteorology, 25, 363-373. Syrakov D., M.Prodanova, Bulgarian emergency response models - validation against ETEX first release, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 32, No 24, pp. 4367-4375, 1998. Syrakov D., 1999. Bulgarian impact in Hg pollution over south-east Europe - preliminary estimate, Proceedings of WMO/EMEP/UNEP Workshop on modelling of atmospheric transport and deposition of POPs and HMs, Geneva, 16-19 November, 1999. Syrakov D. and M.Galperin, On some flux-type advection schemes for dispersion modelling application, in Z.Zlatev et al. (eds.) Large-Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Kluiwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1999, pp.303-312. Yordanov D. and D.Syrakov, Including of Surface Source in a Surface Layer Parameterization, in Z.Zlatev et al. (eds.) Large-Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Kluiwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1999, pp.369-380. Syrakov D., M.Galperin, On some explicit advection schemes for dispersion modelling applications, Intrnational Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 14, Nos. 1-6, 2000, pp. 267-277. Syrakov D., M.Prodanova, Simulation of the ETEX first release by Bulgarian emergency response models, in Gryning S.-E. and E. Batchvarova Air Pollution Modelling and its Application XIII, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2000, pp. 281- 289. Syrakov D., Long-Term Calculation of Bulgarian Impact in Mercury Pollution over South-east Europe, in M.Griebel et al. (eds.), Large-Scale Scientific Computations of Engeneering and Environmental Problems II, Fridr. Vieweg & Sohn, Wiesbaden, pp.300-308, 2000. Syrakov.D, M.Prodanova, K.Ganev, Ch.Zerefos, A.Vasaras (2001), Exchange of sulfur pollution between Bulgaria and Greece, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Research, 8, pp.187-192. Syrakov D., Long-term calculation of Hg Pollution over South-East Europe, in Gryning S.-E. and F. Schiermeier (eds) Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XIV, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, N.Y., 2001, pp. 227-236. Syrakov D., M.Prodanova (2001) Transboundary exchange of sulfur pollution in the region of SE Europe, Proceedings of the 25th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, 15-19 October 2001, Louvain-la Neuve, Belgium, pp. 157-164. Syrakov D., A numerical advection scheme on non-homogeneous grid, Proceedings of the 4th GLOREAM Workshop, 20-22 September 2002, Cottbus, Germany. Syrakov D., M. Prodanova, K. Ganev, Ch. Zerefos, A. Vasaras, Exchange of Sulfur Pollution Between Bulgaria and Greece, ESPR - Environ Sci & Pollut Res, 9, pp. 321-326, 2002. Syrakov D., M. Prodanova and K. Slavov, 2003, Description and Performance of Bulgarian Emergency Response System in case of Nuclear Accident (BERS), Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 20, Nos. 1-6, 2003, 286-296. Djolov G.D., D.L. Yordanov and D.E. Syrakov (2004), Baroclinic Planetary Boundary-Layer Model For Neutral And Stable Stratification Conditions, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 111, 467490. Syrakov D., Once More On The Advection Schemes: Description Of Trap-Schemes, in Borrego C. and S. Incecik Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XVI, Kluwer, N.Y., 2004, 291-304." 3/29/2011 18:23:03 38 "EPIS" "G. Boersen" "boersen@mep.tno.nl" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Policy support" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "PC" "EPIS" "EPIS / MILIS (in Dutch)" 1.3 "TNO " "G. Boersen / T. Pulles" "Laan van Westenenk 501 7300 AH Apeldoorn The Netherlands" "+ 31-55-5493619" "+ 31-55-5493252" "boersen@mep.tno.nl" "Basic" "EPIS is a modular system designed to run on (large) Personal Computers. The four main modules are: 1. pollutant emissions 2. scenarios 3. dispersion of pollutants, and 4. presentation of calculations The system offers an enhanced level of support to environmental managers. It provides users with direct access to emission data for an entire region (industrial area, province, state or country). It also allows detailed calculations of the effects of emissions in such regions. In addition, the scenario module enables prediction to be made about future environmental quality trends. EPIS provides several techniques for attractive presentation of results." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "M.P.J. Pulles (1995), EPIS: a comprehensive modelling system to support air pollution policy making, in Air Pollution III, volume 1, page 27." 3/29/2011 18:23:04 33 "CFX-TASCflow" "Giorgos Theodoridis" "AIAS Research Ltd" "georgios@aias.com.gr" "+30 2310501240" "+30 2310527282" "26th October Str. 44, GR-54627 Thessaloniki, Greece " "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "CFX-TASCflow" "CFX-TASCflow " "Version 2.7.2" "July 1997" "Dr. G. Theodoridis" "info@aias.com.gr" "https://www.aias.com.gr/" "Basic" "Microscale wind flow and pollutant dispersion. General purpose fluid flow and heat and mass transfer analysis tool, suitable for a wide range of engineering applications. Contact person for the latter, Dr. G. Scheuerer, AEA Technology GmbH, e-mail gs@ascg)" "Three-dimensional, prognostic microscale model" "CFX-TASCflow is a general purpose CFD analysis system using a flexible multi-block grid system, a modern graphical user interface and many sophisticated modelling tools. CFX-TASCflow comes with advanced grid generation and pre- and post-processing capabilities. Within CFX-TASCflow, the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and scalar quantities as temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and any number of species are solved in generalised curvilinear co-ordinates. Non-equidistant grid spacing is allowed in all directions. The numerical solution is based on first-order in time and second-order in space discretisation, applied on a co-located grid arrangement. Conservative properties are fully preserved within the model equations. The discrete momentum and continuity equations are solved with a coupled elliptic solver. An efficient algebraic multi-grid solution technique is adopted, giving a practically constant rate of convergence, regardless of the level of the grid refinement. Turbulent diffusion can be described with variants of the two-equation k-å turbulence model with wall functions, or the two-layer model." "Not practically applicable to unsteady 3-d problems of fluid flow and pollutant dispersion when a large number of buildings is to be resolved (CPU time limitation).
    Limitations due to turbulence parameterisation determined by the physical assumptions made in deriving the model equations (use of eddy viscosity hypothesis and modelling of the epsilon equation)." "Time step: 0.1 - 100 s, simulated time period: several minutes" "Grid size: 0.1mm - 20 m, domain dimension: 0.1m - 1000 m" "Cell height: 0.1mm - 20 m, total height: up to 200 m" "Modified Linear Profile (MLS) Scheme with Physical Advection Correction (PAC), second order accurate scheme." "Variants of the two-equation k-e model with wall functions or the two layer model." "A reacting/combusting species capability is available in CFX-TASCflow. In addition, a module for taking into account fast chemical cycles has been implemented in CFX-TASCflow at LHTEE." "The discretised equations are solved numerically on a collocated grid arangement. Temporal discretisation of the transport equations is based on a first-order accurate backward fully implicit scheme. The second-order bounded MLS scheme with PAC is used for the spatial discretisation of advection terms. A coupled solution procedure for momentum and continuity equations is employed, in conjunction with an algebraic multi-grid method for the solution of the sets of the algebraic difference equations." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are provided as area sources, distributed at the appropriate locations, in kg/s/cell" "A three-dimensional node distribution input file is prepared with the aid of a grid generation module." "Initial and boundary conditions are prepared in the form of input files with the aid of the Graphical User Interface. At inflow boundaries, wind and temperature data can be provided in the form of suitable profiles." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "A file with physical properties and control parameters" "Three dimensional fields for flow, temperature, pressure, turbulence data and optionally concentration of pollutants." "A user-friendly graphical user interface is available" "Industrial, consulting and academic Institutions. CFX-TASCflow does not require highly skilled users, due to its user-friendly graphical user interface." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 1: Complete documentation available, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals with details on the machine code. On line help system in HTML format." "The results of CFX-TASCflow have been validated by AEA Technology and university clients against analytical solutions (grid turbulence, homogenous flows), established correlations (near-wall laws, skin friction formulae, etc.) and data for 2-d and 3-d engineering flows (real scale, wind tunnel and hydraulic flume tests). Validation can be ranked as level 1 with regard to engineering flows. The results have been published and compared with results from other models within the framework of international workshops, e.g. the 4th ERCOFTAC/IAHR Workshop on Data Bases and Testing of Calculation Methods for Turbulent Flows, Karlsruhe, April 1995.
    The performance of the model for the dispersion and chemical transformation of pollutants around buildings and in street canyons is currently tested at LHTEE. Validation can be ranked as level 1 with regard to microscale environmental flows. " "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Can a user implement new physical models to the transport equations? A user can apply changes to turbulence models and other parts of the code via the Source Code Interface which provides tools to get field properties and to modify source/sink terms and boundary conditions." "CFX-TASCflow can be ported to all available computer platforms, ranging from personal computers to supercomputers. Results on different platforms (e.g. 32-bit vs. 64-bit) identical within 4 to 6 significant figures." "For a typical steady case of 82000 grid points and three inert pollutants, 2.5 CPU hours are needed on an IBM R6000/3BT workstation." "For the same typical case: 82 Mbytes RAM (approximately 1000 bytes per grid node on 32-bit machines). Disk space: 12 Mbytes needed for the output files." "CFX-TASCflow is a Commercial package, distributed and licensed by AEA Technology GmbH (see " "Celik I., Chen C.J., Roach P.J. and Scheuerer G., eds., (1993), Quantification in Computational Fluid Dynamics, ASME, FED-Vol. 158. Galpin P.F., van Doormaal J.P. and Raithby G.D., (1985), Solution of the incompressible mass and momentum equations by application of a coupled line solver, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids, Vol. 5, pp 615 - 625. Moussiopoulos N., Theodoridis G. and Assimakopoulos V., (1998), The influence of fast chemistry on the composition of NOx in the emission input to atmospheric dispersion models, Proceedings of EUROTRAC2 Symposium, Garmisch, March 1998. Raw M.J., (1985), An algebraic multigrid method for the 3-d Navier-Stokes equations, Proc., GAMM-Workshop, Kiel. Zwart P., Britsch M. amd Scheuerer G, (1993), Numerische Berechnung der Umstroemung eines Inter-City Express Zuges, Advanced Scientific Computing, Technical report ASCG/TR-93-01, 1993." 3/29/2011 18:23:05 37 "EK100W" "Wanda Pazdan" "office@atmoterm.pl" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "PC" "EK100W" "EK100W" "Version 3.1" "March 1999" "ATMOTERM Ltd" "Wanda Pazdan" "ATMOTERM Ltd ul. Katowicka 35 45-061 Opole Poland" "+-48 77 4566760" "+-48 77 4544667" "office@atmoterm.pl" "http://www.atmoterm.pl/" "Marek Kuczer (contact address)" "Basic" "EK100W modelling system is used for air quality assessment (regulatory purposes) for industrial sources as well as for urban air quality studies. The system is based on meth-odology of air quality assessment recommended by Polish Ministry of Environment Pro-tection, Natural Resources and Forestry. Some additional options and calculation tools are included." "Three dimensional Gaussian model." "EK100W is based on methodology of air quality assessment recommended by Polish Ministry of Environment Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry. This methodology is close to Pasquill model with use of:
    +ALc- Holland and CONCAWE formulas to calculate plume rise
    +ALc- stability classes (6) as parameter to describe boundary layer
    +ALc- diffusion coefficients by Nowicki
    EK100W has incorporated extended emission data facility:
    +ALc- variants of emission rate can be defined by user with assigned emission time
    +ALc- based on variants defined for each emitter the sub-periods of emission for entire site (plant) can be derived automatically or by hand
    +ALc- automatic data transfer from emission database within the frame of SOZAT envi-ronmental information system is possible
    Some additional options and calculation tools are included:
    +ALc- plume rise can be calculated using Briggs equations
    +ALc- wet/dry deposition can be calculated. For dry deposition the source depletion is calculated using Chamberlain correction. Details of deposition calculation procedure are given in reference 4.
    +ALc- the model can be used for design purposes - parameters of emitters (height, diameter, outlet velocity and temperature) can be found which meet the limit value of concentration/deposition outside the plant
    +ALc- maximum allowable emission rate can be calculated to meet the limit value of concentration/deposition outside the plant.
    Results of calculations are transferable to SOZAT graphics module to prepare concentration/deposition patterns." "Influence of complex terrain not included" "Model is time independent." "Spatial resolution: no limits." "Spatial resolution: no limits. Vertical model domain is normally up to 30 km from sources, vertical grid size can be defined at any value within the domain. The height of grid can be set at any single level within boundary layer, but practically it is not more then the height of buildings (up to 60 m)." "Basic model formulation available at the Ministry recommendations contained in directive Dz.U. 122/1998 No. 805, see web site http://www.mos.gov.pl/mos/akty-p/24.html (only Polish version at the moment)." "No numerical methods used." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Stack location, height and diameter; outlet temperature and velocity for each emission variant; emission rates (including mass fractions for dust) and time for each variant; automatic transfer from SOZAT emission database possible" "Annual (or seasonal) wind rose including wind speed, wind direction, stability class and frequency for each episode (also precipitation rate if wet deposition option included)" "Average roughness coefficient" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "99.8 percentile of concentration, long term average concentration, maximum concentra-tion, frequency of exceeding the threshold. Dry/wet deposition (optional)." "Windows 95, 3.1x" "Environmental consultants, industry, Environmental Inspection, local authorities." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 3" "Level 3
    Several comparisons with measured values of long term average concentrations. Validation against standard data sets (see References)" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Does EK100W meet requirements of Polish Ministry of Environment concerning meth-odology of air quality assessment? EK100W applies all formulas and recommendations of this methodology. In addition some options and calculation tools are included. What kind of data transfer is possible for EK100W? Input emission data can be transferred from emission database. Results can be presented graphically using SOZAT+A7M- graphical module. Is it possible to use other models within EK100W modelling system? Currently the works are being performed to develop an interface to other models." "Easy installed under Windows; calculations fast." "Available commercially as a part of SOZAT system or separately." "A.M. McKeown, D.J. Carruthers; Validation and Comparison of ADMS 1 and EK-100; CERC Ltd, 1995 Nowicki M. (1976), Universal atmospheric diffusion coefficients. Technical University of War-saw, Research Projects No. 53 (in Polish) Nowicki M. (1976), Ein Beitrag zur Bestimmung universeller Diffusionskoeffizienten. Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl. 1,31.( in German) Nowicki M. (1985), Empirical parameters in atmospheric diffusion models. PZITS, Protection of atmosphere No. X/84-85 (in Polish). Polish Ministry of Environment directive Dz.U. 122/1998 No. 805, http://www.mos.gov.pl/mos/akty-p/24.html (only Polish version at the moment)" 3/29/2011 18:23:07 36 "DISPERSION21" "Hans Backström" "SMHI" "hans.backstrom@smhi.se" "+46-11 495 8000" "+46-11 495 8001" "Folkborgsv. 1 SE-601 76 Norrköping Sweden" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Buoyant" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "PC" "DISPERSION21" "Local Scale Atmospheric Dispersion Model" "Version 2.1" "January 2001" "Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI)" "Hans Backström & Gunnar Omstedt" "SMHI Folkborgsv. 1 SE-601 76 Norrköping" "+46 11 495 8000" "+46 11 495 8001" "hans.backstrom@smhi.se & gunnar.omstedt@smhi.se" "http://www.smhi.se/foretag/m/dispersion_eng.htm" "Provided by contact persons" "Basic" "Dispersion is intended as a PC tool to calculate mass concentrations of classical air pollutants from industrial or urban sources. The model is used in scenario studies to evaluate effects on air quality from existing or planned sources. Emission factors for the Swedish vehicle park are included up to year 2005. Calculations with several years of hourly meteorological data are statistically evaluated and analysed with polulation data for presentation in a GIS system." "Local-scale analytical gaussian model including plume rise and building wake effects. A nested street canyon model with NOx-chemistry is included. The model uses hourly preprocessed meteorological data based on similarity theory. The approach is similar to the Danish OML model." "The model system, which has been developed at SMHI, brings together the results of boundary layer research on dispersion modelling in a code that runs on a personal computer in Microsoft Windows. The first version of the model is described by Omstedt (1988). An updated dispersion model, based on the Danish OML model, is used for point sources, including effects of plume rise, plume penetration, buildings etc. For line sources, dispersion parameters are related to the gaussian equation using Green functions for analytical line segments. A street canyon dispersion model is used, which includes a chemical scheme for nitrogen oxides. The model also includes a source register and a flexible emission module for traffic sources. Emission factors are calculated as a function of traffic volumes, driving pattern, cold start effects, mean vehicle speed, ambient air temperature etc. for ten different vehicle classes. The system includes a source register for thousands of pollution sources. Meteorological input can be generated either from routine meteorological data, mast data or forecasted weather data. A user-friendly desktop mapping software is integrated with the model to enable presentation of results and analysis of population exposure." "Calm winds. Complex terrain. Recirculation. Atmospheric chemistry and deposition." "Time step: 1 hour; Simulated time period: 1 hour up to 5 years" "Grid size: 25 -1000 m; Domain dimension: up to 20 km." "Analytical solution at user-selected level." "Advection: Gaussian plume with plume rise, lee-wake, down-wash effects and multiple reflections." "Turbulence: Boundary layer similarity scaling." "Measured or forecasted meteorological data are preprocessed to yield boundary layer parameters for dispersion modelling in an hourly time series. Emissions are modelled as hourly emission rates from point, area and line sources. The gaussian equation is solved in up to 400 receptor points in a regular grid." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Emission may be specified as source rates as function of ambient temperature, time of day, week, year and/or in some other periodical variation. Stack dimensions. For traffic sources, emission factors are used to calculate emisson data using traffic flow or vehicle labour, average speed, scenario year etc." "The meteorological preprocessor uses surface wind, temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, radiation, weather and state of the ground together with aerological data for temperature profile, height of temperature inversion, humidity profile, wind profile and cloud data in order to calculate boundary layer parameters, such as mixing layer height, sensible heat flux, net radiation, friction velocity, obukhov length, buoyancy term, stability class etc. A time series of data from a synoptic station, automatic weather station, mast data or forecasted meteorological data can be used. Wind speed is adapted to the calculation domain using local roughness data." "The model assumes horisontally homogenous conditions with specified roughness. Slopes should not be steeper than 10%. Varying receptor heights may be used." "Different ground types have significant impact on the ground level energy budget. Preprocessing should preferably treat several days of meteorological data in order to reach reasonable surface moisture content." "Rural background concentrations are entered as offset level." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "It is recommended to use at least three years of meteorological data to get a sufficient database for statistical evaluation as percentiles. Ozone and nitrogen oxides concentration level at urban background sites. Population data with good resolution if exposure and dose is calculated. Roughness length in calculation domain. Population data." "Mass concentrations of examined pollutants. Relative contribution from different sources to mean value. Total emission budget for the period. Descriptive statistics and exceedances. Time series data. Street canyon concentrations in selected streets. Population exposure." "Interface in Windows NT 4.0, Windows 95, Windows 98 available. Desktop mapping software MapInfo is integrated with the system. MS Access can be used for import/export of emission data." "The Dispersion model is being widely used in Sweden by non-expert users in local and regional environmental agencies, by different industrial users and for different educational purposes. The model is also used in consultancy services by SMHI." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Complete documentations available, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals with blocks on the machine code." "Only first attempts towards evaluation. The meteorological preprocessor and the point source part of the model, which is based on the OML model has been extensively evaluated against many datasets. The traffic source part of the model has been tested with highway data (E6). The model has been tested in extremely stable situations with datasets from Lycksele in Sweden." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Sufficient experience on PCs with Windows NT, Windows 95 and Windows 98. The system requires Pentium 233 MHz or higher with 32 MB RAM, alternatively an AMD K6 or Athlon." "As an indication of CPU time; a case with 10 point sources in a grid with 400 receptor points with three years of meteorological data, computing time is roughly 1 minute on a PC with 1 GHz clock frequency. A case with 10 point sources, 10 road sources, 10 area sources and 10 street canyons takes roughly 15 minutes." "The model takes 30 MB, MapInfo needs another 60 MB, the source register or database needs some additional memory, depending on the number of sources." "The model is available in Swedish and English version for end-users." "Omstedt, G.(1988): An operational air pollution model. SMHI Reports Meteorology and Climatology, RMK 57. Bringfelt, B., Backström, H., Kindell, K., Omstedt, G., Persson, C. and Ullerstig, A. (1997): Calculation of PM-10 concentrations in Swedish cities - Modelling inhalable particles. SMHI Reports Meteorology and Climatology, RMK 76. Eriksson, E.M. and Backström, H. (2000): User\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Guide for Dispersion. SMHI Environment Services Nr 48, 2000. (Also available as on-line help in Dispersion). Omstedt, G., Gidhagen, L.and Langner, J. (2002): Dispersion of smoke from small-scale biomass combustion - analysis of PM-2.5 data from Lycksele using two gaussian dispersion models. SMHI Reports Meteorology Nr 103. In Swedish. Omstedt, G. and Szegö, J. (1990): Population exposure to air pollution - Different calculation methods. SMHI Reports Meteorology and Climatology RMK 60." 3/29/2011 18:23:09 35 "DIPCOT" "John G. Bartzis" "NCSR 'Demokritos'" "bartzis@ipta.demokritos.gr" "+30 1 6525004" "+30 1 6525004" "National Center for Scientific Research 'Demokritos', Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, Environmental Research Laboratory, http://www.ipta.demokritos.gr/" "Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Multiple source" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Lagrangian models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "DIPCOT" "DIPCOT (DIsPersion over COmplex Terrain)" "Version II" "July 2006" "Environmental Research Laboratory Institute of Nuclear Technology Radiation Protection National Centre of Scientific Research" "JohnG. Bartzis, Spyros Andronopoulos" "Environmental Research Laboratory Institute of Nuclear Technology Radiation Protection National Centre of Scientific Research DEMOKRITOS 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki, Greece." "+30 210 6503426" "+30 210 6525004" "bartzis@ipta.demokritos.gr, sandron@ipta.demokritos.gr" "http://ipta.demokritos.gr/" "Provided by contact person" "Advanced" "Simulation of air pollutant dispersion." "Three-dimensional, Lagrangian puff/particle dispersion model. The model utilises information from : topographical pre-processor (DELTA code); meteorological pre-processor: prognostic (ADREA-I code) or diagnostic (FILMAKER-ADREA-diagn codes)" "DIPCOT is a dispersion model, which simulates the motion of air pollutants over complex terrain, based on a 3-D Lagrangian particle scheme. In order to build up a picture of the concentration distribution the total mass of the pollutant is assigned to a certain number of computational particles. Each particle is displaced with a velocity which takes account of two basic components: the transport due to the mean wind velocity, provided by meteorological pre-processors, and the random turbulent fluctuations are estimated by the Langevin equation. The knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of the particles allow the calculation of the mean ensemble concentration of the pollutants. DIPCOT utilises topographical and meteorological information given at a 3-D grid and is capable of simulating dispersion from multiple point sources, at all atmospheric conditions. In the case of buoyant point sources the model performs plume rise calculations." "No chemical reactions." "Time step for dispersion calculation: variable (1s to 20s for each step in a particles displacement) simulated time period : min-years" "1m 100 Km" "1m 10 Km" "???" "???" "Boughton model" "???" "The finite-difference form of Langevin equation is used, obtained following the Itos interpretation rule. The random term on Langevin equation is derived form two independent Gaussian distributions, with zero mean and variance 1. The time step of particle motion is a fraction of the Lagrangian time step. All the parameters of Langevin equation are estimated depending on atmospheric stability. The concentration calculations are based Yamada and Bunker scheme, used in order to minimise the number of the particles that are released. In the case of buoyant point sources the equations governing the rise of a bent-over plume Briggs are used, following the algorithm proposed by Hurley and Physic (4th order Runge - Kutta)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Multiple sources and multiple pollutants can be taken into account. The user provides the emission data: coordinates of the sources, exit velocities and temperatures, stack diameter and height, total mass released over a specific time interval. The release rate can be variable. The number of model-particles released per pollutant is specified by the user." "DIPCOT utilises gridded meteorological information from the following models:
    1.The ADREA-I code prognostic meteorological model.
    2.The FILMAKER and ADREA-diagn codes - diagnostic meteorological models.
    3-D fields for wind velocity, temperature, and pressure and 2-D fields for mixing layer height friction velocity, convective velocity, atmospheric stability, cloud cover and Monic Obukhov length, are used." "Orography height, and roughness are provided on the same grid as the meteorological information" "???" "Reflection of particles at ground and the top of top of the atmospheric boundary layer." "Data assimilation module under preparation (September 2006)" "User options regarding:
    1. Input data files openning (meteorology, topography etc.)
    2. Random motion model selection
    3. Sigma model selection
    4. Model output options: times and locations (grid/arbitrary locations)
    5. Physical characteristics of emitted pollutants (deposition factors, radioactivity etc.)" "1. Instantaneous and time-integrated concentrations
    2. Wet and dry deposition fluxes and time-integrated values
    3. Radiation doses (for radioactive pollutants) The output quantities are calculated at grid points and/or at user-specified locations." "No" "1. Public Power Corporation of Greece
    2. Greek Atomic Energy Commission
    3. RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) system for nuclear emergencies in Europe." "Urban" "The DIPCOT model has been repeatedly used for environmental impact studies for the Greek Public Power Corporation (routine and accidental releases)." "Regional" "The DIPCOT model has been repeatedly used for environmental impact studies for the Greek Public Power Corporation (routine and accidental releases)." "The DIPCOT model has been repeatedly used for environmental impact studies for the Greek Public Power Corporation (routine and accidental releases)." "Model description and user manual available (Level 1)" "Level 2: DIPCOT has been validated against experimental data (KINCAID and INDIAPOLIS) using Model Validation Kid. The relative works have been presented at the Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes Conferences as well as scientific journals. These applications show that the model is capable of satisfactory simulating dispersion for all the atmospheric stability conditions and in complex terrain." "DIPCOT participates regularly in real-time emergency exercises organised in the frame of the ENSEMBLE activity (http://ensemble.jrc.it/). In these exercises the results of a large number operational long-range dispersion models are intercompared online on the web-site." "How can you judge the accuracy of the model results? By applying appropriate statistical tools (see Olesen 1997)and by model intercomparison exercises. How many particles should be used? It depends on the application (topography, meteorological data).e.g. for an application at flat terrain when the meteorological conditions are stable in time and space the number of particles can be quite small (less than 1000). However, in the case of complex terrain where the meteorological conditions are variable with time and space then number of particle should be increased." "DIPCOT is a FORTRAN 77 code, running on HP workstation and on PC platform." "Depends on the application and the number of particles. Typically for 24 real hours of dispersion at complex terrain using 24000 particles 5 hr of CPU (on an HP 720) are usually enough, for a 40x40x13 meteorological grid. For simpler applications (few hundreds of perticles) the calculations time is a few minutes." "For the same typical case: 80 Mbytes RAM. Disk space: 5-10 Mbytes needed for the output files." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining DIPCOT can be provided by the contact person." "J.G. Bartzis, M. Varvayanni G. Graziani E. Davakis, P. Deligiannis, N. Catsaros: Ôhe TRANSALP Experimental Tracer Release and Transport Simulation. Air Pollution 95, Editors H. Power, N. Moussiopoulos, C.A. Brebbia, Porto Carras, 26-29 September 1995, pp 429-434 P. Deligiannis, J.G. Bartzis, N. Catsaros, E. Davakis, M, Varvayanni, J. Åhrhardt: RODOS Application on Complex Terrain Dispersion Problem using DETRACT. International Conference of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management - ESREL 96, Editors P.C. Cacciabue, I.A. Papazoglou, Grete, 24-28 July 1996, pp 75-83 P. Deligiannis, J.G Bartzis, E. Davakis: Complex Terrain Modeling Exercise. 4th Workshop on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 6-9 May 1996 Oostende, Belgium, published at the Int. J. of Environment and Pollution. Vol. 8, Nos. 3-6, pp 367-377, 1997 Ì. Varvagianni, P. Deligiannis, E. Davakis. A.G. Venetsanos, N. Catsaros: Wind flow and pollutant dispersion diagnosis over complex terrain based on sparse meteorological measurements. 5th Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Ìolybos Lesbos, pp 273 280, 1997 J.G. Bartzis, A.G. Venetsanos, M. Varvayanni, S. Andronopoulos, E. Davakis, J. Statharas, N. Catsaros, P. Deligiannis: Wind flow and dispersion modelling over terrain of high complexity. Air Pollution V, Editors H. Power, T. Tirabassi, C.A. Brebbia, pp 143-156, 1997 E. Davakis, S. Andronopoulos, D. Vlachogiannis, A. Venetsanos, J.G. Bartzis and S.G. Nychas (2001) Validation of the Demokritos dispersion modelling system based on the Indianapolis experiment. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 16, Nos. 1-6, 88100 E. Davakis, S.G. Nychas, S. Andronopoulos, J.G. Bartzis (2003) Validation study of the dis-persion Lagrangian particle model DIPCOT over complex topographies using different concen-tration calculation methods, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 20, Nos. 16, 3346 E. Davakis, S. Andronopoulos, G.A. Sideridis, E.G. Kastrinakis, S.G. Nychas and J.G. Bartzis (2005) Evaluation of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model DIPCOT against data from wind tunnel simulations of quasi two-dimensional turbulent flow. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 24, No. 1 4, pp. 114 126 S. Andronopoulos, E. Davakis, N. Gounaris, J.G. Bartzis and S.G. Nychas (2005) Dispersion modelling of radioactive pollutants: Application of the Demokritos Transport Code System for Complex Terrain (DETRACT) to the Hanford Purex Scenario. International Journal of Envi-ronment and Pollution, 25, No. 1 4, pp.33 47" 3/29/2011 18:23:10 60 "OLD MEMOTTT" "MODEL DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM" "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, LHTEE" "mds@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 310 99 6060" "+30 310 99 6012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Climate change, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Buoyant" "Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Workstation, Mainframe" "OLD MEMOTTT" "MEMOTTT by borrego" "Basic" 3/29/2011 18:23:12 61 "MERCURE" "Bertrand Carissimo " "carissimo@cerea.enpc.fr, bertrand.carissimo@cerea.enpc.fr" "http://cerea.enpc.fr/fich/mercure/mercure_anglais_web.html" "Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant, Dense" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "MERCURE" "MERCURE" "Version 3.2" 1997 "Electricite de France, Direction des Etudes et Recherches" "Bertrand Carissimo" "
    6 Quai Watier
    78401 Chatou Cedex
    France" "+ 33 1 30 87 76 15" "+ 33 1 30 87 83 34" "carissimo@cerea.enpc.fr, bertrand.carissimo@cerea.enpc.fr" "http://cerea.enpc.fr/fich/mercure/mercure_anglais_web.html" "performed by the distributor ARIA Technologies" "Basic" "Atmospheric dispersion of pollutant at local scale" "Three dimensional CFD code" "MERCURE is an atmospheric version of a general purpose CFD core code, named ESTET, developped by the Laboratoire National d´ Hydraulique in France. It is a non-hydrostatic, anelastic code, written in terrain-following coordinate. Numerical methods rely on the fractional time step technique, with a mixture of finite differences and finite volume techniques. The code is developped following Quality Assurance procedures, including in particular several validation cases : instantaneous and continuous releases of heavy gases, diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer, mountain waves in stable atmosphere, land-sea breeze. It has been applied to a number of cases including industrial releases of hazardous materials, simulation of atmospheric flow fields at local scale and urban pollution. " "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "10 - 60 s time step typically" "1m - 2 km" "1m - 100m" "Semi-lagrangian or finite volumes" "k-eps closure or diagnotic" "Deposition velocity" "No inline atmospheric chemistry yet. Can be coupled with the AIRQUAL reactive transport model" "Fractional time step" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Gridded emissions + individual sources" "Meteorological profiles of wind temperature, humidity, turbulence(if available)" "Topography height file" "Based on meteorological profile or large scale model results" "Based on meteorological profile or large scale model results" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Land use file" "Wind, temperature, humidity, concentration (3-D fields) surface fields : ground level temperature(2m), wind(10m), concentration ..." "Yes, as X-Windows Motif interface (Unix machines)" "Several teams in France and in Italy (9 in 1997)" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Model description in peer reviewed journal(s) Riou, 1987; Buty et al., 1988; Elkhalfi et al., 1993; Carissimo et al. 1996 (see references) Complete user manual Yes Report on machine code specifications written in FORTRAN" "
    Model validation against analytical solutions land-sea breeze analytical solution of Defant (1951)
    Model validation against reference dataset Thorney Island, BA- Propane releases, FLADIS Ammonia releases, WANGARA experiment (boundary layer), COAST (sea breeze), PYREX experiment (mountain waves)
    Model participation at model intercomparison activities APSIS intercomparison, SMEDIS project (sponsored by CEC)" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "approximately 0.02s per time step per 1000 nodes" "depends on application" "commercially available; contact above address" "Riou Y. (1987), Comparison between MERCURE-GL code calculations, wind tunnel measurements and Thorney Island field Trials. J. Hazard. Mat., 16, pp 247-265. Buty D., J.Y. Caneill and B. Carissimo (1988), Simulation numerique de la couche limite atmospherique en terrain complexe au moyen d un modele mesometeorologique non hydrostatique: le code MERCURE. J. Theor. Appl. Mecch., 7, 35-62. A. Ekhalfi and B. Carissimo (1993), : Numerical Simulations of a Mountain Wave Observed during the Pyrenees Experiment, Hydrostatic/Non Hydrostatic Comparison and Time Evolution. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph, 66, 183-200. B. Carissimo, E. Dupont and O. Marchand (1996), Local simulations of Land-sea Breeze cycles in Athens based on large-scale operational analyses. Atm. Env. 30, pp 2691-2704." 3/29/2011 18:23:15 62 "METRAS" "Heinke Schluenzen" "Meteorologisches Institut, ZMAW, Univ. Hamburg" "heinke.schluenzen@zmaw.de, schluenzen@dkrz.de" "Ozone depletion, Tropospheric ozone, Eutrophication, Summer smog, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "1 to 24 hours" "PC, Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "METRAS" "METRAS (MEsoskaliges TRAnsport und Stroemungsmodell)" "June 2006" "May 2006" "University of Hamburg, Meteorological Institute" "Dr. K. Heinke Schluenzen Prof. " "Meteorological Institute, ZMAW, Univ. hamburg, Bundesstr. 55 20146 Hamburg Germany" "+49 (0)40 42838 5082" "+49 (0)40 42838 5452" "heinke.schluenzen@zmaw.de" "www.mi.uni-hamburg.de/metras" "Basic" "Atmospheric flows in mesoscale gamma and beta range, wind, temperature and humidity fields over complex terrain, studies on mesoscale effects, transport of air pollutants, pollen dispersion, chemical reactions, deposition of species, atmospheric inputs to coastal waters, tidal effects on atmospheric phenomena." "3d nonhydrostatic Eulerian mesoscale transport, chemistry and fluid model" "
    In the three-dimensional nonhydrostatic MEsoscale TRAnsport and Stream model METRAS the wind field, temperature, humidity, cloud and rain water content as well as tracer concentrations are calculated from prognostic equations, pressure and density are calculated from diagnostic ones. The anelastic and the Boussinesq approximation are applied. The subgrid-scale turbulent fluxes are parameterized by first-order closure theory. Different schemes are implemented: a local closure scheme (mixing length approach), a profile closure scheme and a nonlocal closure scheme including a countergradient heat flux (Luepkes, Schluenzen, 1997). Clouds can be calculated with a Kessler-scheme.
    The model equations are solved on a staggered Arakawa-C grid. In vertical direction a terrain following eta-coordinate in applied, in horizontal directions cartesian coordinates are used. The grid space can be non-uniform in all three directions. To solve the surface energy budget as well as the humidity budget, a force-restore method is applied and different forms of land use are taken into account. At each grid point up to 10 sub-grid-scale land-uses are considered and a flux aggregation schme with blending hight is employed.
    Advection and diffusion of temperature and specific humidity are solved forward in time and upstream in space or with higher order ENO schemes. The mesoscale nonhydrostatic pressure contribution is calculated by an implicit conjugate gradient method or with a multigrid scheme. Advection and diffusion of momentum are calculated with the Adams-Bashforth scheme in time, using centered differences in space. As an alternative a forward in time and ENO-schme in space are used. For the solution of the vertical diffusion the Crank-Nicholson scheme may be used for all variables.
    The model includes transport, chemical reactions are solved with the chemistry model MECTM which uses the RADM2 mechanism and a bin model for aerosol transport. The reactions are solved with a modified QSSA, the advection with an upstream-scheme and the vertical diffusion with the Crank-Nicholson scheme. Dry deposition is calculated as a function of deposition velocity and concentration at the lowest grid point above the surface, following the resistance model concept.
    The models may be nested in larger scale model results and are joined in model system M-SYS (Trukenmueller et al., 2004)." "The model is adjusted for regions between some kilimeteres (resolution a few 10 meter) and up to 2000 km. Clouds should be resolved by the grid." "timesteps between 1s and 60s episodes up to several days (forecast mode)" "horizontal grid space several 10 m to 10 km area: maximum of 2000 km x 2000 km, minimum few km x few km" "vertical grid spacing 20 m to 1000 m, lwest level at 10 m" "Advection of momentum with Adams-Bashforth in time, centered differences in space. Sclar quantities forward in time and upstream. For momentum and scalar quatities ENO shcmes could alternatively be used. Vertical diffusion with implicit Crank-Nicholson scheme." "First order closure with different schemes are implemented: local closure scheme, profile closure scheme, and non-local closure scheme including counter gradient terms" "resistance concept deposition velocity depends on wind, land use, season for 17 gasphase-species, nitrate and sulfate, nitrate-sulfate bound trace metals and pollen." "coupled to chemistry model MECTM that used RADM2 mechanism and is coupled to a simple and a bin-approach aerosol module (von Salzen, Schluenzen, 1999)" "See numerical schemes. Nesting into larger-scale model results of meteorology and chemistry." "on-line control for plausibility of input data" "in the best resolution available for the species calculated " "One-dimensional profile for wind, temperature and humidity or three-dimensional output of a larger scale model for nesting" "data should be used in the best resolution available, sub-grid-scale land uses are considered and should be prescribed to make full use of the scheme" "the data should fulfil the model equations to avoid numerical noise in the model" "either nesting or calcualted from data in teh model and using gradient zero boundary conditions for boundary parallel wind components and scalars" "nudging approach for data assimilation" "always needed: land-use-data, water and soil temperature mimimum input: wind, temperature, humidity profile realistic input: 3D fields of wind, temperature, humidity, forcing data, values for all the different for species" "3d field for wind components, temperature, humidity, tracer concentration, rain water, cloud water, exchange coefficients etc. 2d fields for dry deposition, surface temperature, surface layer scaling parameters (u_*, theta_*, Z/L, q_*), precipitation" "Simple user interface as ascii file." "Meteorological Institute, Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hamburg, Germany Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany Forschungszentrum Jülich, Abt. Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Germany Rechenzentrum, Univerität Karlsruhe, Germany Institut für Physik und Meteorologie, Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany Ocean University of Qingdao, PR China Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK Public Domain Version METRAS PC " "Regional" "air concentration maps in different resolutions corresponding to EU directives" "Regional" "air concentration maps in different resolutions corresponding to EU directives" "Episodes" "air concentration maps in different resolutions corresponding to EU directives" "Description of Scientific Background of METRAS (METRAS Techn. Rep. 5) User manual of METRAS (METRAS Techn. Rep. 6)" "The dynamics and dispersion component of the model are validated against analytical solutions, reference data sets and different measurements. Species concentrations and aerosol compounds arecompared to measurements, meteorological parameters are also compared to measured data on a routine basis. Comparisons for polar regions (Arctic), mid-latitudes (North-West Europe), Sub-tropical regions (Eastern China)" "
    MESOCOM comparison
    Thunis R., Galmarini S., Martilli A., Clappier A., Andronopoulos S., Bartzis J., Vlachogianni M., deRidder K., Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Almbauer R., Sturm P., Oettl D., Dierer S. and Schlünzen K.H. (2003): MESOCOM: An inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation. Atmos. Environ., 37, 363-382." "can be used under linux or unix on PCs or large computers. Optimised for Vector computer, parallelisation with OpenMP" "The CPU time of the model depends considerably on the used model physics and chemistry as well as on the application area. " "The storage of the model depend considerably on the used model physics and chemistry as well as on the application area." "The research version of the model is available for universities and research institutes, the public domain version is simplified and available on request." "Schroeder, G., Schlünzen, K.H., Schimmel, F. (2006): Use of (weighted) essentially non-oscillating advection shemes in the mesoscale model. Quarterly Journal Roy. Met. Soc. 132, pp. 1-18. Schueler S. & Schlünzen K.H. (2006): Modeling of oak pollen dispersal on the landscape level with a mesoscale atmospheric model. Environ Model Assess, DOI 10.1007/s10666-006-9044-8. Dierer, S. et al (2005): Atmosphere-Sea Ice Interactions during Cyclone Passage Investigated by Using Model Simulations and Measurements. Month. Wea. Rev., 133, No.12, 3678-3692 Trukenmüller A., Grawe D. and Schlünzen K. H. (2004): A model system for the assessment of ambient air quality conforming to EC diretives. Meteorol. Zeitschrift,Vol.13,No.5,387-394. Schlünzen K.H. and Katzfey J.J. (2003) : Relevance of sub-grid-scale land-use effects for mesoscale models. Tellus, 55A, 232-246. Vihma, T., Hartmann, J., Lüpkes, C. (2003): A case study of an on-ice air flow over the Arctic marginal sea ice zone, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 107, 189-217 Lenz C.-J., Müller F. and Schlünzen K.H. (2000): The sensitivity of mesoscale chemistry transport model results to boundary values. Env. Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 287 -298. Sheng L., Schlünzen K.H. and Wu Z. (2000): Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the mesoscale wind structure over Shandong peninsula. Acta Meteorol. Sinica, 1, 97 - 107. von Salzen K. and Schlünzen K.H. (1999): Simulation of the dynamics and composition of secondary and marine inorganic aerosols in the coastal atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., D23, 30201 - 30217. Schlünzen K.H. (1997): On the validation of high-resolution atmospheric mesoscale models, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 67 & 68, 479-492. Schlünzen K.H., Stahlschmidt T., Rebers A., Niemeier U., Kriews M. and Dannecker W. (1997): Atmospheric input of lead into the German Bight - A high resolution measurement and model case study for April 23rd to 30th, 1991, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 156, 299-309 . Lüpkes C. and Schlünzen K.H. (1996): Modelling the Arctic convective boundary-layer with different turbulence parameterizations, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 79, 107-130. von Salzen K., Claussen M. and Schlünzen K.H. (1996): Application of the concept of blending height to the calculation of surface fluxes in a mesoscale model, Meteorol. Zeitschrift, N.F. 5, 60-66 . Schlünzen K.H. and Pahl S. (1992): Modification of dry deposition in a developing sea-breeze circulation - a numerical case study, Atmos. Environ., 26 A, 51-61. Schlünzen K.H. (1990): Numerical studies on the inland penetration of sea breeze fronts at a coastline with tidally flooded mudflats, Beitr. Phys. Atmosph., 63, 243-256." 3/29/2011 18:23:17 63 "MILORD" "Domenico Anfossi" "anfossi@to.infn.it" "Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Lagrangian models" "1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation" "MILORD" "MILORD (Model for the Investigation of Long Range Dispersion)" "Version 1 model" "july 2006" "Istituto di di Scienze dell, Atmosfera e del Clima (ISAC), Torino, C.N.R." "Dr. Domenico Anfossi (IISAC-C.N.R.)" "
    Istituto di Scienze dell Atmosfera e del Clima (ISAC)
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
    Corso Fiume, 4
    I-10133 Torino
    Italy" "++39-011 -3839826" "++39-011-6600364" "anfossi@to.infn.it" "http://www.isac.cnr.it/" "provided by contact person" "Basic" "There is no general remarks" "Long range simulation of transport, dispersion and deposition (radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions are included) of tracers or accidental releases." "Lagrangian particle stochastic dispersion model." "MILORD is a long-range Lagrangian particle model. Transport and dispersion of pollutants or tracers are simulated by following the trajectories of fictitious particles, each representing a finite mass and/or activity of the substance considered, in a three dimensional wind field (ECMWF analyses). Diffusion due to turbulence is prescribed by integrating the Langevin equation for displacement, in the horizontal and vertical over the PBL spatial domain, while inside the PBL a full mixed condition is considered in the vertical (uniform distribution). MILORD is a fully 3-D model, so that it accounts for large scale vertical processes, like large scale subsidence and upward or downward motions. Depletion of the mass particle by dry and wet deposition and radioactive decay or chemical transformation are accounted for by exponential reduction equations. A post-processing analysis package allows to calculate concentration and deposition over specific locations or over a grid, at users choice. Two methods are available, a Gaussian density kernel estimator (Kernel) and an averaging on 3-D cells in a chosen domain (Box). The model is designed to work requiring the minimum information available from typical data sets: topography, 3-D wind at standard pressure levels and precipitation. It is rather flexible since it can use any kind of gridded input data, having any type and space resolution and source configuration. It is able to treat area, line or point sources, time and space depending emissions, where a plume rise can be assigned. Daily PBL evolution can be described by an algorithm inside the model, or read by possible available data sets or, in the simplest case, just taking a constant value.
    Typical simulations cover regional area scale, from hundreds to thousand kilometres, and time period ranging from one day to months." "Accidental or episodic releases or scenarios of long range dispersion (ex. Chernobyl)" "The advective transport is computed following an algorithm suggested by Reap (1972). Stochastic displacements account for turbulent motion terms: horizontal and over PBL vertical displacements are calculated by integrating the Langevin equation, while vertical ones inside the PBL are evaluated by a uniform distribution, considering a full mixed layer. Dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay are calculated by simple and appropriate exponential reduction equations PBL height can be calculated by an algorithm describing its daily cycle, or can be taken constant or assigned by an external data set." "Being a Lagrangian model, in principle it has not any pre-fixed horizontal resolution. Input meteo-turbulence data resolution depends on the data set used." "Being a Lagrangian model, in principle it has not any pre-fixed vertical resolution. Input meteo-turbulence data resolution depends on the data set used." "The advective transport is computed following an algorithm suggested by Reap (1972). Stochastic displacements account for turbulent motion terms: horizontal and over PBL vertical displacements are calculated by integrating the Langevin equation, while vertical ones inside the PBL are evaluated by a uniform distribution, considering a full mixed layer. " "Sea above (Advection). Due to the relatively long integration time steps (about 30 minutes) the PBL is considered always well mixed." "Dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay are calculated by simple and appropriate exponential reduction equations PBL height can be calculated by an algorithm describing its daily cycle, or can be taken constant or assigned by an external data set. " "First order chemical reactions can be computed." "Fixed time step integration of the equation of motion and of Langevin equation for displacement." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Time and space dependent emissions are described: location and geometry of the source and, if any, stack height and diameter need to be specified; plume rise is assigned to the source; the emitted mass and activity is attributed to the simulation particles.
    Temporal resolution of the emission is independent from that of meteorological input fields." "Three dimensional wind fields given at fixed time intervals at standard pressure levels (ECMWF analyses)." "Two dimensional Digital Elevation Model on the same horizontal grid used for meteorological fields." "Ground particle reflection. Particles crossing the top of domain or lateral boundaries are lost. Along their trajectory, particles are allowed to move between the mixing layer and the free atmosphere only as a consequence of the variation of PBL height." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "As indicated in the following Emissions, Meteorology and Topography fields. Two dimensional field of precipitation on the same horizontal meteorological grid. Model configuration input data files. Emission data file. " "Particles age and coordinates, their residual activity, dry and wet deposition rates are saved in the output file at each integration time step during the model run.
    The post-processing data analysis package provides time averaged three-dimensional concentration fields over specific locations or over a grid. The averaging time and the option between specific location or grid is chosen by the user." "Graphical interfaces for 2D or 3D visualisations have been developed using commercial packages. They can run on VMS or Unix workstations. They are not considered as part of the model package." "Our research group at the Istituto di Scienze dellAtmosfera e del Clima, CNR, Turin, Italy." "Episodes" "
    Chernobyl accident. (Anfossi D., Sacchetti D., Trini Castelli S., Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Lagrangian Particle Model for Long Range Dispersion, Environmental Software, Vol. 10, No. 4, pages 263-287, 1996 )
    MILORD accuracy in the simulation for long range dispersion of airborne pollutants was firstly . tested against the Cs-137 air concentration and deposition values recorded over Europe during the 1986 Chernobyl accident.
    Many runs were performed, with different values of input parameters (mixing height, rainout height, horizontal and vertical diffusion coefficients, mechanical mixing height, dry and wet deposition coefficients) to assess the model sensitivity to these parametrizations. The sensitivity analysis was performed mainly on air concentration data since cumulated ground deposition values seemed more affected by uncertainties.
    The main results obtained are the following: i) - a constant value for the top of the mixing layer yielded better results than those given by a simple regular daily modulation; ii) - the model appeared to be more sensitive to variations of wet and dry deposition coefficient parametrization than to changes of diffusion coefficient values (both horizontal and vertical); iii) - 30% and 58% of daily air concentration predictions (zero measured values included) fall within a factor of two (FA2) and of five (FA5) respectively; iv) - the corresponding figures for cumulated air concentrations are 47% and 90%; v) - despite the differences, it was found that the results presented here are of the same quality of those obtained by the best performing models appearing in specialised literature.
    Taking into account the time and space scales involved in this kind of simulation, the simplicity of the model, the uncertainties on some model parameter and, mainly, on the source term and on subgrid phenomena such as precipitation amounts, it may be concluded that MILORD simulations are satisfactorily accurate." "Episodes" "
    Chernobyl accident. (Anfossi D., Sacchetti D., Trini Castelli S., Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Lagrangian Particle Model for Long Range Dispersion, Environmental Software, Vol. 10, No. 4, pages 263-287, 1996 )
    MILORD accuracy in the simulation for long range dispersion of airborne pollutants was firstly . tested against the Cs-137 air concentration and deposition values recorded over Europe during the 1986 Chernobyl accident.
    Many runs were performed, with different values of input parameters (mixing height, rainout height, horizontal and vertical diffusion coefficients, mechanical mixing height, dry and wet deposition coefficients) to assess the model sensitivity to these parametrizations. The sensitivity analysis was performed mainly on air concentration data since cumulated ground deposition values seemed more affected by uncertainties.
    The main results obtained are the following: i) - a constant value for the top of the mixing layer yielded better results than those given by a simple regular daily modulation; ii) - the model appeared to be more sensitive to variations of wet and dry deposition coefficient parametrization than to changes of diffusion coefficient values (both horizontal and vertical); iii) - 30% and 58% of daily air concentration predictions (zero measured values included) fall within a factor of two (FA2) and of five (FA5) respectively; iv) - the corresponding figures for cumulated air concentrations are 47% and 90%; v) - despite the differences, it was found that the results presented here are of the same quality of those obtained by the best performing models appearing in specialised literature.
    Taking into account the time and space scales involved in this kind of simulation, the simplicity of the model, the uncertainties on some model parameter and, mainly, on the source term and on subgrid phenomena such as precipitation amounts, it may be concluded that MILORD simulations are satisfactorily accurate." "
    Chernobyl accident. (Anfossi D., Sacchetti D., Trini Castelli S., Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Lagrangian Particle Model for Long Range Dispersion, Environmental Software, Vol. 10, No. 4, pages 263-287, 1996 )
    MILORD accuracy in the simulation for long range dispersion of airborne pollutants was firstly . tested against the Cs-137 air concentration and deposition values recorded over Europe during the 1986 Chernobyl accident.
    Many runs were performed, with different values of input parameters (mixing height, rainout height, horizontal and vertical diffusion coefficients, mechanical mixing height, dry and wet deposition coefficients) to assess the model sensitivity to these parametrizations. The sensitivity analysis was performed mainly on air concentration data since cumulated ground deposition values seemed more affected by uncertainties.
    The main results obtained are the following: i) - a constant value for the top of the mixing layer yielded better results than those given by a simple regular daily modulation; ii) - the model appeared to be more sensitive to variations of wet and dry deposition coefficient parametrization than to changes of diffusion coefficient values (both horizontal and vertical); iii) - 30% and 58% of daily air concentration predictions (zero measured values included) fall within a factor of two (FA2) and of five (FA5) respectively; iv) - the corresponding figures for cumulated air concentrations are 47% and 90%; v) - despite the differences, it was found that the results presented here are of the same quality of those obtained by the best performing models appearing in specialised literature.
    Taking into account the time and space scales involved in this kind of simulation, the simplicity of the model, the uncertainties on some model parameter and, mainly, on the source term and on subgrid phenomena such as precipitation amounts, it may be concluded that MILORD simulations are satisfactorily accurate." "ETEX I experiment
    The ETEX Project was sponsored by EC, WMO and IAEA and was aimed at evaluating the ability of long range models to predict the atmospheric dispersion of inert pollutants over large distances. During ETEX I, tracer releases was carried out on 23 October 1994, for a release period of nearly 12 hours. The source was set in Monterfil (2° W, 48°3 N, 90m asl, France) and the sampling domain almost covered from 43° to 60° N and 2° to 25° E. Following a first real time simulation exercise, to which MILORD did not take part, the ATMES II modelling exercise was launched almost two years after the ETEX campaign. The exercise was open to all the long-range modellers and participants were required to calculate the concentration field of the ETEX first tracer experiment using a common meteorological input data set, corresponding to the ECMWF analysis for the ETEX period, but also models using non-ECMWF data were considered. The total number of models participating in ATMES II was 49.
    The statistical analysis of the results was divided into three stages: a time analysis, considering concentrations at a fixed location for the whole duration of the episode, a space analysis, considering concentrations at a fixed time all over the domain, and a global analysis, where all the concentration values at any time and location are considered. According to the final ranking of models, MILORD resulted 5th out of the 49 models participating to the intercomparison exercise. The statistical indexes for three-hour concentrations were the following:
    FB = -0.29
    NMSE = 2.94
    FA2 =44
    FA5 = 74
    Corr = 0.73
    Conc_max_observed = 12.57
    Conc_max_predicted = 13.51
    Related references
    Anfossi D., S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, G. Tinarelli (1998) Results of MILORD simulations of ETEX-I. ATMES II - Evaluation of Long-range Dispersion Models using 1st ETEX Release. S. Mosca, R. Bianconi, R. Bellasio, G. Graziani and W. Klug editors. EUR 17756 EN, 519-522
    Anfossi D., F. Desiato, S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, G. Tinarelli (1997) The role of horizontal diffusion and mixing height parameterization in the ETEX long-range dispersion modelling. Proceedings of ETEX Symposium on Long-range Atmospheric Transport, Model Verification and Emergency Response, Vienna (Austria), 13-16 May, 1997, 187-190
    Desiato F., D.Anfossi, S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, G. Tinarelli (1998) The role of wind field, mixing height and horizontal diffusion investigated through two Lagrangian particle models. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 4157-4165
    Desiato F., D.Anfossi, S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, G. Tinarelli (1998) Intercomparison of two Lagrangian particle models with ETEX tracer data. Air Pollution Modelling and its Applications XII, S.E. Gryning and N. Chaumerliac eds., Plenum Press, New York, 267-273
    Girardi F., Graziani G., van Velzen D., Galmarini S., Mosca S., Bianconi R., Bellasio R., Klug W., Fraser G. (1998). The European Tracer Experiment. EUR 18143 EN.
    Mosca S., Bianconi R., Bellasio R., Graziani G., Klug W. (1998). ATMES II Evaluation of Long-range Dispersion Models using data of the 1st ETEX release. EUR 17756 EN." "The model can be installed on the range of computer classes using Fortran/77 compilers: since it is a research model, it is under continuous improvement and computational optimisation." "Of course, central memory and storage space needed to run the model, strongly depend on the temporal and spatial domain and on the simulation configuration considered. Just for example, running MILORD for 15 days of simulation in Chernobyl case, 10 particles every time step (36 minutes), on a spatial domain of about 60 degrees in longitude and 40 degrees in latitude, took about two hours on a VAX-VMS 4000.60 workstation." "The model is license free: possible users are suggested to work jointly with the developers, at least at a first stage." "Anfossi D., D. Sacchetti, S. Trini Castelli (1995) Development and sensitivity analysis of a Lagrangian particle model for long range dispersion. Environmental Software, 10, 263-287. Anfossi D., S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, G. Tinarelli (1998) Results of MILORD simulations of ETEX-I. ATMES II - Evaluation of Long-range Dispersion Models using 1st ETEX Release. S. Mosca, R. Bianconi, R. Bellasio, G. Graziani and W. Klug editors. EUR 17756 EN, 519-522. Anfossi D., F. Desiato, S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, G. Tinarelli (1997) The role of horizontal diffusion and mixing height parameterization in the ETEX long-range dispersion modelling. Proceedings of ETEX Symposium on Long-range Atmospheric Transport, Model Verification and Emergency Response, Vienna (Austria), 13-16 May, 1997, 187-190. Desiato F., D.Anfossi, S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, G. Tinarelli (1998) The role of wind field, mixing height and horizontal diffusion investigated through two Lagrangian particle models. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 4157-4165. Desiato F., D.Anfossi, S. Trini Castelli, E. Ferrero, G. Tinarelli (1998) Intercomparison of two Lagrangian particle models with ETEX tracer data. Air Pollution Modelling and its Applications XII, S.E. Gryning and N. Chaumerliac eds., Plenum Press, New York, 267-273." 3/29/2011 18:23:18 64 "MIMO" "Laboratory of Heat Tranfer & Environ. Engineering " "Aristotle University Thessaloniki" "moussio@vergina.eng.auth.gr, jdouros@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 2310 996011" "+30 2310 996012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Ozone (O3)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Eulerian models" "10 minutes to 1 hour" "Workstation, Mainframe, Supercomputer" "MIMO" "MIcroscale MOdel" "Version 91" "September 2007" "Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Aristotle University Thessaloniki" "Ioannis Ossanlis & Photios Barmpas" "
    Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Aristotle University Thessaloniki
    P.O. Box 483, Aristotle University Thessaloniki,
    GR-54124, Thessaloniki, Greece" "+30 2310 99 60 45" "+30 2310 99 60 12" "giannis@aix.meng.auth.gr & fotisb@aix.meng.auth.gr" "Provided by contact person " "Basic" "Good knowledge of FORTRAN language and CFD modelling" "Simulation of microscale flow, heat transfer and pollutant dispersion" "Three-dimensional, prognostic microscale model" "MIMO is a prognostic microscale model which allows describing the air motion near complex building structures. Within MIMO, the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved. Non-equidistant grid spacing is allowed in all directions. The numerical solution is based on second-order discretization applied on a staggered grid. Conservation properties are fully preserved within the discrete model equations. The discrete pressure equations are solved with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. Advective terms are treated with an FCT scheme. Turbulent diffusion can be described with either a one- or two-equation turbulence model. At roughness height similarity theory is applied. At lateral boundaries and for scalar quantities Neumann or Dirichlet conditions are applied. generalized radiation conditions are also implemented for lateral boundaries." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Time step: 0.1 - 1 second, simulated time period: several minutes" "Grid size: 1 - 10 m, domain dimension: 100 - 5000 m" "Cell height: 1 - 100 m (varying with height), total height: up to about 1000 m" "FCT scheme, TVD scheme" "Optionally one- and two-equation schemes
    linear and non-linear turbulence models
    k-e, k-w and k-t models are implemented in MIMO." "Equation of dry deposition module are implemented to work parallel with the main MIMO code." "Equation for fast chemistry are also implemented for NO-NO2-O3 (Nitrogen oxides and Ozone)" "The discretized equations are solved numerically on a staggered grid. Temporal discretization of the prognostic equations is based on the explicit second order Adams-Bashforth scheme, with the exception of the pressure. To ensure non-divergence of the flow field an elliptic equation is solved. The elliptic equation is derived from the continuity equation wherein velocity components are expressed in terms of the pressure. It should be noted that since the elliptic equation is derived from the discrete form of the continuity equation and the discrete form of the pressure gradient, conservativity is guaranteed. The discrete pressure equation is solved numerically with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. The fast elliptic solver is based on fast Fourier analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in the vertical direction. On principle, advective terms can be computed using any suitable advection scheme. In the present model version second-order flux-corrected-transport scheme (FCT, Wortmann-Vierthaler and Moussiopoulos 1995) is implemented. It achieves a fair reduction of numerical diffusion, the solution being independent of the magnitude of the scalar (i.e. preserving transportivity)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The emissions are provided in kg/h/cell area for each grid location" "One dimensional profiles of temperature and wind data are provided to be used for the initial state and for the inflow boundary conditions. The initial state and inflow boundary conditions of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate can be prescribed by measured vertical profiles or by anlytical function. The latest model version allows a one-way coupling with the mesoscale model MEMO. Results of MEMO are taken to obtain the initial state and the inflow boundary conditions of the model MIMO." "See initial conditions." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Building inventory provided by a grid generation programme
    A file with control data is read" "Wind velocity components, potential temperature, pressure, turbulence data and optionally concentrations of inert pollutants, water vapour and liquid water content for each grid location." "Not yet available. " "SX80, Karlsruhe, Germany" "Regional" "PICADA (Photocatalytic Innovative Coverings Applications for Depollution Assessment) project. For more details www.picada-project.com" "Regional" "PICADA (Photocatalytic Innovative Coverings Applications for Depollution Assessment) project. For more details www.picada-project.com" "PICADA (Photocatalytic Innovative Coverings Applications for Depollution Assessment) project. For more details www.picada-project.com" "MIMO manual ver. 1 written by Ioannis Ossanlis and Joerg Necker is available." "
    Model validation against analytical solutions: Yes

    Model validation against reference dataset:
    Cubical obstacle (Martinuzzi 1992) u-shaped building (Klein et al. 1995).

    Model evaluation:
    Through multiple applications MIMO has been proved capable of sucessfully reproducing the physical flow over built-up areas." "Model intercomparison with real data was performed during the intercomparison exersise named TRAPOS and European project PICADA (www.picada-project.com).
    For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "For the typical case of a 120x60 grid size and 1 inert pollutant, the simulation toward quasi-steady state needs 150 min of computing time. (SX80 vector processor)" "For the same typical case: 63 Mbytes RAM." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining MIMO can be provided by the contact person. " "Moussiopoulos N., Ossanlis I. and Barmpas Ph., 2005, A study of Heat Transfer effects on Air Pollutants Dispersion in street canyons by numerical simulations, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 25, 1-2-3-4, 131-144. Ossanlis I., Barmpas Ph. and Moussiopoulos N., 2007, The Effect of the Street Canyon Length on the Street Scale Flow Field and Air Quality: A numerical study, Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, XVII, p.632-640. Moussiopoulos N., Barmpas Ph., Ossanlis I and Bartzis J., 2007, Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Results for the Evaluation of the Depollution Effectiveness of Photocatalytic Coverings in Street Canyons, Journal of Environmental Modelling and Assessment, In Press. " "Martinuzzi, R. (1992) Experimentelle Untersuchung der Umströmung wandgebundener, rechteckiger, prismatischer Hindernisse, Dissertation Universität Erlangen-Nuernberg. Klein, P., Rau, M., Wang, Z. and Plate, E. (1995) Concentrations and flow field in the neighbourhood of buildings and building complexes (wind tunnel experiments), Research Programme for Air Pollution Prevention Measures, Annual Report, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Winkler, Ch. (1995) Mathematische Modellierung der quellnahen Ausbreitung von Emissionen, Fortschr.-Ber, VDI, Reihe 7, Nr. 268, pp. 142. Wortmann-Vierthaler, M. and Moussiopoulos, N. (1995) Numerical test of a refined flux corrected transport (FCT) advection scheme, Environmental Software, 10, 157-175. Goetting, J., Winkler, Ch., Rau, M., Moussiopoulos, N. and Ernst, G. (1995) Plume dispersion over built-up areas: a comparison of numerical results and wind tunnel studies, in: Air Pollution III, 1, (Eds.: Power, h., Moussiopoulos, N. and Brebbia, C.), Computational Mechanics Publications, 413-420. Goetting, J., Winkler, Ch., Rau, M., Moussiopoulos, N. and Ernst, G. (1997) Dispersion of a passive pollutant in the vicinity of a U-shaped building, Int. J. Env. Poll., 8, No. 3-6, 718-726. Ehrhard, J.; Ernst, G.; Götting, J.; Kathib, I.; Kunz, R.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Winkler, C. (2000), The Microscale Model MIMO: Development and Assessment. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 85, pages 163 - 176. Louka P. and N. Moussiopoulos (2003), Optimisation of CFD modelling methods for traffic pollution in streets within TRAPOS research network, Proceedings of the 4th International Exhibition and Conference on Environmental Technology (HELECO 03), Athens, Greece, 30 January-2 February, Vol. 1, 69-77." 3/29/2011 18:23:20 65 "MLTT" "Yuri G. Motovilov (MLTT)" "motol@aha.ru, belokur@aha.ru" "Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km), Global (hemispheric to global scale)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "PC, Workstation" "MLTT" "The model for a long range and transboundary transport" "MLTT-3P" "State Institute for Applied Ecology-Russia" "Yuri G. Motovilov & Alexander Belokurov" "
    17 Karamzina proyezd
    117463 Moscow Russia" "motol@siae.ru & belokur@aha.ru" "http://www.siae.ru" "Basic" "Forecasting and monitoring of a large-scale distribution for polluting substances in the atmosphere and their deposition on the surface" "Three-dimensional model" "The model for a long range and transboundary transport (MLTT) for harmful emitions is developed for forecasting and monitoring of a large-scale distribution for polluting substances in the atmosphere and their deposition on the surface. The model enables to settle an invoice for distribution and dissipation of industrial pollutants, forecasting and monitoring chemical and nuclear emergencies. Applications of this model are emergency planning, scientific researches and air quality assissments. The model calculates concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere and their deposition on the surface. The MLTT stimulates an account of individual qualities for each source of pollution and the given polluting substance. The source can emit one or some polluting substances with the given properties, for example, a polydispersive structure of emission. MLTT uses a regional-to-continental or global spatial scale. The Monte-Carlo method is used for approximation of diffuse members. Parameterization of vertical and horizontal turbulent flows plays a essential role for the correct decision of the given task. Vertical turbulent flows in the surface layer of the atmosphere are determined by a thermal stratification in this layer and the character of the earthly surface. In the planetary boundary layer turbulent flows are calculated with the help of the analytical theory. The variant of the MLTT in a spherical coordinate system is to the utmost set - up on use of the meteorological information of the operative model of the intermediate term forecast of Hydrometeocentre of Russia.. The data about components of wind speeds, temperature, humidity, surface pressure and a vertical diffusion coefficient of this model can be directly used by submitted model of polluting substances transport. Distinctive features of the MLTT are: 1) the model of transport composes with the computing model of intermediate term forecasts of weather of Hydrometeocentre of Russia (or other fore- casting model or the similar scale), that it is important for operative accounts, 2) in the model the data about the main meteorological elements on the boundary layer of the atmosphere are taken into account, where the main transport of antropogenic pollution occurs, it is enough in details (at the 4-th vertical accounting levels ), and, as is known, wind and temperature structures in the low troposphere are rather changed, 3) the model permits to settle an invoice as for the whole Northern hemisphere, as for any given region, that permits essentially to speed up calculations." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "The model uses spherical (latitude-longitude) coordinations (2.5*2.5)" "The model uses 8 vertical levels" "The Lagrangian approach for an advective transport of polluting substances in the atmosphere is realized in the model. The 3-rd advective-diffusion equation is recorded in a spherical sigma-system of coordinates." "The Monte-Carlo method for turbulent diffusion for is used" "The account for a gravitate deposition of aerozoles is realized with the help of the formula Stocs." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Model validation against reference dataset
    The model was validated against the reference dataset from forecasting meteorological data of Hydrometerological centre of Russia model." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Kurbatkin G.P., Degtiarev A.I., Frolov A.V., 1994, Spectral atmospherical model, initialisation and data base for numerical forecasting. Hydrometeoizdat, St.-Peterburg." 3/29/2011 18:23:21 66 "MODLAC" "MODEL DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM" "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, LHTEE" "mds@aix.meng.auth.gr" "+30 310 99 6060" "+30 310 99 6012" "P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece" "Chemical emergencies" "Emergency planning" "Concentrations" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Area - volume source" "Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Dense" "PC" "MODLAC" "Modelo de Disperso Libertades Acidentais (by borrego)" "An old and unused model version is described in the following fields (Version 96)" "October 1996" "Department of Environment and Planning University of Aveiro" "Professor Carlos Borrego" "Campus Universitario 3810 AVEIRO PORTUGAL" "351 - 34 - 370 200" "351 - 34 - 382 876" "borrego@ua.pt" "Basic" "The model was designed for use in emergency planning activities and emergency response to chemical emergencies. Intended uses include real-time applications within emergency response frameworks, training, accident analysis for the siting of new facilities." "This model is a Gaussian dispersion model, with an initial slumping phase for the simulation of releases of heavier than air gases." "The model was developed for use in real-time and in connection with real-time meteorological data acquisition. This intended use implied the development of a fast model, with the ability to use readily available meteorological data. The model is intended to be used within an integrated system, including meteorological data acquisition and transmission and a mouse-driven user interface. The interface enables the user to define input data, to visualize meteorological data and output results, as concentration isocontours. Iscontours are represented on local cartograhphy to enable emergency planning and alert of endangered populations. The dispersion model is composed of two distinct phases: a slumping phase and a passive dispersion phase. The slumping phase accounts for the gravitational effects which drive the initial evoultion of a release of denser-than-air gases. This phase is described by an hydrostatic equation. Transition to passive dispersion phase is determined by a criteria based on wind speed. The area corresponding to the final condition of the slumping phase is used to generate a virtual point source, to be used on passive dispersion computations. Passive dispersion is gaussian based, and uses the Pasquill-Gifford stability classes. A meteorological pre-processor is used to provide real-time data for the dispersion model. One or two level temperatures and wind data are used to calculate the Monin-Obukhov Length. This parameter is then used to transpose this information to Pasquill-Gifford stability classes. Stability classes and distance to source are used to calculate horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients." "5 minutes." "100 m (minimum)." "Not applicable." "Each of the puffs generated to simulate the release travels accordingly to the 10 m-height wind speed and direction. This wind data is assumed to be representative of the wind field of all the domain, for the time step considered." "Turbulence is accounted on the basis of dispersion coefficients. These coefficients are computed from distance to source and Pasquill-Gifford Stability Classes." "Substance released (data file). Flow rate of gas released from container or resulting from evaporation. Time variation of fow rate is allowed." "Wind-speed, wind direction and temperature at two vertical levels. The model runs if only one level is available assuming default specifications." "Receptor polar grid data" "The model computes ground-level concentrations. Results are presented as concentration isocontours for pre-defined levels with risk significance (defined in the substance data file)." "The model may be run as a stand alone executable file. It has been used under an interface for a system including a full set of models to simulate release, evaporation, dispersion, fire and explosion processes, automatic meteorological data acquisition and transmission." "This model is being used by the Harbour Authority of Aveiro Harbour." "Complete user manual For earlier vesions only (in Portuguese). Current version manual is undergoing an update process." "Model validation against reference dataset In-house validation was made against data sets included in Hazard response modeling uncertainty (a quantitative method) - Evaluation of Commonly-used hazardous gas dispersion models, Hanna et al., 1991." "PC only" "Typical run on a PC 486 / 66 MHz : < 1 minute (for 580 calculation points, 6 time steps at each point)" "Full set of programs and data files: 450 kbyte Interface with local cartohgraphy : 8350 kbyte" "BORREGO, C. e CONCEIM-GM-CO, M.: Real Time Simulation of Accidental Releases, 7th International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Taormina (1992), vol. 4, 159-1:9. BORREGO, C., CONCEIM-GM-CO, M. e MARTINS, J.M.: Risk Management and Prevention of Industrial Accidents in Portugal: Introduction of Environmental Considerations, 9th World Clean Air Congress & Exhibition, Montreal (1992)." 3/29/2011 18:23:23 67 "NORMAL" "Petr Pecha" "pecha@utia.cas.cz" "Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies" "Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators)" "Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Gaussian models" "PC" "NORMAL" "NORMAL" "last update: April 2000" "April 2000" "ENERGOPROJECT Prague; Institute of Information Theory and Automation, Czech Academy of Sciences" "Petr Pecha" "
    Institute of Information Theory and Automation,
    Pod vodarenskou vezi 4
    182 08 Prague 8, Czech Republic" "+420 2 6605 2009" "+420 2 688 4903" "pecha@utia.cas.cz" "Provided by contact person" "Basic" "Assessment of radiological consequences of radioactive discharges to atmosphere due to routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides during normal operation of nuclear power plants. Program NORMAL calculates the annual-average values of near-ground and plume centre-line activity concentration in air, deposited activity on ground and the corresponding doses." "Single-point flow model, Gaussian straight-line dispersion model (optionally BOX model)" "Continuous releases of radionuclides during normal operation of a nuclear power plant are treated. The intensity of radioactive material discharges from the source (usually at height about 100 m of the venting stack) is assumed to be more or less constant over a year. The mean annual average values are determined on the basis of many times repeated calculations of particular weather situations which are always described by the simple flow and diffusion models represented by the single point flow model and basic Gaussian plume model. It leads to Gaussian straight-line solution and its applicability is in general increased in such analysis where averaging procedures take place (weighting by the annual weather statistics).
    Several mechanisms act to further reduce the concentrations of the initially discharged activity. The radioactive plume is depleted by dry and wet deposition as well as radioactive decay. For some nuclides the creation of daughter products is taken into account. Daughter products will grow into the plume with the decay of the parent radionuclide. The source depletion model accounts for reduction of concentration downwind due to the removal mechanisms.
    The model is semiempirical in nature and other phenomena could be more or less successfully considered (effect of plume rise on the effective height of emission due to initial vertical momentum and influence of upward buoyancy force caused by the heat capacity of releases, near-standing building wake effect, consideration of the mild changes in terrain orography, multiple reflection on inversion layers). Several options are offered for dispersion parameters ċy (x) and ċz (x) from the input menu and user can select the proper one according to his consideration (urban or rural areas).
    Further transport of radionuclides through the living environment to the human body is modelled taking into account 5 possible pathways (cloudshine, ground-shine, inhalation, inhalation from resuspension, ingestion). A special algorithm for calculation of the annual activity intakes from ingestion complies with the long-termed immersion of the ecosystem into the polluted environment." "Based on Pasquill classification of the atmospheric stability, no detailed modelling of the mixing layer structure and characteristics, only for near-flat terrain; continuous long-termed stationary discharges of radionuclides" "The solution is performed on a polar grid (16 directions of the windrose, 20 radial distances up to 100 km from the source )" "Single-point model : for a certain meteosituation the wind and direction is assumed to be constant over the all area" "Gaussian straight-line solution" "Experimental values for velocity of dry fallout (with further discrimination for elemental, organic or aerosol forms); washout is dependant on intensity of precipitation and physical-chemical form of radionuclides" "Many times repeated calculations of the possible single meteorological situations characterised by weather stability category and categories of wind and rain intensity, wind direction and probability of inversion situation occurrence. Final weighting by annual weather statistics. Calculation of the external irradiation from the radioactive cloud and deposited activity based on semifinite models. Dynamic modelling of radionuclide transport through the food chains." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Source term is given such a total annual release of activity for each radionuclide in Bq/year" "Local annual weather statistics QIGM(wind direction, wind speed category, Pasquill weather category); probability of rain intensity in each rain category, probabilities of inversion situations" "Elevations and roughness of the terrain on the given polar grid" "See meteorology" "See meteorology" "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Gridded population density for each age category, database of the nuclear data, production / consumption data" "Plume centre-line and near-ground concentration of activity in air (annual-average values), deposited activity on the ground, velocity of deposition, annual activity intake into the human body, doses from the external irradiation and committed doses from internal irradiation" "User-friendly interactive support for entering of data input and subsequent immediate graphical presentation of results on the screen" "The product is used in ENERGOPROJECT Prague for purposes of Safety reports, verification of the compliance with regulatory guides; the demo version of the NORMAL product is now tested for its use in the Czech State Office for Nuclear Safety in Prague." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Level 1: Three manuals ( Methodology, User Guide, Comparative analysis) available in the Czech language, Czech and English interactive versions ( with detailed Czech or English HELPs) of the software." "Level 2: Extensive comparison of all results with the results of European code PC CREAM (documented in the III. part of the NORMAL manual)." "Information not available. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person." "Any PC with common configuration." "About 10 minutes of CPU time (CELERON 333A) for 5 weather categories, 10 wind intensities, 16 directions of windrose, 9 rain intensities, 6 inversion layers, group about of 30 nuclides" "about 2 MB for program and 2.5 MB for input data and output files" "
    Owner of program: ENERGOPROJECT Prague
    Contact person:
    Mrs. E. Pechova
    tel.:+420 2 41006121
    E-mail: pechova@egp.cz" "Pechova E., Pecha P.: NORMAL: A PC version of program product designed for estimation of radiological consequences on population due to routine releases of radionuclides to atmosphere during normal operation, Part I : Methodology, Part II: Users guide, Part III : Sensitivity study and comparative analysis of results with PC CREAM code, Tech. report of Energoprojekt Praha, EGP 4104-6-980030, final version Dec. 1999. Pecha P., Nedoma P., Pechova E.: Modelling of radionuclides transport due to atmospheric releases used in the various stages of nuclear power plant design, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes. University de Rouen, Rouen 1999; paper no. 74 Pecha P., Pechova E.: Preparation of NORMAL results for NPP Temelin such an input data for further cancer risk analysis according to the US EPA regulations, Tech. report of Energoprojekt Praha, in preparation, April 2000" 3/29/2011 18:23:25 177 "MM5-CAMx" "Anastasia Poupkou" "Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University Thessaloniki" "poupkou@auth.gr" "+30 2310 99 80 09" "POB 149, 541 24 Thessaloniki" "Tropospheric ozone, Summer smog, Winter smog, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation" "MM5-CAMx" "Fifth Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) - Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx)" "MM5 (version 3.7) - CAMx (version 4.40)" "September 2007" "National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki" "Zerefos Christos (Professor) - Melas Dimitrios (Associate Professor)" "Zerefos Christos
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment
    Department of Geography and Climatology
    Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment (LACAE)
    15784 Athens, Greece
    Tel.: +30 210 7274133, Fax.: +30 210 7274157

    Melas Dimitrios
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
    Faculty of Sciences
    Department of Physics
    Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics (LAP)
    PO Box: 149, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
    Tel.: +30 2310 998124, Fax.: +30 2310 998090" "zerefos@geol.uoa.gr, melas@auth.gr" "http://lap.phys.auth.gr/gems.asp" "Dr Ioannis Kioutsioukis (email: kioutio@auth.gr)
    Dr Anastasia Poupkou (email: poupkou@auth.gr)
    MSc Theodoros Giannaros (thgian@auth.gr) " "Advanced" "Air quality forecast in regional and urban scale.
    Air quality assessment.
    Scientific research. " "CAMx is a 3-D Eulerian photochemical dispersion model off-line coupled with MM5 which is a non-hydrostatic meteorological model." "The modelling system consists of the 3D Eulerian photochemical dispersion model CAMx off-line coupled with the limited area, non-hydrostatic, terrain following and sigma-coordinate meteorological model MM5. A NMVOCs biogenic emission model driven by MM5 has been also integrated in the system. The forecast system runs operationally in order to perform a 72h prediction of daily mean and daily maximum O3, NO2, NO, CO, SO2 and PM10 concentrations in regional scale (Europe, Balkan Peninsula) and in urban scale (Athens)." "MM5-CAMx can be applied effectively in scales ranging from sub-urban to continental. " "1 hour" "Mother grid: Europe(30km) - Nest grids: Balkan Peninsula(10km) and Athens(2km)." "MM5 grids have a vertical structure of 29 full sigma-levels, reaching at approximately 100 mbar height. CAMx grids have 15 vertical layers extending up to approximately 7 km above ground level. The vertical layers are unevenly distributed with higher resolution at the near-surface layers. The first CAMx layer height is about 20 m. " "MM5: Vertical advection of moisture and temperature are resolved by applying linear interpolation methods. Convection in cumulus clouds is parameterized with the Kain-Fritsch 2 parameterization.
    CAMx: Eulerian continuity equation closed by K-theory. " "MM5: MRF Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme.
    CAMx: Horizontal diffusion based on Smagorinsky approach. Vertical diffusion coefficients supplied via input file (from the meteorological model). " "CAMx:
    DRY
    Physical model: Separate resistance models for gases and aerosols (Numerical method: Deposition velocity as surface boundary condition for vertical diffusion)
    WET
    Separate scavenging models for gases and aerosols (Numerical method: Uptake as a function of rainfall rate, cloud water content, gas solubility and diffusivity, PM size) " "CAMx:
    Gas phase chemistry: Carbon Bond (CB-IV).
    Aerosol chemistry: RADM aqueous chemistry algorithm, ISORROPIA inorganic aerosol thermodynamics/partitioning, SOAP scheme for SOA formation, a static two-mode coarse/fine scheme for the particle size distribution. " "MM5:
    Horizontal advection: Linear interpolation
    Vertical advection and diffusion: Implicit scheme
    Coordinate system: Lambert Conic Conformal
    One way nesting applied.

    CAMx:
    Horizontal advection: PPM.
    Vertical advection and diffusion: Implicit scheme.
    Gas phase chemistry: CMC (ENVIRON) solver.
    Coordinate system: Lambert Conic Conformal.
    Two way nesting allowed. " "MM5 is initialized with the global forecasts of the Global Forecasting System (GFS), operated by the National Centre for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) of the U.S. The GFS forecasts have a coarse spatial resolution of around 100-km and are read-in and interpolated on the MM5 grids using the MM5 pre-processing programs. MM5 is a very well documented meteorological model, widely used for research and policy-oriented activities.
    The emission data were either provided by universities (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) and research institutes (The Netherlands Organization) or derived from the EMEP emission database (www.emep.int). The emission data used were calculated using state-of-the-art methodologies and up-to-date official national statistical and emission data. " "Point sources and gridded sources emissions are processed by CAMx.
    The anthropogenic emission data are emission rates of gaseous pollutants (NOx, SO2, NMVOCs, CH4, NH3, CO) and particulate matter (PM10). Two emission inventories were compiled by the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, one for Greece (10-km resolution) and one for the Greater Athens Area (2-km resolution). The compilation of the emission inventories was based on the methodologies of the EMEP/CORINAIR emissions inventory guidebook. All anthropogenic emission sources (industry, central heating, road transport, waste etc.) were taken into account in the inventories. The emission data for all European countries other that Greece were provided by The Netherlands Organization in 0.125ox0.063o resolution. Point sources emissions were also provided by The Netherlands Organization. Shipping emissions were extracted from the EMEP database. The temporal disaggregation of the anthropogenic emissions was based on temporal profiles (seasonal, weekly and diurnal) developed by the Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER) of the University of Stuttgart under the EUROTRAC project (subproject GENEMIS).
    A biogenic emission model was developed by the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and integrated in the forecast system. The model is implemented for the calculation of isoprene, monoterpenes and OVOCs emissions using the methodology described in Guenther et al., (JGR, 1995). The model processes different input data to estimate gridded biogenic NMVOCs fluxes on an hourly basis: a) land use data, b) land-use-specific foliar biomass densities and emission potentials and c) the MM5 forecasted temperature and solar radiation data. " "MM5 3-D gridded fields of horizontal wind, temperature, pressure, water vapor, clouds and vertical diffusivity." "USGS topography and land use data (5 minutes resolution for Europe and the Balkan Peninsula and 30' for Athens) as MM5 output data that are processed by the mm52camx preprocessor in order to be converted to a CAMx-ready file." "MM5: Initial conditions are obtained from GFS forecasts, after the implementation of all MM5 pre-processing programs.
    CAMx: Gridded 3-D concentrations of all species from a previous model run are used as initial conditions. " "MM5: Boundary Conditions are obtained from GFS forecasts, after the implementation of all MM5 pre-processing programs.
    CAMx: Currently constant values for each species. The coupling of the forecast system with the global model MOZART is an ongoing activity." "MM5: Not applicable.
    CAMx: Not available." "CAMx:
    1) Top concentrations (currently constant values for each species).
    2) Albedo/Haze turbidity/Ozone Column (TOMS ozone column data).
    3) Lookup table of photolytic rates by surface albedo, total ozone column, haze turbidity, altitude, and zenith angle provided by the TUV radiative transfer and photolysis model developed at the National Center of Atmospheric Research. " "Hourly 3-D concentration fields and 2-D surface deposition fields for gases and aerosols." "Linux shell scripts, Intel Fortran using OpenMP, PAVE and GRADS visualization tools. " "Research groups, environmental agencies, private companies. The modelling system can be applied by skilled users. " "Regional" "Project Title: Air quality assessment in the municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis, Programme THISEAS, Municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis, 2008-2010.
    Short description of the project: The main objective of the project is the Particulate Matter (PM) source apportionment in the greater area of the municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis with the use of the MM5-CAMx modeling system. The area of interest is located in the North-Western part of Greece, close to lignite mines and large electric energy production lignite power plants." "Regional" "Project Title: Air quality assessment in the municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis, Programme THISEAS, Municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis, 2008-2010.
    Short description of the project: The main objective of the project is the Particulate Matter (PM) source apportionment in the greater area of the municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis with the use of the MM5-CAMx modeling system. The area of interest is located in the North-Western part of Greece, close to lignite mines and large electric energy production lignite power plants." "Urban" "Project Title: Air quality assessment in the municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis, Programme THISEAS, Municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis, 2008-2010.
    Short description of the project: The main objective of the project is the Particulate Matter (PM) source apportionment in the greater area of the municipality of Dimitrios Ypsilantis with the use of the MM5-CAMx modeling system. The area of interest is located in the North-Western part of Greece, close to lignite mines and large electric energy production lignite power plants." "
    Documentation status:
    Complete documentation (scientific description, users guide, software) available at:
    1) http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/ for MM5 and
    2) http://www.camx.com/ for CAMx." "The air quality forecast system (MM5-CAMx-biogenic emission model) has been developed in the framework of the European project ¡°Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data (GEMs)¡± (Contract No.: 516099). Within GEMS, the air quality forecast is operationally evaluated against ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (PM10) measurements in Europe. The evaluation of the forecast system in urban scale (for Athens) is described in: Poupkou, A., Kioutsioukis, I., Lisaridis, I., Markakis, K., Giannaros, T., Katragkou, E., Melas, D., Zerefos, C. and Viras, L.. 2008. Evaluation in the Greater Athens Area of an air quality forecast system. In the proceedings of the IX EMTE National-International Conference of Meteorology-Climatology and Atmospheric Physics (28-31 May 2008, Thessaloniki, Greece), pp 759-766." "Within the European project GEMs, the air quality forecast for Europe from MM5-CAMx is operationally compared with the forecasts from other models (e.g. CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD etc) and the ensemble forecast is estimated." "How can I get more detailed information on model technical features? You can rely on the user`s guides to get the information needed to have a good understanding of MM5 and CAMx. Are there any reference materials that describe various developments and applications of MM5 and CAMx? Yes, a selected list of publications can be found at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/ and http://www.camx.com/publ/" "Linux platform" "The 72h forecast starts around 18:00LT and finishes around 08:30LT (including pre- and post processing) on a Intel Xeon CPU (8 cores) - 2.33GHz with 4GB RAM." "The outputs for the 24h forecast for the three domains need approximately 3.5Gb disk space. " "Both MM5 and CAMx are public available models (http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/, www.camx.com). The MM5-CAMx system used for air quality forecast in Europe, in the Balkans and in Athens is not public available. The availability of the system can be discussed with the contact persons." "R.E. Morris, S. Lau, and G. Yarwood. Development and Application of an ENVIRON, 2006. User¡¯s Guide; Comprehensive Air Quality model with Extensions, version 4.40. ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, California (USA). September 2006. Available at www.camx.com. G. Yarwood, R. Morris, and G. Wilson, 2004. Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the CAMx Photochemical Model. Presented at the NATO International Technical Meeting, Banff, Canada (October 2004). R.E. Morris, S. Lau, and G. Yarwood, 2003. Development and Application of an Advanced Air Toxics Hybrid Photochemical Grid Modeling System. Presented at 96th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the A&WMA, San Diego, California (June 2003). R.E. Morris, G. Yarwood, C.A. Emery, and G. Wilson, 2002. Recent Advances in Photochemical Air Quality Modeling Using the CAMx Model: Current Update and Ozone Modeling of Point Source Impacts. Presented at the 95th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the A&WMA, Baltimore, MD (June 2002). A.M. Dunker, G. Yarwood, J.P. Ortmann, and G.M. Wilson, 2002. The Decoupled Direct Method for Sensitivity Analysis in a Three-Dimensional Air Quality Model ¡ª Implementation, Accuracy, and Efficiency, Environmental Science and Technology, 2002 (36). " "Kioutsioukis, I., Poupkou, A., Katragkou, E., Giannaros, T., Markakis, K. Balis, D., Melas, D. and Zerefos, C., 2010. Performance evaluation of the MM5/CAMX system for Europe (2003). 10th International Conference on Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics, 25-28 May 2010, Patra, Greece, pp. 925-930. Markakis, K., Poupkou, A., Melas, D. and Zerefos, C., 2010a. A GIS based anthropogenic PM10 emission inventory for Greece, Atmospheric Pollution Research, 1, pp. 71©81. Markakis, K., Poupkou, A., Melas, D., Tzoumaka, P. and Petrakakis, M., 2010b. A computational approach based on GIS technology for the development of an anthropogenic emission inventory of gaseous pollutants in Greece, Water, Air &Soil Pollution, 207, pp.157¨C180. Huijnen, V., Eskes, H., Poupkou, A., Elbern, H., Boersma, K. F., Foret, G., Sofiev, M., Valdebenito, A., Flemming, J., Stein, O., Gross, A., Robertson, L., D¡¯Isidoro, M., Kioutsioukis, I., Friese, E., Amstrup, B., Bergstrom, R., Strunk, A., Vira, J., Zyryanov, D., Maurizi, A., Melas, D., Peuch, V.-H. and Zerefos, C., 2010. Comparison of OMI NO2 tropospheric columns with an ensemble of global and European regional air quality models, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, pp. 3273¨C3296. Poupkou, A., Giannaros, T., Markakis, K. Kioutsioukis, I., Curci, G., Melas, D., and Zerefos, C., 2010. A model for European biogenic volatile organic compound emissions: Software development and first validation, Environmental Modelling and Software, 25, pp. 1845-1856. Kioutsioukis, I., Poupkou, A., Katragkou, E., Giannaros, T., Markakis, K., Balis, D., Melas D. and Zerefos, C., 2009. An evaluation of the MM5/CAMx system for Europe, ESA Atmospheric Science Conference, 7-11 September 2009, Barcelona, Spain (published in the electronic conference proceedings). Zyrichidou, I., Koukouli, M. E., Balis, D. S., Katragkou, E., Poupkou, A., Kioutsioukis, I., Markakis, K., Melas, D., van der A, R., Boersma, F. K. and van Roozendael, M., 2009. Comparison of satellite NO2 observations with high resolution model simulations over the Balkan Peninsula, 7th General Conference of the Balkan Physical Union, 9-13 September 2009, Alexandroupolis, Greece, American Institute of Physics Conference proceedings volume 1203, published December 2009, ISBN 978-0-7354-0740-4, doi:10.1063/1.3322525, Issue Date: 21 January 2010, pp. 632-637. Poupkou, A., Kioutsioukis, I., Lisaridis, I., Markakis, K., Giannaros, T., Katragkou, E., Melas, D., Zerefos, C. and Viras, L.. 2008. Evaluation in the Greater Athens Area of an air quality forecast system. In the proceedings of the IX EMTE National-International Conference of Meteorology-Climatology and Atmospheric Physics (28-31 May 2008, Thessaloniki, Greece), pp 759-766. Katragkou, E., Kioutsioukis, I., Poupkou, A., Lisaridis, I., Markakis, K., Karathanasis, S., Melas, D. and Balis D., 2007. An air quality study for Greece with the MM5/CAMx modelling system. In: Electronic Proceedings of the 2007 ESA ENVISAT Symposium. 23-27 April 2007, Montreux, Switzerlnad.(http://earth.esa.int/workshops/envisatsymposium/proceedings/posters/4P18/507381ka.pdf) Symeonidis, P., Poupkou, A., Gkantou, A., Melas, D., Yay, O.D., Pouspourika, ¦¥. and Balis, D., 2007. Development of a computational system for estimating biogenic NMVOCs emissions based on GIS technology. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 1777-1789. Poupkou, A., Melas, D., Kioutsioukis, I., Lisaridis, I., Symeonidis, P. and Balis, D., 2006. Regional air quality forecasting over Greece within PROMOTE. In: Electronic Proceedings of the Atmospheric Science Conference. 8-12 May 2006, ESA ESRIN Frascati, Italy (http://earth.esa.int/cgi-bin/confatmos06.pl?abstract=151)." 3/29/2011 18:23:27 176 "CAMx-AMWFG" "George Kallos" "University of Athens, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group" "marina@mg.uoa.gr" "Climate change, Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Summer smog, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "More than 24 hours" "Workstation" "CAMx-AMWFG" "Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions" "v4.31 operational set-up with new developed features" "August 2008" "National and Kapodistrian University of Athens" "George Kallos, Marina Astitha" "National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Sciences, Faculty of Physics, Department of Environmental Physics-Meteorology, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group (AM&WFG), University Campus, Bldg PHYS-V. Post code: 15784" "0030 210 7276835" "0030 210 7276765" "kallos@mg.uoa.gr, marina@mg.uoa.gr" "http://forecast.uoa.gr" "Provided by contact person" "Advanced" "Real-time forecasting of gases and aerosols in regional scale.
    Air quality assessment.
    Scientific research." "3D Eulerian chemical transport model with newly developed features. Offline coupled with SKIRON/Dust modeling system (provides meteorological fields to CAMx-AMWFG)." "The chemical transport model CAMx-AMWFG consists of the CAMx model (www.camx.com) with new developed features coupled offline with SKIRON/Dust modeling system. Products are daily operational 48 hour O3,NO2,SO2,PSO4 forecasts for the Mediterranean Region and Europe on hourly basis.

    New developed features in CAMx-AMWFG:
    •Handling of natural pollutants like desert dust. Fluxes of desert dust from SKIRON/Dust model enrich the CAMx model, providing the capability of simulating particles originated from soil, in different size sections.
    •Handling of natural species like sea salt particles. The production of sea salt (open ocean and surf zone) is realized by the development of a sub-model inside CAMx.
    •Correction of the photolysis rates in the presence of desert dust particles. The production of ozone and particulate sulfate is influenced by the presence of particles in the atmosphere, since particulate matter can modulate the photolysis rates of the photochemical reactions.
    •A sub-model has been developed inside the CAMx that calculates the uptake of sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid onto dust particles and the production of 3rd generation species, namely sulfates and nitrates. " "CAMx-AMWFG can be applied effectively in scales ranging from sub-urban to continental." "1hour. Forecast duration=48hrs." "0.24x0.24 degrees" "22 layers (up to 8km)" "Eulerian continuity equation closed by K-theory " "Horizontal diffusion based on Smagorinsky approach.
    Vertical diffusion coefficients supplied via input file (from the meteorological model)." "DRY: separate resistance models for gases and aerosols (Numerical model: deposition velocity as surface boundary condition for vertical diffusion).
    WET: separate scavenging models for gases and aerosols (Numerical model: uptake as a function of rainfall rate, cloud water content, gas solubility and diffusivity, PM size)." "Gas phase chemistry: Carbon Bond (CB-IV).
    Aerosol chemistry: RADM aqueous chemistry scheme, ISORROPIA gas/aerosol partitioning scheme, SOAP scheme for SOA formation, both Coarse/Fine scheme and Multi sectional approach. " "Horizontal advection: Bott.
    Vertical advection and diffusion: implicit scheme.
    Gas phase chemistry: CMC (ENVIRON) solver.
    Master timestep is internally computed in order to ensure stability of the advection scheme.
    Multiple timesteps per transport timestep are used for gas chemistry.
    Coordinate system: Lat/Lon, Arakawa C grid configuration.
    Vertical level structure supplied via input file.
    Two way nesting allowed." "
    Meteorological fields are provided by the SKIRON/Dust modeling system, which is based on the ETA/NCEP limited area atmospheric model, a model with international validity and recognition.
    The emission data are provided by research institutes where the methods and the models used have proved the international validity and recognition (TNO, EMEP, GEIA). " "The model uses anthropogenic emissions from TNO for Europe, EMEP shipping emissions and GEIA database to cover the large domain. Area gridded emissions are provided from the above databases for NOx, SOx, CO, NMVOC, Isoprene, NH3.
    Point sources are also included in the model for the gridded domain. " "Meteorological fields are provided by SKIRON/Dust modeling system. 3D gridded fields of horizontal wind components, temperature, pressure, water vapor, vertical diffusivity, cloud optical depth, precipitation water content. " "Land use cover in gridded format is taken from USGS (30'x30') with the application of rams2camx interface in order to produce 11 landuse categories for CAMx.
    Terrain height is also taken from the same source." "Initial conditions for all species in 3D are used from the results of the previous model run. " "Boundary conditions used for the simulation are constant mean values for each species." "Not available." "-Top concentration file (constant over the domain).
    -Albedo/Haze/Ozone look-up table (uses TOMS ozone column data).
    -Photolysis rates look-up table.
    -Namelist control file " "Hourly average concentration and deposition of all species. The 48h forecast in the website provides hourly average concentration of O3, NO2, SO2 and PSO4 (fine particulate sulfate) every 3h.
    Additionally CAMx-AMWFG can provide concentration and deposition for sodium and chloride (from sea salt production) and for new-types of aerosols: DSO4 (sulfate produced on dust), DNO3 (nitrate produced on dust)." "Linux shell scripts, Intel Fortran using OpenMP. NCAR graphics." "The model can be used properly by a highly skilled person." "Urban" "
    Project Title: Project PENED2003-Program for the Support of Researchers for training young researchers, funded by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the framework of the Operational Program Competitiveness. Title of research: Characteristic scales of transport and transformation of air pollutants Impacts on climate. 2004-2007.
    Relevant references: a)M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, I. Pytharoulis and N. Mihalopoulos, 2006: Radiative effects of natural PMs on photochemical processes in the Mediterranean Region. 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, May 2006, Leipzig, Germany, Oral Presentation-Proceedings, pp. 548-559, Elsevier pub. (Ed.: C. Borrego and E. Renner), ISBN: 978-0-444-52987-9. b) George Kallos and Marina Astitha, 2007: Modeling of heterogeneous chemical processes in CAMx air quality model. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007, Vienna, Austria, 15 20 April 2007. c) M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, and E. Mavromatidis, 2007: Heterogeneous chemical processes and their role on particulate matter formation in the Mediterranean Region. 29th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, September 2007, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Short description of the project: The main focus of this work has been on the production, transformation and transport processes of atmospheric pollutants with the aid of advanced modeling tools and observations. The modeling tools have been revised accordingly by the development and improvement of several physico-chemical mechanisms. Another target has been the improvement of the integration between atmospheric modeling systems and the implementation of the above in the Euro-Mediterranean Region. This region is considered a key-sensitive area due to the coexistence of pollutants from different origins, anthropogenic and natural.
    Model performance: The results from the model performance are included in the PhD dissertation (Dr M. Astitha, in Greek), in the references provided above and in upcoming publications: M. Astitha and G. Kallos, 2008, Gas-phase and aerosol chemistry interactions in South Europe and the Mediterranean Region. Environmental Fluid Mechanics (minor revisions)." "Regional" "
    Project Title: Project PENED2003-Program for the Support of Researchers for training young researchers, funded by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the framework of the Operational Program Competitiveness. Title of research: Characteristic scales of transport and transformation of air pollutants Impacts on climate. 2004-2007.
    Relevant references: a)M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, I. Pytharoulis and N. Mihalopoulos, 2006: Radiative effects of natural PMs on photochemical processes in the Mediterranean Region. 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, May 2006, Leipzig, Germany, Oral Presentation-Proceedings, pp. 548-559, Elsevier pub. (Ed.: C. Borrego and E. Renner), ISBN: 978-0-444-52987-9. b) George Kallos and Marina Astitha, 2007: Modeling of heterogeneous chemical processes in CAMx air quality model. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007, Vienna, Austria, 15 20 April 2007. c) M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, and E. Mavromatidis, 2007: Heterogeneous chemical processes and their role on particulate matter formation in the Mediterranean Region. 29th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, September 2007, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Short description of the project: The main focus of this work has been on the production, transformation and transport processes of atmospheric pollutants with the aid of advanced modeling tools and observations. The modeling tools have been revised accordingly by the development and improvement of several physico-chemical mechanisms. Another target has been the improvement of the integration between atmospheric modeling systems and the implementation of the above in the Euro-Mediterranean Region. This region is considered a key-sensitive area due to the coexistence of pollutants from different origins, anthropogenic and natural.
    Model performance: The results from the model performance are included in the PhD dissertation (Dr M. Astitha, in Greek), in the references provided above and in upcoming publications: M. Astitha and G. Kallos, 2008, Gas-phase and aerosol chemistry interactions in South Europe and the Mediterranean Region. Environmental Fluid Mechanics (minor revisions)." "Regional" "
    Project Title: Project PENED2003-Program for the Support of Researchers for training young researchers, funded by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the framework of the Operational Program Competitiveness. Title of research: Characteristic scales of transport and transformation of air pollutants Impacts on climate. 2004-2007.
    Relevant references: a)M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, I. Pytharoulis and N. Mihalopoulos, 2006: Radiative effects of natural PMs on photochemical processes in the Mediterranean Region. 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, May 2006, Leipzig, Germany, Oral Presentation-Proceedings, pp. 548-559, Elsevier pub. (Ed.: C. Borrego and E. Renner), ISBN: 978-0-444-52987-9. b) George Kallos and Marina Astitha, 2007: Modeling of heterogeneous chemical processes in CAMx air quality model. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007, Vienna, Austria, 15 20 April 2007. c) M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, and E. Mavromatidis, 2007: Heterogeneous chemical processes and their role on particulate matter formation in the Mediterranean Region. 29th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, September 2007, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Short description of the project: The main focus of this work has been on the production, transformation and transport processes of atmospheric pollutants with the aid of advanced modeling tools and observations. The modeling tools have been revised accordingly by the development and improvement of several physico-chemical mechanisms. Another target has been the improvement of the integration between atmospheric modeling systems and the implementation of the above in the Euro-Mediterranean Region. This region is considered a key-sensitive area due to the coexistence of pollutants from different origins, anthropogenic and natural.
    Model performance: The results from the model performance are included in the PhD dissertation (Dr M. Astitha, in Greek), in the references provided above and in upcoming publications: M. Astitha and G. Kallos, 2008, Gas-phase and aerosol chemistry interactions in South Europe and the Mediterranean Region. Environmental Fluid Mechanics (minor revisions)." "Level 1: Complete documentations available, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals with details on the machine code." "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data. The evaluation of the model performance on the known gas and aerosol species like ozone, NOx, sulfates, nitrates etc, has been included in several publications worldwide (www.camx.com). The application of CAMx-AMWFG with the new features (heterogeneous production of aerosols on dust particles) in the Mediterranean Region and Europe faces the limited amount of available specified measurements concerning the 3rd generation species. " "The model intercomparison has been done against in-situ measurements for the species concentration and against AERONET data for the dust optical depth used for the calculation of the photolysis rates. The results of the intercomparison are provided by the following publications:
    M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, I. Pytharoulis and N. Mihalopoulos, 2006: Radiative effects of natural PMs on photochemical processes in the Mediterranean Region. 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, May 2006, Leipzig, Germany, Oral Presentation-Proceedings, pp. 548-559, Elsevier pub. (Ed.: C. Borrego and E. Renner), ISBN: 978-0-444-52987-9.
    M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, and E. Mavromatidis, 2007: Heterogeneous chemical processes and their role on particulate matter formation in the Mediterranean Region. 29th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, September 2007, Aveiro, Portugal.
    M. Astitha and G. Kallos, 2008, Gas-phase and aerosol chemistry interactions in South Europe and the Mediterranean Region. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, DOI: 10.1007/s10652-008-9110-7." "Q: How can I get more detailed information on model technical features? A: You can rely on the Users Guide (http://www.camx.com) to provide the information needed to have a good understanding of CAMx. Q: Are there any reference materials that describe various developments and applications of CAMx? A: Yes, a selected list of publications can be found at http://www.camx.com/publ/. Q: Can I get the real-time regional forecast of ozone, NO2, SO2 and sulfates for the Mediterranean Region? A: The air quality forecast products are available at our website (http://forecast.uoa.gr/camxindx.php) daily. If someone needs more data than the displayed ones, should direct any request to the contact person. " "Linux platform" "3,5 hours for a 48h forecast including pre- and post processing stages." "The outputs from the 48h forecast need approximately 2Gb disk space." "CAMx v4.31 is open source code available from www.camx.com.
    CAMx-AMWFG (with the new features) availability should be discussed with the contact person." "ENVIRON 2006. Users Guide; Comprehensive Air Quality model with Extensions, version 4.40. ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, California (USA). September 2006. Available at www.camx.com. M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, I. Pytharoulis and N. Mihalopoulos, 2006: Radiative effects of natural PMs on photochemical processes in the Mediterranean Region. 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, May 2006, Leipzig, Germany, Oral Presentation-Proceedings, pp. 548-559, Elsevier pub. (Ed.: C. Borrego and E. Renner), ISBN: 978-0-444-52987-9. George Kallos and Marina Astitha, 2007: Modeling of heterogeneous chemical processes in CAMx air quality model. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007, Vienna, Austria, 15 20 April 2007. M. Astitha, G. Kallos, P. Katsafados, and E. Mavromatidis, 2007: Heterogeneous chemical processes and their role on particulate matter formation in the Mediterranean Region. 29th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, September 2007, Aveiro, Portugal. M. Astitha and G. Kallos, 2008: Gas-phase and aerosol chemistry interactions in South Europe and the Mediterranean Region. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, DOI: 10.1007/s10652-008-9110-7. " "Marina Astitha, George Kallos and Petros Katsafados, 2008: Air Pollution Modeling in the Mediterranean Region: From Analysis of Episodes to Forecasting. Atmospheric Research, 89 (2008) 358364. Kallos G., Astitha M., Gofa F., OConnor M., Mihalopoulos N., Zlatev Z., 2004: Transport and Deposition Patterns of Ozone and Aerosols in the Mediterranean Region. 27th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications, October 2004, Banff, Canada, Oral Presentation-Proceedings, pp. 187-196, Springer pub. (Edit: C. Borrego and A. Norman), ISBN: 987-0-387-28255-8. G. Kallos, M. Astitha and P. Katsafados, 2005: Long-Range Transport of Anthropogenically and Naturally Produced PM in the Mediterranean and North Atlantic: Present Status of Knowledge. NOAA/EPA Golden Jubilee Symposium on Air Quality Modeling and Its Applications, 2021 September 2005, Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Durham, North Carolina. M. Astitha and G. Kallos, 2007: Gas-phase and aerosol chemistry interactions in South Europe and the Mediterranean Region. 6th Annual CMAS Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 1-3, 2007. Marina Astitha and George Kallos, 2008: Modelling the interactions between particulate matter and gases in the Euro-Mediterranean Region. European Geosciences Union Assembly 2008, Vienna, Austria, 13-18 April 2008. " 3/29/2011 18:23:28 175 "SKIRON/Dust" "George Kallos" "University of Athens, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group" "marina@mg.uoa.gr" "Climate change, Eutrophication, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)" "Non-reactive primary pollutants" "Eulerian models" "More than 24 hours" "Workstation" "SKIRON/Dust" "SKIRON/Dust" "Continuous development and updates" "June 2008" "National and Kapodistrian University of Athens" "George Kallos" "National and Kapodistrian University of Athens,
    School of Sciences, Faculty of Physics,
    Department of Environmental Physics-Meteorology,
    Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group (AM&WFG),
    University Campus, Bldg PHYS-V. Post code: 15784" "+30 210 7276835" "+30 210 7276765" "kallos@mg.uoa.gr" "http://forecast.uoa.gr" "Provided by contact person." "Advanced" "Real time forecasting of natural atmospheric pollutants like desert dust.
    Scientific research
    Policy support" "3D, nonhydrostatic meteorological model with online desert dust cycle prediction capability." "The SKIRON/Dust system is based on the Eta/NCEP limited area atmospheric model developed at the University of Athens, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group - UOA/AM&WFG, Kallos et al, (1997). The system consists of two major parts: the modified Eta/NCEP atmospheric model and the dust cycle modules. The Eta model is well-documented and detailed descriptions of its dynamics and physics components can be found in several studies (e.g., Mesinger et al., 1988; Janjic, 1994, and references therein). The modifications and improvements incorporated in the atmospheric model are these suggested by the SKIRON and POSEIDON projects, especially in the parameterizations of the atmospheric radiation and surface processes (Kallos et al., 1997; Papadopoulos et al., 1997, 2002).

    The dust modules were developed and tested also at the UOA/AM&WFG, in the framework of the MEDUSE project (Kallos et al., 1997, Nickovic et al., 1997). The integrated system has been further developed in the framework of ADIOS project and the current model version incorporates state-of-the-art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust lifecycle such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal, including as well the effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion and deposition. In this version of the model, eight size bins were considered with diameters ranging from 0.1-10 μm following a log-normal distribution (Zender et al. 2003). A detailed description of the dust cycle module at its first version is given in the work of Nickovic et al. (2001). The system has been evaluated by utilizing various types of observations for specific episodes as well as for longer periods. Evaluation of the system has performed over the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean (Kallos et al., 2006), the Iberian Peninsula by Rodriguez et al. (2001) and Escudero (2006). Older versions of the system were used to perform studies of historical dust-storm events (Kubilay et al., 2000; Tsidulko et al., 2002). " "Prediction/Forecast of desert dust concentration, load and deposition in several sizes in regional scale." "1hour. Forecast duration=5 days" "0.24 x 0.24 degrees" "38 vertical levels from the surface up to 22km " "Horizontal: The Eta/NCEP model scheme for advection of a passive substance (Janjic 1997).
    Vertical: The scheme of Van Leer (1977)." "A 2nd order diffusion scheme is used for lateral diffusion by utilizing the Smagorinsky-type horizontal diffusion coefficient modified by the presence of the model turbulent kinetic energy term (Janjic 1990)." "DRY: Surface deposition of particles occurs via diffusion, impaction, and/or gravitational settling using the resistance approach of Slinn and Slinn (1980).
    WET: Wet deposition of particles occur above and below the cloud as described by Seinfeld and Pandis (1998)." "No chemistry" "Coordinate system: Eta step mountain vertical coordinate system, Arakawa E grid configuration.
    Timestep: 90sec
    The Eta/NCEP model scheme for advection of a passive substance (Janjic 1997) is used for horizontal advection of dust concentration. The vertical advection of concentration is simulated using the scheme of Van Leer (1977) which avoids the production of negative values of positive quantities. A 2nd order diffusion scheme is used for lateral diffusion by utilizing the Smagorinsky-type horizontal diffusion coefficient modified by the presence of the model turbulent kinetic energy term (Janjic 1990). During the model run, the prognostic atmospheric and hydrological conditions are used in order to calculate the effective rates of the injected dust concentration based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion and soil moisture. The viscous sublayer scheme of the atmospheric model (Janjic 1994) is applied for the calculation of surface vertical flux of dust and the corresponding dust concentration. The method of Zilitinkevitch et al. (1998) is used for the calculation of vertical fluxes of dust in the grid-points with shear-free convection. Contrary to traditional approaches (e.g. Monin-Obukhov) this method allows upward vertical transport of dust even in the absence of surface wind shear, such as in cases of overheated desert surfaces." "Information not available. For more details, please refer directly to the contact person." "Vertical fluxes of emitted dust particles are calculated during the model run based on the soil type and the meteorological conditions (turbulent state of the atmosphere near the surface)." "The SKIRON/Dust system utilizes SST fields from NCEP with a resolution of 0.5 degrees, and meteological fields from NCEP." "USGS data (30x30) for vegetation and topography. Soil type categorization by ZOBLER and FAO/UNESCO (1x1)." "Initial and boundary conditions are taken from NCEP (0.5x0.5deg) at 26 isobaric levels. " "Initial and boundary conditions are taken from NCEP (0.5x0.5deg) at 26 isobaric levels. " "Use of LAPS data assimilation tool." "Snow cover and snow depth are taken from NCEP (0.5x0.5 deg).
    Namelist control file.
    Postprocessing stage: Graphics are produced with NCAR. " "Dust concentration, Dust load, Dust deposition (wet and dry), Aerosol optical depth, Mean sea level pressure and precipitation, wind field, temperature and geopotential height at 500hPa, 700hPa, 850hPa. The above output quantities are provided for 2 gridded domains: one for the Mediterranean Region-Europe and one extended to the North Atlantic Region." "Linux shell scipts, Intel Fortran using MPI parallel processing. NCAR graphics." "The model can be used properly by a highly skilled person." "Regional" "
    Project Title: MEDUSE (Mediterranean Dust transport and deposition in the Mediterranean). Supported by the DG-XII of the EU (ENV4-CT95-0036). 1996-1998.
    Relevant references: a)Kallos G., S. Nickovic, D. Jovic, A. Papadopoulos, O. Kakaliagou, 1997: 1st Intermediate Progress Report for the project MEDUSE. Prepared for the DG-XII of EU (Pp 16). b)Κallos, G., S. Nickovic, A. Papadopoulos and O. Kakaliagou, 1998: Mediterranean Dust transport and deposition in the Mediterranean (MEDUSE). Final Report prepared for the DG-XII of EU.
    Short description of the project: The main objective of the MEDUSE project has been the monitoring and prediction of the atmospheric transport and deposition of desert dust in the Mediterranean Region. At the framework of MEDUSE project the desert dust cycle module in SKIRON/Dust model has been further developed and tested in operational and forecasting mode.
    For the model performance see the following reference: Nickovic, S., G.Kallos, A. Papadopoulos and O. Kakaliagou, 2001: A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere. J. Geophysical Res., Vol. 106, D16, 18113-18129." "Regional" "
    Project Title: MEDUSE (Mediterranean Dust transport and deposition in the Mediterranean). Supported by the DG-XII of the EU (ENV4-CT95-0036). 1996-1998.
    Relevant references: a)Kallos G., S. Nickovic, D. Jovic, A. Papadopoulos, O. Kakaliagou, 1997: 1st Intermediate Progress Report for the project MEDUSE. Prepared for the DG-XII of EU (Pp 16). b)Κallos, G., S. Nickovic, A. Papadopoulos and O. Kakaliagou, 1998: Mediterranean Dust transport and deposition in the Mediterranean (MEDUSE). Final Report prepared for the DG-XII of EU.
    Short description of the project: The main objective of the MEDUSE project has been the monitoring and prediction of the atmospheric transport and deposition of desert dust in the Mediterranean Region. At the framework of MEDUSE project the desert dust cycle module in SKIRON/Dust model has been further developed and tested in operational and forecasting mode.
    For the model performance see the following reference: Nickovic, S., G.Kallos, A. Papadopoulos and O. Kakaliagou, 2001: A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere. J. Geophysical Res., Vol. 106, D16, 18113-18129." "Urban" "
    Project Title: MEDUSE (Mediterranean Dust transport and deposition in the Mediterranean). Supported by the DG-XII of the EU (ENV4-CT95-0036). 1996-1998.
    Relevant references: a)Kallos G., S. Nickovic, D. Jovic, A. Papadopoulos, O. Kakaliagou, 1997: 1st Intermediate Progress Report for the project MEDUSE. Prepared for the DG-XII of EU (Pp 16). b)Κallos, G., S. Nickovic, A. Papadopoulos and O. Kakaliagou, 1998: Mediterranean Dust transport and deposition in the Mediterranean (MEDUSE). Final Report prepared for the DG-XII of EU.
    Short description of the project: The main objective of the MEDUSE project has been the monitoring and prediction of the atmospheric transport and deposition of desert dust in the Mediterranean Region. At the framework of MEDUSE project the desert dust cycle module in SKIRON/Dust model has been further developed and tested in operational and forecasting mode.
    For the model performance see the following reference: Nickovic, S., G.Kallos, A. Papadopoulos and O. Kakaliagou, 2001: A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere. J. Geophysical Res., Vol. 106, D16, 18113-18129." "Level 2: Rather good scientific documentation and less complete users manuals." "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data.
    Validation and evaluation of the model SKIRON/Dust have been performed from AM&WFG during several projects (SKIRON, MEDUSE and ADIOS) and the results are shown in several publications (stated in the references in the last section). Also, the modeling system has been used by other Universities and Institutes world-wide (more details in the models web page)." "Model intercomparison has been performed against measurements and observations. The observations consist of: in-situ measurements of dust and PM concentration, remote measurements of aerosol optical depth from satellites or radars. More information on the model intercomparison is available at the references given below as well as in project reports (contact person). " "Q: How can I get more detailed information on model technical features? A: You should contact the group (AM&WFG, contact person) for more detailed information on the applicability of the SKIRON/Dust modeling system." "Linux platform, MPI parallel processing." "Approximately 4hours for a 5day forecast, including pre- and post processing stages. " "The outputs from the 48h forecast need approximately 6Gb disk space." "Information on the availability can be provided by the contact person." "Kallos, G., S. Nickovic, D. Jovic, O. Kakaliagou, A. Papadopoulos, N. Misirlis, L. Boukas, N. Mimikou, G. Sakellaridis, J. Papageorgiou, E. Anadranistakis, M. Manousakis, 1997: The Regional Weather Forecasting System SKIRON and its capability for forecasting dust uptake and transport. Proc. Of the WMO conference on dust storms, 1-6 November 1997, Damascus, Syria, pp 9. Nickovic, S., G.Kallos, A. Papadopoulos and O. Kakaliagou, 2001: A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere. J. Geophysical Res., Vol. 106, D16, 18113-18129. Kallos, G., A. Papadopoulos, P. Katsafados, and S. Nickovic, 2005: Trans-Atlantic Saharan dust transport: Model simulation and results. J. Geophysical Research, 111, D09204, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006207. Kallos, G., Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados Chris Spyrou and Elias Mavromatidis, 2007: SAHARAN DUST TRANSPORT AND ITS IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND REGIONAL CLIMATE. XXIV 2007 IUGG Inetrnational Association of Meteorology and Atmosphoreic Sciences IAMAS Conference. Session on Mineral dust cycle and its impact on clouds and radiation, 2-13 July 2007, Perugia, Italy. Kallos G., C. Spyrou, M. Astitha, C. Mitsakou, S. Solomos, J. Kushta, I. Pytharoulis, P. Katsafados, E. Mavromatidis, N. Papantoniou. Ten-year operational dust forecasting - Recent model development and future plans. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 7 (2009) 012012, doi:10.1088/1755-1307/7/1/012012." "Kallos, G., M. Astitha, P. Katsafados and C. Spyrou, 2007: Long-Range Transport of Anthropogenically and Naturally Produced particulate matter in the Mediterranean and North Atlantic: Current State of Knowledge. J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 46, (8): 1230-1251. Astitha, M., G. Kallos and P. Katsafados, 2008: Air Pollution Modeling in the Mediterranean Region: From Analysis of Episodes to Forecasting. Atmospheric Research, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.03.006. Kallos, G., 2007, Evaluation of Long Range Transport contributions on air quality degaradation. Workshop on the Evaluation of Regional-Scale Air Quality Modeling Systems in Research Triangle Park, NC, August 7-8, 2007. G. Kallos, C. Spyrou, M. Astitha, C. Mitsakou, S. Solomos, J. Kushta, I. Pytharoulis, P. Katsafados, E. Mavromatidis, N. Papantoniou , 2007: Ten-year Operational dust forecasting - Recent Model Development and Future Plans. WMO/GEO Expert Meeting, 7-9 November 2007, Barcelona, Spain. G. Kallos, C. Spyrou, N.Papantoniou, C. Mitsakou, M. Astitha, S. Solomos and P. Katsafados, 2007: Analysis of the Particulate Matter Exceedances in Greece. Period 2001-2004. Final Report Prepared for the Ministry of Environment City Planning and Public Work, June 2007." 3/29/2011 18:23:30 174 "NAME" "Met Office - Atmospheric Dispersion Group" "www.metoffice.gov.uk" "hadley@metoffice.gov.uk" "FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB" "Climate change, Tropospheric ozone, Air toxics, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km), Global (hemispheric to global scale)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10, Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active, Pollutants which take part in intermediate transfer processes (dissolution, absorption, gravitational setting, precipitation affect, deposition, decay etc.)" "Plume-rise models, Lagrangian models, Chemical models, Stochastic models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation" "NAME" "NAME" "NAME III version 5.4 - operational" "November 2009" "Met Office" "Matthew Hort" "Matthew Hort
    Atmospheric Dispersion Group
    Met Office
    Exeter
    EX1 3PB
    UK" "+44-1392-886242" "matthew.hort@metoffice.gov.uk" "See contact person" "Advanced" "Pollutant dispersion for emergency response
    Air quality forecasting" "Lagrangian - 3D" "NAME is a sophisticated off-line Lagrangian dispersion model. It uses 3D meteorology from the Met Office Unified Model (this is a non-hydrostatic grid-point weather forecast and climate model)." "- As an off-line model the temporal resolution of the met data supplied (usually one or three hourly) is a limitation. - Computational constraints limit the number of Lagrangian particles which can be followed during an air quality simulation. This is a limiting factor in the case of widely dispersed secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary particulates. " "Continuously variable " "NAME itself has no intrinsic resolution since it is a Lagrangian model. The meteorology provided by the Met Office Unified Model runs is available at 40km resolution (global model) and 12km (in a European limited area configuration). The operational air quality model currently outputs chemical concentrations on an 8km resolution grid." "Continuously variable " "Model particles are advected by the resolved flow. Convection by unresolved (i.e. parametrized) convective clouds is treated by reassigning particle positions in the vertical." "Modelled using a random walk or Lagrangian stochastic model. Parameterised profiles of turbulence parameters such as velocity variances and Lagrangian time scales are employed. Normally a Gaussian scheme is used. However for convective conditions a skewed turbulence scheme is available." "Wet and dry deposition both modelled. Dry scheme uses a resistance analogy approach and sedimentation of heavy particles is also included. Wet scheme is based on parameterised scavenging coefficients and differs according to precipitation type (convective, dynamic)." "40 advected tracers + 18 non-advected
    140 reactions + 23 photolytic reactions
    16 emitted species
    Gaseous and aqueous phase chemistry " "Random walk equations of motion for Lagrangian dynamics. Backward Euler solver for chemistry." "NAME uses meteorology from the Met Office Unified Model. This is a well validated weather forecast model used operationally in the UK. Data is available for research purposes." "UK National Emissions Inventory and EMEP" "Met Office Unified Model" "Ancillary file compatible with resolution of met data." "Model spins up from user specified emissions" "Supplied by a low resolution model run over western Europe. Boundary conditions for this low resolution run are derived from global background measurements at the Mace Head observing site." "None" "None" "A wide range of output options can be specified, including concentrations in a cell at a given time, integrated columns, accumulated dose etc. etc." "Simple text file" "UK Met Office
    Universities
    UK government and defence organisations" "Global" "The NAME model has been used to conduct case studies of significant episodes of pollutant/disease dispersion.

    Foot and Mouth Disease: The model is used both in emergency response mode, providing short-term forecasts to advise veterinary services, and to conduct post-event case studies.

    Gloster J., Champion H.J., Sørensen J.H., Mikkelsen T., Ryall D.B., Astrup P., Alexandersen S. and Donaldson A.I., Airborne transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland during the 2001 epidemic in the United Kingdom, The Veterinary Record 152, 525-533, 2003.

    Biomass burning: These events can significantly increase PM10 levels in the UK. NAME has been used to model the dispersion of combustion products and their transport to the UK.

    Witham C. and Manning A., Impacts of Russian biomass burning on UK air quality, Atmospheric Environment 41(37), 8075-8090, 2007." "Episodes" "The NAME model has been used to conduct case studies of significant episodes of pollutant/disease dispersion.

    Foot and Mouth Disease: The model is used both in emergency response mode, providing short-term forecasts to advise veterinary services, and to conduct post-event case studies.

    Gloster J., Champion H.J., Sørensen J.H., Mikkelsen T., Ryall D.B., Astrup P., Alexandersen S. and Donaldson A.I., Airborne transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland during the 2001 epidemic in the United Kingdom, The Veterinary Record 152, 525-533, 2003.

    Biomass burning: These events can significantly increase PM10 levels in the UK. NAME has been used to model the dispersion of combustion products and their transport to the UK.

    Witham C. and Manning A., Impacts of Russian biomass burning on UK air quality, Atmospheric Environment 41(37), 8075-8090, 2007." "Extreme events" "The NAME model has been used to conduct case studies of significant episodes of pollutant/disease dispersion.

    Foot and Mouth Disease: The model is used both in emergency response mode, providing short-term forecasts to advise veterinary services, and to conduct post-event case studies.

    Gloster J., Champion H.J., Sørensen J.H., Mikkelsen T., Ryall D.B., Astrup P., Alexandersen S. and Donaldson A.I., Airborne transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland during the 2001 epidemic in the United Kingdom, The Veterinary Record 152, 525-533, 2003.

    Biomass burning: These events can significantly increase PM10 levels in the UK. NAME has been used to model the dispersion of combustion products and their transport to the UK.

    Witham C. and Manning A., Impacts of Russian biomass burning on UK air quality, Atmospheric Environment 41(37), 8075-8090, 2007." "Level 2/Level3 documentation. Adequate user manual in conjunction with training in the use of the model. Significant validation of model against experimental data (see references below)." "Validation against field experiments including ETEX, Kincaid. Air quality forecasts validated against UK surface obs network.
    Webster H.N. and Thomson D.J., Validation of a Lagrangian model plume rise scheme using the Kincaid data set, Atmospheric Environment 36, 5031-5042, 2002. " "Participant in EU ENSEMBLE project. ENSEMBLE is a European multi-model dispersion modelling system for regional-scale emergency-response applications (e.g. scenarios such as large-scale nuclear accidents). The system is coordinated by JRC Ispra and provides a 'poor-mans ensemble' of dispersion forecasts.

    Intercomparisons amongst European models used to simulate foot and mouth disease spread." "None" "Runs on PCs (Linux or Windows)" "Dependent on many things. However a two-day dispersion run for a single point source, using 12 km resolution meteorology, typically takes 5 minutes on a modern (2007) desktop linux machine.
    A full air quality forecast for the whole of Europe out to 3 days takes between10 and 24 hours, depending on meteorological conditions." "Data is stored on local hard disk drives and retained in an archive." "The model can be made available to research users via negotiation with the Met Office." "Ryall D.B. and Maryon R.H., Validation of the UK Met Offices NAME model against the ETEX dataset, Atmospheric Environment 32, 4265-4276, 1998. Webster H.N. and Thomson D.J., Validation of a Lagrangian model plume rise scheme using the Kincaid data set, Atmospheric Environment 36, 5031-5042, 2002. Redington A.L. and Derwent R.G., Calculation of sulphate and nitrate aerosol concentrations over Europe using a Lagrangian dispersion model, Atmospheric Environment 36, 4425-4439, 2002. Jones A.R., Atmospheric dispersion modelling at the Met Office, Weather 59, 311-316, 2004. Jones A.R., Thomson D.J., Hort M.C. and Devenish B.J., The U.K. Met Offices next-generation atmospheric dispersion model, NAME III, Air pollution modeling and its application XVII, C. Borrego and A.-L. Norman (editors), Springer, 2007." "Derwent R.G., Ryall D.B., Manning A.J., Simmonds P.G., ODoherty S., Biraud S., Ciais P., Ramonet M. and Jennings S.G., Continuous observations of carbon dioxide at Mace Head, Ireland from 1995 to 1999 and its net European ecosystem exchange, Atmospheric Environment 36, 2799-2807, 2002. Ryall D.B., Derwent R.G., Manning A.J., Simmonds P.G. and ODoherty S., Estimating source regions of European emissions of trace gases from observations at Mace Head, Atmospheric Environment 35, 2507-2523, 2001." 3/29/2011 18:23:31 173 "REM_Calgrid" "Andreas Kerschbauer" "Freie Universität Berlin - Insitute of Meteorology " "Andreas.Kerschbaumer@FU-Berlin.DE" "Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6-10, 12165 Berlin" "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Eutrophication, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Public information" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Exposure" "Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "More than 24 hours" "PC" "REM_Calgrid" "Regional Eulerian Model - California Grid Model" "Version 1.0 " "February 2008" "FU-Berlin" "Rainer Stern, Andreas Kerschbaumer, Eberhard Reimer" "Institut fuer Meteorologie
    Troposphaerische Umweltforschung
    Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6-10
    D-12165 Berlin" "+49 30 838 - 71129 (Kerschbaumer) - 72129 (Stern) - 71190 (Reimer)" "+49 30 83871128" "Andreas.Kerschbaumer@FU-Berlin.DE" "www.trumf.de" "Andreas Kerschbaumer " "Intermediate" "Modelling of pollutants (photo-oxidants, aerosols) on different scales from Europe-wide domains down to urban domains." "Eulerian, 3-D - Aerosol-Photochemistry-Transport-Model" "REM_Calgrid is an Eulerian grid model with one-way-nesting capabilities in order to simulate Aerosol- and photochemical air pollution on different scales. Europe-wide applications have typical horizontal resolution of 0.5°(lon)x0.25°(lat) (approximately 25 km), urban applications are run with a horizontal resolution of down to ca. 2km x 2km grid-sizes or even finer. The vertical configuration is a mixing-height-dependent 5 layer grid with a first layer terrain-following fixed height, 2 layers below the mixing height and 2 layers between the mixing height and a terrain-following 3000 m height. Meteorological input fields come typically from diagnostic analysis or prognostic re-analysis with the same horizontal resolution." "Simple chemistry (a slightly adapted version of CBM-IV) does not allow accurate night time simulations

    simple in-cloud and liquid-phase chemistry

    No 2-way nesting" "5 min to 20 min / output hourly" "from ca. 1 km to 25 km" "5 layers, surface layer of 25 meter, 2 layers above surface layer and mixing height and 2 reservoir layers." "Walcek, 2000. The number of steps within the advection scheme is chosen such that the Courant restriction is fulfilled." "Vertical turbulent mixing formulation uses K-diffusion. Similarity theory for stable and convective boundary layer. Diffusion coefficients based on PBL scaling regimes." "The dry deposition is parameterised following the resistance approach (Erisman et al., 1994)

    Wet deposition:

    Below cloud scavenging is simulated using simple scavenging coefficients . Partition between gas and liquid phase is simulated with Henrys law, the liquid phase is then going into the droplets.

    Particles: below-cloud simple scavenging coefficient approach with identical coefficients for all particles. In-cloud scavenging is neglected. " "Gas-phase: updated CBM-4 with Carters 1-product isoprene scheme; homogeneous and heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HNO3; aqueous phase conversion of SO2 to H2SO4 through oxidation by H2O2 and O3; equilibrium concentration for SO2, H2O2 and O3 from Henry constants and assuming progressive cloud cover for relative humidity above 80%; effective rate constants for an average pH of 5 using acid/base equilibrium and kinetic data from Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998.

    Aerosol chemistry is represented using ISORROPIA (Nenes et al., 1999) and SORGAM (Schell et al., 2001). " "For transportable species the time dependent continuity equation is solved. The equation is solved by means of operator splitting, the time step is split in two halves and concentration changes are calculated for the first half time step in the following order: chemistry, diffusion and entrainment, dry deposition, wet deposition, emission, advection. Then the second half time step the order is reversed." "Necessary input data for a typical run with RCG as topography, land-use-data, emissions and meteorology are described in Beekmann et al. (2007) (M. Beekmann, A. Kerschbaumer, E. Reimer, R. Stern, and D. Möller (2007). PM measurement campaign HOVERT in the Greater Berlin area: model evaluation with chemically specified particulate matter observations for a one year period, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 55-68.). Landuse and Topography are easily obtainable (see for example, USGS-Data-bases). Emissions on coarse grids are available at EMEP. However, dependent on specific applications these input-data have to be refined or improved, for example including local information when running the model on local scales. Meteorology has to be validated against observations." "Europe-wide emissions are provided by TNO (Visschedijk, A.J.H. and Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. (2005), TNO-Report B&O-A R 2005/106), emissions of higher resolved areas come typically from local authorities.

    Biogenic emissions are calculated on-line using land-use - vegetation information and meteorology following Simpson et al. (1999).

    Seasalt emission estimates based on Monahan et al. (1986).

    Wind-blown Dust emission estimates base on Loosmore and Hunt (2000) and on Claiborn et al. (1998)." "3D fields for wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity and density, 2-d gridded fields of mixing layer height, precipitation rates, cloud cover and several boundary layer and surface variables. The standard meteorological data are produced at the Free University of Berlin employing a diagnostic meteorological analysis system based on an optimum interpolation procedure on isentropic surfaces. The system utilizes all available synoptic surface and upper air data (Kerschbaumer, A. and Reimer, E. (2003) Preparation of Meteorological input data for the RCG-model, UBA-Rep. 299 43246, Free Univ. Berlin Inst for Meteorology (in German)).
    Meteorological Input Intercomparison
    http://aqm.jrc.it/POMI/
    " "Landuse data are taken form modified Corine-Landuse-Database (Smiatek, 1999). Tree information are taken from Köble and Seufert (2001). Biogenic emission relevant landuse-types (grassland, wetlands...) as well as wind-blown-dust-relevant landuse-tyes (sand, agriculture) are taken from the Smiatek (1999)-Database." "Values from literature - Interpolation of the boundary conditions; Ozone from Logan, J. (1998), J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16." "Coarsest Grid: Values from literature; Ozone from Logan, J. (1998), J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16. Nested applications get their boundary conditions from mother-domains." "Optimum Interpolation Scheme. Flemming, J., (2003) Doctoral Thesis, FU-Berlin (http://www.diss.fu-berlin.de/diss/receive/FUDISS_thesis_000000000934)" "Four dimensional (x-y-z-t) concentrations fields, dry and wet deposition fluxes of all active species, following the user selection. Meteorological fields of on-line calculated variables, if required." "Input ascii-file must be compiled." "Results are used by e.g. governmental or local authorities, scientists within national and international projects." "Regional" "Regional model intercomparision and European Emission Reduction scenario calculation

    Relevant references

    van Loon, M., Vautard, R., Schaap, M., Bergstrom, R., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Builtjes, P.J.H., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, K., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Jonson, J.E., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Langner, J., Roberts, P., Rouil, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., White, L., Wind, P (2007), Evaluation of long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble average, Atmospheric Environment, 41 (10), 2083-2097

    Schaap, M., Vautard, R., Bergstrom, R., van Loon, M., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, K., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Jonson, J.E., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Langner, J., Roberts, P., Rouil, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., White, L., Wind, P., Builtjes, P.J.H. (2007a), Evaluation of long term aerosol simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble in the EURODELTA study, submitted to Atmos. Environ.

    Short description

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the performance of different regional models against an identified set of observations and quantify their performance in terms of agreed quality criteria. Furthermore the emission reduction scenario calculations give insight into the ability of dispersion models to reproduce chemical nonlinearities in response to emission changes. The response to emission changes is an important output from the chemical transport models used in integrated assessment modelling for policy applications. " "Urban" "Regional model intercomparision and European Emission Reduction scenario calculation

    Relevant references

    van Loon, M., Vautard, R., Schaap, M., Bergstrom, R., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Builtjes, P.J.H., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, K., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Jonson, J.E., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Langner, J., Roberts, P., Rouil, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., White, L., Wind, P (2007), Evaluation of long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble average, Atmospheric Environment, 41 (10), 2083-2097

    Schaap, M., Vautard, R., Bergstrom, R., van Loon, M., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, K., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Jonson, J.E., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Langner, J., Roberts, P., Rouil, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., White, L., Wind, P., Builtjes, P.J.H. (2007a), Evaluation of long term aerosol simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble in the EURODELTA study, submitted to Atmos. Environ.

    Short description

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the performance of different regional models against an identified set of observations and quantify their performance in terms of agreed quality criteria. Furthermore the emission reduction scenario calculations give insight into the ability of dispersion models to reproduce chemical nonlinearities in response to emission changes. The response to emission changes is an important output from the chemical transport models used in integrated assessment modelling for policy applications. " "Episodes" "Regional model intercomparision and European Emission Reduction scenario calculation

    Relevant references

    van Loon, M., Vautard, R., Schaap, M., Bergstrom, R., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Builtjes, P.J.H., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, K., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Jonson, J.E., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Langner, J., Roberts, P., Rouil, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., White, L., Wind, P (2007), Evaluation of long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble average, Atmospheric Environment, 41 (10), 2083-2097

    Schaap, M., Vautard, R., Bergstrom, R., van Loon, M., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, K., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Jonson, J.E., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Langner, J., Roberts, P., Rouil, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., White, L., Wind, P., Builtjes, P.J.H. (2007a), Evaluation of long term aerosol simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble in the EURODELTA study, submitted to Atmos. Environ.

    Short description

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the performance of different regional models against an identified set of observations and quantify their performance in terms of agreed quality criteria. Furthermore the emission reduction scenario calculations give insight into the ability of dispersion models to reproduce chemical nonlinearities in response to emission changes. The response to emission changes is an important output from the chemical transport models used in integrated assessment modelling for policy applications. " "Level 2: Rather good scientific documentation (in German) available and less complete users manuals.

    Stern, R. (2003), Stern, R. (2004), Yamartino (2003).

    The urban-scale photochemical model CALGRID (Yamartino et al., 1992) and the regional scale model REM3 (Stern, 1994) were used as the starting point for the new urban/regional scale model, REM-CALGRID (RCG). Thus, the respective User-Manuals are still valid for many purposes (Yamartino R.J., Scire J.S., Hanna S.R., Carmichael G.R., and Chang Y.S. (1989): CALGRID: A Mesoscale Photochemical Grid Model. Volume 1: Model Formulation Document. California ARB Report, Sacramento, CA.
    Stern, R.: Entwicklung und Anwendung eines dreidimensionalen photochemischen Ausbreitungsmodells, meteorologische Abhandlungen Serie A, Band 8, Institut fuer Meteorologie der FU-Berlin,1994, in German)" "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data.

    Dedicated highly resolved PM10-measurements done in and aroud the Greater Berlin Area (EC, OC, inorganic aerosols, metals) have been used to validate RCG on different scales (25 km resolution and 4 km resolution). It has been shown that RCG reproduces well aerosol sulphate, nitrate and ammonium. Seasonalities are captured well for all PM10-components. Elemental carbon is under-estimated in urban environments and over-estimated on rural environments. The overall-PM10 concentrations are underestimated. It is believed that RCG underestimates wind-blown-dust events from agricultural activities.
    Relevant reference: M. Beekmann, A. Kerschbaumer, E. Reimer, R. Stern, and D. Möller (2007). PM measurement campaign HOVERT in the Greater Berlin area: model evaluation with chemically specified particulate matter observations for a one year period, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 55-68.

    The variability in ozone concentrations is well reproduced by the model. " "EURODELTA-CITYDELTA
    Reference: Cuvelier C., Thunis P., Vautard R., Amann M., Bessagnet B., Bedogni M., Berkowicz R., Brandt J., Brocheton F., Builtjes P., Carnavale C., Copalle A., Denby B., Douros J., Graff A., Hellmuth O., Hodzic A., Honoré C., Jonson J., Kerschbaumer A., de Leeuw F., Minguzzi E., Moussiopoulos N., Pertot C., Peuch V.H., Pirovano G., Rouil L., Sauter F., Schaap M., Stern R., Tarrason L., Vignati E., Volta M., White L., Wind P., Zuber A., 2007. CityDelta: A model intercomparison study to explore the impact of emission reductions in European cities in 2010. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, Issue 1, pp. 189-207
    van Loon, M., Vautard, R., Schaap, M., Bergstrom, R., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Builtjes, P.J.H., Christensen, J.H., Cuvelier, K., Foltescu, V., Graff, A., Jonson, J.E., Kerschbaumer, A., Krol, M., Langner, J., Roberts, P., Rouil, L., Stern, R., Tarrason, L., Thunis, P., Vignati, E., White, L., Wind, P (2007), Evaluation of long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble average, Atmospheric Environment, 41 (10), 2083-2097
    EXTREME PM EPISODE
    Stern R., Builtjes P., Schaap M., Timmermans R., Vautard R., Hodzic A., Memmesheimer M.,Feldmann H., Renner E., Wolke R.,Kerschbaumer A., 2008. A model inter-comparison study focussing on episodes with elevated PM10 concentrations. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, Issue 19, pp. 4567-4588
    Five three-dimensional chemical transport models of different complexity were applied to Central Europe to assess the ability of models to reproduce PM10 concentrations under highly polluted conditions. The participating models were the French CHIMERE model, the Dutch LOTOS-EUROS model, as well as the REM-CALGRID, the EURAD and the LMMUSCAT models from Germany. This model evaluation shows that there is an increasing underestimation of primary and secondary species with increasing observed PM10. The high PM levels were observed under stagnant weather conditions, which are difficult to simulate with either prognostic or diagnostic, interpolation-based meteorological models. Models were compared using the following statistical measures for PM10 precursors NO2 and SO2, for secondary aerosols NO3, SO4 and NH4 and for coarse and fine primary PM: BIAS, RMSE, correlation coefficient, % within +- 50%" "Can I use RCG-Simulations as Boundary conditions for my model? Yes, for example RCG - coarse grid simulations are used by CAMx at PSI, Switzerland. Please contact us. Can I use a different meteorology for the model? Yes, but there is no dedicated interface for any other met-model than for TRAMPER. " "Windows, Linux" "Depending on resolution, application. 3-5 CPU day on a PC for 1 year simulation." "A typical application with 92 (longitude) x 132 (latitude) grid-cells and with hourly concentrations on the first vertical layer for 44 species occupies 16 Gbyte. 512 Mbyte RAM are sufficient for the simulations." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining the model can be provided by the contact person." "Stern, R. (2003), Entwicklung und Anwendung des chemischen Transportmodells REM/CALGRID. Abschlussbericht zum Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben 298 41 252 des Umweltbundesamts „Modellierung und Prüfung von Strategien zur Verminderung der Belastung durch Ozon (in German). Stern, R. (2004), Weitere Entwicklung und Anwendung des chemischen Transport­mo­dells REM-CALGRID für die bundeseinheitliche Umsetzung der EU-Rahmen­richt­linie Luftqualität und ihrer Toch­terrichtlinien. Abschlussbericht zum FuE-Vorhaben 201 43 250 des Umweltbundesamts „Anwendung modellge­stützter Beurteilungssyteme für die bundeseinheitliche Umsetzung der EU-Rahmenrichtlinie Luftqualität und ihrer Tochter­richtlinien (in German). Yamartino, R. (2003), Refined 3-d Transport and Horizontal Diffusion for the REM/CALGRID Air Quality Model. Abschlussbericht zum Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben 298 41 252 des Umweltbundesamts „Modellierung und Prüfung von Strategien zur Verminderung der Belastung durch Ozon. " "Walcek, C.J. (2000), Minor flux adjustment near mixing ratio extremes for simplified yet highly accurate monotonic calculation of tracer advection, J. Geophy. Res., Vol. 105, D7, pp.9335-9348. Erisman, J.W., van Pul, A., Wyers, P. (1994), Parametrization of surface resistance for the quantification of atmospheric deposition of acidifying pollutants and ozone, Atmos. Environ., Vol. 28, 2595-2607. Nenes, A., Pilinis, C., and Pandis, S. N. (1999), Continued Development and Testing of a New Thermodynamic Aerosol Module for Urban and Regional Air Quality Models, Atmos. Env., Vol. 33 , pp.1553-1560. Schell, B., Ackermann, I.J., Hass, H., Binkowski, F.S., Ebel, A. (2001), Modelling the formation of secondary organic aerosol within a comprehensive air quality modelling system, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 106, pp.28275 - 28293. Smiatek, G. (1999), in Proc. of EUROTRAC Symposium 98 2, WIT-Press, Southhampton, pp. 251254. Köble, R. and Seufert, G. (2001), Novel maps for forest tree species in Europe. Proceedings of the conference 'A changing Atmosphere' 8th European symposium on the Physico-Chemical Behaviour of Atmosperic Pollutants, 17. - 20 Sept. 2001, Torino. Simpson, D., Winiwarter, W., Börjesson, G., Cinderby, S., Ferreiro, A., Guenther, A., Hewitt, C. N., Janson, R., Khalil, M. A. K., Owen, S., Pierce, T. E., Puxbaum, H., Shearer, M., Steinbrecher, R., Tarrasón, L., and Öquist, M. G., 1999, Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(D7), 8113-8152. " 3/29/2011 18:23:33 172 "MATCH" "Thomas Klein" "Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute SMHI" "Thomas.Klein@smhi.se" "Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Eutrophication, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Emergency planning, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Chemically active" "Plume-rise models, Eulerian models, Lagrangian models, Chemical models" "More than 24 hours" "Workstation, Supercomputer" "MATCH" "Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and ChemistryModel" 5 "November 2009" "SMHI - Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute" "Lennart Robertson; Thomas Klein" "SMHI
    Folkborgsvägen 1
    601 76 Norrköping
    Sweden " "+46 (0) 11 495 8281" "Lennart.Robertson@smhi.se" "http://www.smhi.se/sgn0106/if/FoUl/en/index.html. " "Lennart.Robertson@smhi.se Magnuz.Erhardt@smhi.se Robert.Bergstrom@smhi.se Michael.Kahnert@smhi.se Thomas.Klein@smhi.se" "Advanced" "Simulations of transport, photochemistry and deposition of atmospheric pollutants at the urban - to- regional scale. " "Three-dimensional offline Eulerian model. 2D and 3D analysis scheme for spatial analysis of atmospheric spieces." "The Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) model is a three-dimensional, off-line Eulerian model developed at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). It is used in a range of applications from urban scale studies (e.g. Gidhagen et al., 2005) on ca. 5km, or higher, resolution to regional/continental scale studies on acidifying/eutrophying deposition and photochemistry (e.g. Andersson et al.; 2007, Langner et al., 2005; Siniarovina and Engardt, 2005). MATCH is used for air pollution assessment in Sweden and the Baltic Sea region; the air pollution budgets of nitrogen and sulphur compounds for Sweden are calculated annually, using a system combining the MATCH model calculations and monitoring data from Sweden and the neighbouring countries. The model is also used operationally to provide forecasts of radioactivity in case of nuclear emergencies in Europe (Langner et al., 1998a).
    Different set-ups of the model have been used in a variety of applications in Sweden, Europe, the Arctic, Africa, South America, Australia, South-, East- and Southeast Asia. " "The model has been successfully used for simulations for a variety of applications within a range of scales and resolutions. Beyond a horizontal resolution of 500m though, no knowledge of its performance is available. Limitations resulting from the nature and current design of the model are a dependency of the vertical resolution on the vertical resolution of the driving meteorological model as well as the non-treatment of feedbacks of changes in chemical composition on physical meteorological variables due to MATCH design as offline-model. " "Often used: 600 seconds.
    Simulated time period: several years." "Grid cell size:down to 0.5 km." "Grid cell height: down to 15 m, typically for regional scale -lowest layer 60 m.
    Domain height: often used 8 km. " "Bott-type advection scheme (Bott, 1989a, b). Up to forth order schems are implemented in the horozontal and up to second order in teh vertical." "Boundary layer processes, such as turbulent vertical mixing in the boundary layer and dry deposition, are parameterized using three primary parameters; the surface friction velocity, the surface sensible heat flux and the boundary layer height. " "Dry deposition is modelled using a resistance approach. For simplicity the same aerodynamic resistance is used for all surfaces in a grid square and only variations in the surface resistance are accounted for. Wet scavenging is assumed to be proportional to the precipitation intensity using species-specific scavenging coefficients. " "The chemical scheme first implemented in version 4.3.1 of MATCH is derived from several sources as described in the following. The aim of the development has been to have a unified scheme which treats both photochemistry and acid deposition chemistry and which allows for interaction between those. In connection with different research projects the chemical scheme has been extended to work not only in the lower troposphere but also in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This has implied addition of a few reactions and also inclusion of pressure dependencies for some reactions. The chemical scheme presented here includes 110 thermal, 28 photochemical, 2 aqueous-phase, 5 aerosol reactions and 4 gas-phase aqueous-phase and aerosol equilibria between 61 chemical components. Addition of a size-resolved aerosol scheme to MATCH is currently in progress. This work implies further additions to the chemical scheme and changes in the treatment of aerosol gas-phase interactions. The scheme however only treats a bulk sub-micrometer aerosol.
    The gas-phase chemical mechanism used in MATCH is based on the EMEP MSC-W model chemistry (Simpson et al., 1993) but has been extended somewhat since the original implementation in 1998.
    Aqueous-phase oxidation of SO2 by ozone and H2O2 in cloud water is implemented in the model following Berge (1992). The formation of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is modelled following Hov et al. (1994) with some modification. " "The transport equations are solved on a regular grid where map factors comes in for the transport fluxes. Several projections are handled independent of the input projection of driving weather data.

    The boundary values may be set to fixed numbers or read (in defined intervals) from calculations on a larger scale or some other large scale source (nesting).

    The kinetic preprocessor KPP by A. Sandu1 and R. Sander (Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 8689-8714, 2005) is used to derive the solvers of chemical reactions. " "Input data provided to MATCH are coming from ECMWF and SMHI, where the models used have proved the international validity and recognition.

    Land use data may be taken from desired source. The default is to use the rather crude land use given together with the weather data. " "Specifications of the emissions is a bit wild meaning that very different ways of specifying emissions may be made, from single point sources to area source distributed in the vertical." "* Meteorological input data to MATCH is taken from the three-dimensional dynamical meteorological model HIRLAM (High Resolution Limited Area Model; Källén, 1996) which is run operationally for weather forecasting at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI).
    * Also data from ECMWF and from a regional climate model is used." "Topography is not explicitly used. In the vertical the hybrid sigma-pressure coordinates are used where the lower levels are terrain-following." "Multiple options. Can be taken from previous simulation, other modells, set to constant, or interpollated from boundary conditions." "Multiple options. Can be taken from other modell or interpollated from constant east, west , south, north and top values." "2DVAR, 3DVAR, Ensemble Kalman filter" "Hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and annual average,pollutant concentration and dry and wet deposition for each grid cell." "No user interface is really available. Some applications are though present where MATCH is the backend model and where the user could specify runs. " "Governmental organizations, regional networks, municipalities, cities, public " "Regional" "EURODELTA: The EURODELTA II (ED II) project is a continuing collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra (Italy) and five air quality modelling teams at Ineris (France), the Free University of Berlin (Germany), DNMI (Norway), TNO-MEP (Netherlands) and SMHI (Sweden) in which the results from air quality model simulations are brought together in the JRC assessment toolkit that allows model predictions to be compared with each other and against data. ED I examined the common performance of the models in predicting recent (2000) and future (2020) air quality in Europe using the concept of a model ensemble to measure robustness of predictions. The spread of predictions about the ensemble gave a measure of uncertainty for each predicted value. In a 2020 world the effect of making emission reductions for key pollutants of NOx, SO2, VOC and NH3 independently in France, Germany and Italy, and of NOx and SOx in sea areas, was investigated. Source-receptor relationships used in integrated assessment (IA) modelling were derived for all the models and compared to assess how model choice might affect this key input. ED II builds on this project by taking a closer look at how the different models represent the effect on pollutant impacts on a European scale of applying emission reductions to individual emission sectors. The reason for doing this is that the integrated assessment (IA) methodology is fundamentally based on the cost and effectiveness of emission controls applied on a sector by sector basis. Therefore, the final assessment of a viable future national emission ceiling target implicitly contains a distribution of sectoral burdens. These, when disaggregated, will identify, out of all the emission reductions it is possible to make, those which are larger and least cost and thus best candidates for control. " "EURODELTA: The EURODELTA II (ED II) project is a continuing collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra (Italy) and five air quality modelling teams at Ineris (France), the Free University of Berlin (Germany), DNMI (Norway), TNO-MEP (Netherlands) and SMHI (Sweden) in which the results from air quality model simulations are brought together in the JRC assessment toolkit that allows model predictions to be compared with each other and against data. ED I examined the common performance of the models in predicting recent (2000) and future (2020) air quality in Europe using the concept of a model ensemble to measure robustness of predictions. The spread of predictions about the ensemble gave a measure of uncertainty for each predicted value. In a 2020 world the effect of making emission reductions for key pollutants of NOx, SO2, VOC and NH3 independently in France, Germany and Italy, and of NOx and SOx in sea areas, was investigated. Source-receptor relationships used in integrated assessment (IA) modelling were derived for all the models and compared to assess how model choice might affect this key input. ED II builds on this project by taking a closer look at how the different models represent the effect on pollutant impacts on a European scale of applying emission reductions to individual emission sectors. The reason for doing this is that the integrated assessment (IA) methodology is fundamentally based on the cost and effectiveness of emission controls applied on a sector by sector basis. Therefore, the final assessment of a viable future national emission ceiling target implicitly contains a distribution of sectoral burdens. These, when disaggregated, will identify, out of all the emission reductions it is possible to make, those which are larger and least cost and thus best candidates for control. " "EURODELTA: The EURODELTA II (ED II) project is a continuing collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra (Italy) and five air quality modelling teams at Ineris (France), the Free University of Berlin (Germany), DNMI (Norway), TNO-MEP (Netherlands) and SMHI (Sweden) in which the results from air quality model simulations are brought together in the JRC assessment toolkit that allows model predictions to be compared with each other and against data. ED I examined the common performance of the models in predicting recent (2000) and future (2020) air quality in Europe using the concept of a model ensemble to measure robustness of predictions. The spread of predictions about the ensemble gave a measure of uncertainty for each predicted value. In a 2020 world the effect of making emission reductions for key pollutants of NOx, SO2, VOC and NH3 independently in France, Germany and Italy, and of NOx and SOx in sea areas, was investigated. Source-receptor relationships used in integrated assessment (IA) modelling were derived for all the models and compared to assess how model choice might affect this key input. ED II builds on this project by taking a closer look at how the different models represent the effect on pollutant impacts on a European scale of applying emission reductions to individual emission sectors. The reason for doing this is that the integrated assessment (IA) methodology is fundamentally based on the cost and effectiveness of emission controls applied on a sector by sector basis. Therefore, the final assessment of a viable future national emission ceiling target implicitly contains a distribution of sectoral burdens. These, when disaggregated, will identify, out of all the emission reductions it is possible to make, those which are larger and least cost and thus best candidates for control. " "Level 2: Rather good scientific documentation and less complete users manuals. " "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data. " "2 recent intercomparison studies: 1. Eurodelta - see previous applications. 2. MICS Asia- Model interscomparison study for Asia, Phase 1 and 2. References: Atmospheric Environment Special Issue: MICS-ASIA II, Volume 42, Issue 15, 2008. " "Q: How can I get the model to my institute? A: Please refer directly to contact person. " "MATCH is portable to Linux, IBM, HP, SG, (Dec Alpha). The model could be compiled for parallel platforms (Linux, IBM, SG). " "A setup for photochemistry with 72 compounds, a domain of 100x80x30 and over 3 days takes takes in total 18 hours on IBM. Distributed over 32 tasks the elaps time is 1.20 hours. In summary 15 min per simulated hour and 29 sec per task and simulated hour." "Most often, results from MATCH are stored in WMO GRIB-format. However, other storage formats such as NetCDF and even ASCII have also been implemented and used in several applications." "The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining the model can be provided by the contact person. " "Robertson, L., Langner, J. and Engardt, M. 1999. An Eulerian limited-area atmospheric transport model. J. Appl. Meteor. 38, 190-210. " "Engardt, M., Siniarovina, U., Khairul, N.I. and Leong, C.P. 2005. Country to country transport of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia. Atmos. Environ. 39, 51375148. Foltescu, V.L., Pryor, S.C. and Bennet C. 2005. Sea salt generation, dispersion and removal on the regional scale Atmos. Environ. 39, 21232133. Gidhagen, L., Johansson, C., Langner J. and, Foltescu, V.L. 2005. Urban scale modeling of particle number concentration in Stockholm. Atmos. Environ. 39, 17111725. Langner, J., Bergström, R. and Foltescu, V. 2005. Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe. Atmos. Environ. 39, 1129-1141. Siniarovina, U. and Engardt, M. 2005. High resolution model simulations of anthropogenic sulphate and sulphur dioxide in Southeast Asia. Atmos. Environ. 39, 2021-2034. Solberg, S., Bergström, R., Langner, J., Laurila, T. and Lindskog, A. 2005. Changes in Nordic surface ozone episodes due to European emission reductions in the 1990s. Atmos. Environ. 39, 179-192. Politis, K and Robertson, L. 2004. Bayesian updating of atmospheric dispersion after a nuclear accident. Appl. Statist. 53, 583-600. Carmichael, G.R., Calori, G., Hayami, H., Uno, I., Cho, S.Y., Engardt, M., Kim, S.-B., Ichikawa, Y., Ikeda, Y., Woo, J.-H., Ueda, H. and Amann, M. 2002. The MICS-Asia study: model intercomparison of long-range transport and sulfur deposition in East Asia. Atmos. Environ. 36, 175-199. Gallardo, L., Olivares, G., Langner, J. and Aarhus, B., 2002. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile. Atmos. Environ. 36, 3829-3841. Kjellström, E., Holmén, K., Eneroth, K. and Engardt, M., 2002, Summertime Siberian CO2 simulations with the regional transport model MATCH: A feasibility study of carbon uptake calculations from EUROSIB data. Tellus 54B, 834-849. Tilmes, S., Brandt, J., Flatøy, F., Bergström, R., Flemming, J., Langner, J., Christensen, J.H., Frohn, L.M., Hov, Ø., Jacobsen, I., Reimer, E., Stern, R. And Zimmermann, J. 2002. Comparison of Five Eulerian Air Pollution Forecasting Systems for the Summer of 1999 Using the German Ozone Monitoring Data. J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 91-121. Engardt, M. 2001. Sulphur simulations for East Asia using the MATCH model with meteorological data from ECMWF. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 130, 289-294. Zunckel, M., Robertson, L., Tyson, P.D. and Rodhe, H. 2000. Modelled transport and deposition of sulphur over Southern Africa. Atmos. Environ. 34, 2797-2808. Langner, J., Persson, C. and Robertson, L. 1995. Concentration and deposition of acidifying air pollutants over Sweden: Estimates for 1991 based on the MATCH model and observations. Water Air and Soil Pollution 85, 2021-2026. " 3/29/2011 18:23:34 171 "LASAT" "Ulf Janicke" "Janicke Consulting" "support@janicke.de, uj@janicke.de" "Janicke Consulting, 26427 Dunum, Germany" "Eutrophication, Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Industrial pollutants, Nuclear emergencies, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Emergency planning, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes, Source-receptor relationships, Exposure" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Traffic emissions (line source), Area - volume source, Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption, Release with interruption (intermitted), Unexpected release (accidental)" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10, Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Buoyant" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Lagrangian models" "Up to 10 minutes, 10 minutes to 1 hour, 1 to 24 hours, More than 24 hours" "PC" "LASAT" "Langrangian Simulation of Aerosol Transport" "3.1, released" "January 2010" "Janicke Consulting - Environmental Physics" "Dr. Ulf Janicke" "Janicke Consulting Environmental Physics Hermann-Hoch-Weg 1 88662 Überlingen, GERMANY " "++49 (0)7551 947 1818" "++49 (0)7551 947 1819" "info@janicke.de" "http://www.janicke.de" "Preferably via email (info@janicke.de)" "Advanced" "The model is a tool for experts that professionally deal with the investigation or assessment of problems related to atmospheric dispersion and air quality issues." "Dispersion modeling for environmental meteorology, local and regional air quality studies, assessment/licensing procedures." "Three-dimensional Lagrangian particle model with variable time step. The model is set up and verified in conformance with the German guideline VDI 3945/3. The software package includes a diagnostic wind field model (TALdia) for terrain profile and/or building structures. " "

    LASAT computes the transport of passive trace substances in the lower atmosphere (up to heights of about 2000 m) on a local and regional scale (up to distances of about 150 km). In a Lagrangian model type, the dispersion of trace substances is simulated utilizing a random walk process on a computer. The following physical processes, including time dependencies, are simulated: transport by the mean wind field, dispersion in the atmosphere, sedimentation of heavy aerosols, deposition on the ground, washout of trace substances by rain and wet deposition, chemical reactions, gamma submersion (cloud radiation). Thermal plume rise is covered parametrically.

    In flat and homogeneous terrain, the meteorological profiles are created by a one-dimensional boundary layer model. An integrated diagnostic wind field model can be used to account for terrain profiles or buildings.

    Emission sources of any number can be defined in form of point, line, area, grid, or volume sources. Detailed source dynamics can be specified. Most of the input parameters - in particular meteorological parameters, source properties, and emission rates - can be specified in form of independent time series.

    Nested calculation grids can be applied that allow for a high spatial resolution close to the sources while at the same time covering a large simulation area.

    The result of the dispersion calculation is the three-dimensional concentration field of the emitted trace substances averaged over successive time intervals, and the mass flow density of deposition into the ground. In addition, time series of the concentration and deposition flows at specified monitor points can be obtained. Annual averages, percentiles, and excess probabilities (e.g. according to EU directives) can be computed." "- Plume rise is covered parametrically either according to the German guidelines VDI 3782/3 (stacks) and 3784/2 (cooling towers) or explicitly by means of a directed exit velocity and its decay time. - In situations, where a wind field calculation with the provided diagnostic wind field model is not adequate, these fields must be provided by a more advanced wind field model (e.g. a prognostic one). - With the diagnostic wind field model, buildings are resolved only on the cells of the calculation grid. - In standard operation, only chemical reactions of first order can be accounted for. An implementation of higher-order reactions is presently tested. - A calculation grid should not contain more than 200 cells in each horizontal direction." "Between some 10 seconds and any long-term average (for e.g. a month or a year). In typical applications, meteorological data and emission strengths are provided in form of an annual time series with hourly means. The time series of meteorology and the ones for different source properties do not need to coincide. " "Between a few meters and some hundred meters. The horizontal spatial resolution typically amounts to 0.5% to 3% of the total area of calculation. " "The vertical resolution is specified by the user, typically some meters close to the ground and some decameters at larger heights." "The simulation particles are transported by the mean wind flow (defined by the implemented one-dimensional boundary layer model or in form of three-dimensional fields)." "The turbulent motion of the simulation particles is described by a Markov process in phase space. Input parameters are the components of velocity fluctuations and diffusion coefficients (defined by the implemented one-dimensional boundary layer model or in form of three-dimensional fields)." "Dry deposition is parameterized by a deposition velocity, wet deposition by a washout rate. In addition, gravitational settling of heavy aerosols is accounted for." "In standard operation, chemical reactions of first order (linear conversion rates) can be accounted for. Any user-defined trace substance can be converted to any other and/or depleted with user-defined conversion rates (also time-dependent). A tool for modelling higher-order chemical reactions is available on demand." "The path of simulation particles, that form a representative sample of a substance cloud in the atmosphere, is simulated on the computer by means of a random process (Lagrange simulation). The concentration is deduced from the masses carried by the particles in a given spatial volume during a given period of time. " "Input data are checked for formal correctness, not for scientific plausibility or consistency. " "Sources are defined in form of point, line, area or volume sources (rectangular or polygon-like base). Alternatively, emissions can be localized in form of regular two- or three-dimensional grids. Each source (up to some hundred) can emit any combination of user-defined trace substances (up to some dozen). Emission strengths are specified in mass per second and can be defined as constant or via individual or combined time series." "Typical input data are wind speed and wind direction, stability measure (stability class or Monin-Obukhov length), and surface roughness length. The data can be provided as constant or in form of a time series. Boundary layer values can be specified for one or several heights above ground. The user can choose different boundary layer models that create the vertical profiles of wind speed, wind direction, wind velocity fluctuations, and diffusion coefficients from the provided user input. Three-dimensional, externally created wind and turbulence fields can be applied, too." "For structured terrain, a file with the terrain profile covering the complete calculation area must be provided. Buildings can be defined as blocks with rectangular or polygon-like base or in gridded form." "Not available." "Not available." "Preprocessor programs are provided to transform meteorological time series and terrain profile data of different formats into LASAT input files. " "All input parameters are accessible to the user in form of formatted text input files. The user must specify the sources, trace substances, emissions, meteorology, and the calculation grid. Additional files can be provided for the definition of a terrain file and for gridded building shapes. Not available." "- Three-dimensional concentration field averaged over successive time intervals.
    - Mass flow density of deposition into the ground.
    - Time series of the concentration and deposition flows at specified monitor points.
    - Long-time averages (e.g. day, year), percentiles, excess probabilities (e.g. according to EU directives).
    - Odor hour frequencies.
    - Gamma submersion (cloud radiation).
    - Estimate of the statistical uncertainty of each concentration value. " "LASAT is a text-oriented program, i.e. all input parameters are defined in form of formatted, fully documented text files, likewise all results. LASAT is invoked from a command shell. For result visualization, a graphical user interface is provided." "Research groups; consultants; industry; radiation protection agencies; airports; local and national authorities." "Regional" "Prediction of odor nuisance
    Relevant reference:
    - Hartmann U, 2002: Validation of odor dispersion models; An intercomparison of models by odor measurements. Gefahrenstoffe, Reinhaltung der Luft 62, 425-430 (German).
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: The development of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000G. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 5, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de.
    Description:
    LASAT has been applied on a sub-regional scale for the prediction of odor nuisance, e.g. in the vicinity of industrial plants or farming stables. The calculations are carried out in conformance with the German regulation GIRL that explicitly demands the usage of a Lagrangian particle model of type VDI 3945/3." "Episodes" "Prediction of odor nuisance
    Relevant reference:
    - Hartmann U, 2002: Validation of odor dispersion models; An intercomparison of models by odor measurements. Gefahrenstoffe, Reinhaltung der Luft 62, 425-430 (German).
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: The development of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000G. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 5, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de.
    Description:
    LASAT has been applied on a sub-regional scale for the prediction of odor nuisance, e.g. in the vicinity of industrial plants or farming stables. The calculations are carried out in conformance with the German regulation GIRL that explicitly demands the usage of a Lagrangian particle model of type VDI 3945/3." "Urban" "Prediction of odor nuisance
    Relevant reference:
    - Hartmann U, 2002: Validation of odor dispersion models; An intercomparison of models by odor measurements. Gefahrenstoffe, Reinhaltung der Luft 62, 425-430 (German).
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: The development of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000G. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 5, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de.
    Description:
    LASAT has been applied on a sub-regional scale for the prediction of odor nuisance, e.g. in the vicinity of industrial plants or farming stables. The calculations are carried out in conformance with the German regulation GIRL that explicitly demands the usage of a Lagrangian particle model of type VDI 3945/3." "The program package is provided in English. The reference book (220 pages) contains a description of the dispersion model, the wind field model, the features and use of all programs of the package, the verification tests, and a detailed list of all input parameters and the formats of input and output files. A detailed description of 2 example calculations is provided in the working book." "Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed.
    Relevant reference:
    - Janicke U, Janicke L, 2007: Lagrangian particle modeling for regulatory purposes; A survey of recent developments in Germany. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. See http://www.harmo.org.
    - Hirtl M, Baumann-Stanzer K, 2007: Evaluation of two dispersion models (ADMS-Roads and LASAT) applied to street canyons in Stockholm, London and Berlin. Atmospheric Environment 41, 5959-5971.
    - Bahmann W, Schmonsees N, Janicke L, 2006: Study of the applicability of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000 with the wind field model TALdia with respect to building effects for exhaust emissions via cooling towers and stacks. VGB Research Project No. 262 (German). Provided at http://www.vgb.org/data/vgborg_/Forschung/FE262.pdf.
    - Janicke U, Janicke L, 2004: Enhancement of a diagnostic wind field model for licensing industrial facilities (TA Luft). UFOPLAN 203 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German/English). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de.
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: A modeling system for licensing industrial facilities. UFOPLAN 200 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de.
    - Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: The development of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000G. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 5, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de.
    - Janicke L, 2002: Lagrangian dispersion modeling. Particulate Matter in and from Agriculture, 235, 37-4, ISBN 3-933140-58-7.
    - VDI 3945 Part 3, 2000: Atmospheric dispersion models; Particle model. Berlin, Beuth (German/English). See http://www.vdi.de.
    - VDI 3783 Part 8, 2002: Environmental meteorology; Turbulence parameters for dispersion models supported by measurement data. Berlin, Beuth (German/English). See http://www.vdi.de.
    Description:
    The model has been validated by means of commonly used experimental data sets (Prairie-Gras, Karlsruhe, Kopenhagen, Indianapolis), see for example Janicke and Janicke (2002), Janicke (2002), VDI 3783/8 (2002).
    Based on applications and evaluations of the model over more than 10 years, the model type was fixed in form of a guideline (VDI 3945/3) and entered German regulations (TA Luft, GIRL).
    The German guideline VDI 3945/3 describes the model type and defines a set of verification tests that a numerical realization of the model type must pass. LASAT conforms to this guideline. The German Regulation on Air Quality Control (TA Luft) demands in Appendix 3 the usage of such a model type in the context of licensing procedures, likewise the guideline GIRL on odor nuisance.
    LASAT served as the basis for AUSTAL2000, which is a reference implementation of TA Luft and GIRL that is available free of charge, including source code, in the Internet (http://www.austal2000.de). An overview of applications of LASAT and AUSTAL2000 is given in Janicke and Janicke (2007). " "

    " "Does the model provide a graphical user interface? For the result visualization, yes. The model itself and the auxiliary programs are executed in a command shell (DOS window under Windows). What time is required for training? An initial training period of at least one week is recommended. Do I need background knowledge in atmospheric dispersion to adequately apply the model? Yes. Does the model check my input? For formal correctness yes, not for scientific plausibility or consistency; an expert program for this task is in preparation. Do I get support when using the model? Yes. The model is offered in combination with a support contract that guarantees qualified help and support. Does the model require any other third-party programs? No. What is the difference between LASAT and AUSTAL2000? AUSTAL2000 is free of charge, but limited to the requirements and specifications of the German regulation TA Luft. LASAT is commercial, has a larger scope of applications, more features (user-interface, multicore) and is steadily improved. With appropriate parameter settings, LASAT and AUSTAL2000 produce identical results. " "The software package is provided for Windows XP/Vista/7 and for Linux (tested with Suse).
    64 bit program versions are available by end of 2010
    At least 512 MB RAM and 1 GB hard disk space are recommended.
    LASAT is a standalone system that does not require other commercial software programs. " "CPU time strongly depends on the type of problem and required output quantities and ranges between some minutes and several days. A typical calculation time for a time series over one year in flat terrain is half an hour to 2 hours. Shorter calculation times can be achieved at the cost of the statistical uncertainty of the results which depends on the number of simulation particles applied. Calculations in complex terrain demand considerably longer calculation times.
    The program can utilize all cores of a multi-core processor system which can drastically reduce calculation time." "Depending on the chosen calculation grids, required disk space can be some MB to some 100 MB. Wind field libraries created for calculations in complex terrain can require several GB hard disk space. " "The model is available upon request. A demo version can be ordered free of charge. Information is provided at http://www.janicke.de." "Janicke U, Janicke L, 2004: Enhancement of a diagnostic wind field model for licensing industrial facilities (TA Luft). UFOPLAN 203 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German/English). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de. Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: A modeling system for licensing industrial facilities. UFOPLAN 200 43 256, German Federal Environmental Agency UBA (German). Provided at http://www.austal2000.de. Janicke L, Janicke U, 2002: The development of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000G. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 5, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de. Janicke L, Janicke U, 2000: Proposal of a meteorological boundary layer model for Lagrange dispersion models. Reports on Environmental Physics No. 2, ISSN 14398303 (German). Provided at http://www.janicke.de. VDI 3945 Part 3, 2000: Atmospheric dispersion models; Particle model. Berlin, Beuth (German/English). See http://www.vdi.de. " "Janicke Consulting, 2007: Reference book LASAT 3.0. Janicke U, Janicke L, 2007: Lagrangian particle modeling for regulatory purposes; A survey of recent developments in Germany. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. See http://www.harmo.org. Trukenmüller A, Bächlin W, Sörgel Ch, 2007: Modelling incremental concentrations from domestic heating with the regulatory Lagrangian particle model AUSTAL2000. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Cambridge, England. Provided at http://www.harmo.org. Hirtl M, Baumann-Stanzer K, 2007: Evaluation of two dispersion models (ADMS-Roads and LASAT) applied to street canyons in Stockholm, London and Berlin. Atmospheric Environment 41, 5959-5971. Bahmann W, Schmonsees N, Janicke L, 2006: Study of the applicability of the dispersion model AUSTAL2000 with the wind field model TALdia with respect to building effects for exhaust emissions via cooling towers and stacks (Studie zur Anwendbarkeit des Ausbreitungsmodells AUSTAL2000 mit Windfeldmodell TALdia im Hindblick auf die Gebäudeeffekte bei Ableitung von Rauchgasen über Kühltürme und Schornsteine). VGB Research Project No. 262 (German). Provided at http://www.vgb.org/data/vgborg_/Forschung/FE262.pdf. Fleuti E, Hofmann P, 2005: Zurich Airport 2004, a comparison of modelled and measured air quality. EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre, report EEC/SEE/2005/017. Provided at http://www.eurocontrol.int/eec. Nielinger J, Kost WJ, Kunz W, 2004: Dispersion Modeling in Alpine Valleys Necessity and Implementation of nonhydrostatic prognostic flow simulation with FITNAH for a plant in Grenoble. Proceedings of the IXth International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Provided at http://www.harmo.org. Hartmann U, 2002: Validation of odor dispersion models; An intercomparison of models by odor measurements. Gefahrenstoffe, Reinhaltung der Luft 62, 425-430 (German). TA Luft, 2002: Technical Regulation on Air Quality Control. GMBl. 2002, Heft 25-29, S. 511-605. Provided at www.bmu.de/files/taluft.pdf (German). Janicke L, 2002: Lagrangian dispersion modeling. Particulate Matter in and from Agriculture, 235, 37-4, ISBN 3-933140-58-7. Janicke L, 1993: Embedding of the Lagrangian dispersion model LASAT into a monitoring system for nuclear power plants. XXieth ITM on Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, Valencia, Spain. Janicke L, 1983: Particle simulation of inhomogeneous turbulent diffusion. Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, II, (ed. Weber). Plenum Press, N.Y., 527-535. Janicke L, 1985: Particle simulation of dust transport and deposition and comparison with conventional models. Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, IV, (ed. C. de Wispelaere). Plenum Press, N.Y., 759-769. " 3/29/2011 18:23:36 170 "ALADIN-CAMx" "Marcus Hirtl" "ZAMG - Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Department of Environmental Meteorology" "marcus.hirtl@zamg.ac.at" "A-1190 Vienna, Hohe Warte 38, Austria (http://www.zamg.ac.at)" "Tropospheric ozone, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Policy support, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km)" "Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators), Real time (on-line analysis of AQ indicators during episodes)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), PM2.5 and PM10" "Chemically active" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "10 minutes to 1 hour" "Workstation, Supercomputer" "ALADIN-CAMx" "Comprehensive Air quality model based on ALADIN-Austria forecast data" "ALADIN-Austria CY32T1, CAMx 4.4, EMEP 2007" "24.11.2009" "ZAMG (Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics)" "Marcus Hirtl" "Department of Environmental Meteorology
    ZAMG - Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics
    A-1190 Vienna, Hohe Warte 38 Austria
    homepage: http://www.zamg.ac.at" "0043 1 36026 2406" "0043 1 36026 74" "marcus.hirtl@zamg.ac.at" "http://www.zamg.ac.at" "Provided by contact person." "Advanced" "Air Quality forecasts for Central Europe (main interest in Austria). " "ALADIN-Austria: hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model
    coupled with
    CAMx: ´One atmosphere´ three-dimensional Eulerian (gridded) photochemical dispersion model" "The air quality model for Austria consists of the meteorological model ALADIN-Austria (ALADIN webpage: http://www.cnrm.meteo.fr/aladin/) and the chemical dispersion model CAMx (http://www.camx.com). The two models are coupled offline. Emissions are based on EMEP (latest datat, updated every year) as well as regional inventories for Austria. Products are daily operational 48 hour ozone, Pm10 and NO2 forecasts for central Europe on a hourly basis." "The resolution of the dispersion model is depending on the ALADIN-Austria dimensions. An interface calculates the required fields from the ALADIN forecasts." "1 hour" "The model uses a horizontal resolution of ~28,8 km for the mother grid covering Europe. The inner modeling domain extends over Austria and parts of the neighbouring states and has a resolution of 9,7 km." "The lowest 37 ALADIN model-levels are interpolated to 15 CAMx levels. The highest resolution (~30m ) is achieved in the lowest 5 levels (up to ~350m), then up to 4 model-levels are interpolated in the upper regions." "Eulerian continuity equation closed by K-theory equations in flux form." "Horizontal diffusion based on Smagorinsky approach. Vertical diffusion coefficients are calculated according to Louis 1979 approach. This approach uses the Richardson number and the mixing length to obtain the vertical diffusion coefficients." "DRY
    Physical model: seperate resistance models for gases and aerosols.
    Numerical model: deposition velocity as surface boundary condition for vertical diffusion.
    WET
    Physical model: seperate scavenging models for gases and aerosols.
    Numerical model: uptake as a function of rainfall rate, cloud water content, gas solubility and diffusivity, PM size." "Gas phase: SAPRC99 with aerosol option: 73 species, 211 reactions (Carter, 2000) " "Horizontal advection: Bott.
    Vertical advection and diffusion: implicit scheme.
    Gas phase chemistry: CMC (ENVIRON) solver.
    Mercury chemistry: analytical solution.
    Master timestep is internally computed in order to ensure stability of the advectionscheme.
    Multiple timesteps per transport timestep are used for gas chemistry.
    Coordinate system: Lambert conformal, Arakawa C grid configuration." "The Meteorological input data is validated against observations and ECMWF forecasts (0.5 deg and 1.5 deg - also MOS). The ALADIN-Austria model is operated and validated at the synoptic department at the ZAMG.
    As lateral boundary conditions mean values (monthly means from 1990 to 2001) of previous years are used. The concentrations are obtained from the FP6 project CECILIA. The data has been validated against observations (ground).
    The Emissions- EMEP (www.emep.int) is a scientifically based and policy driven program under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution for international cooperation to solve transboundary air pollution problems. The data has proved the international validity and recognition." "The model uses EMEP data (latest data) for Europe and regional inventories for Austria. The EMEP data provides grided (50kmx50km) emissions of NOx, CO, hydrocarbonites, SO2, NH3 and fine particles." "ALADIN-Austria: 48 hour forecasts of hourly 2/3-dimensional gridded fields are prepared for CAMx: horizontal wind (3D), temperature (3D), pressure (3D), convective and large scale precipitation (2D), snow cover (2D), solar radiation (2D) and specific humidity, vertical diffusion coefficients (3), cloud and precipitaion water content (3D)" "The topography is provided by ALADIN-Austria ~9,6km (http://www.cnrm.meteo.fr/aladin). ALADIN uses the GTOPO30 which is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid spacing of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 kilometer). CAMx uses the ALADIN topography right away - no interpolation is used here because it is the same grid" "Gridded three dimensional concentrations of all species predicted by a previous model run are used as initial value at every time step. " "Monthly mean values at all four boundaries of all species are used as boundary conditions." "Not available" "ECMWF operationally provides forecasts of total ozone column. CAMx uses this parameter to calculate photolysis rates.
    Top-concentrations have to be provided as upper boundary conditions for the model. Currently the top concentrations are assumed to be constant over the whole domain and during the simulation period. - gridded haze opacity codes: the spatial and temporal distribution of surface UV albedo, ozone column density, and turbidity for a specific CAMx domain and episode have to be provided. These parameters are essential for photochemical simulations as they determine the spatial and temporal variation of photolysis rates.
    - photolysis rates lookup table: a large look-up table that provides the photolysis rates in five dimensions, including variations over solar zenith angle, height above ground, ultraviolet (UV) albedo of the ground, atmospheric turbidity, and total ozone column density." "hourly 3D gridded values of gases. Special interest - ozone." "Interface and operational setup: mainly Linux shell scripts and Fortran90 (gfortran) code." "Researchers for regulatory applications. Combination of ALADIN-Austria and CAMx is only implemented at ZAMG." "Urban" "ESCOMPTE project
    References: Lemonsu (2003), Menut (2004)
    Short term application concerning a 6 days IOP of the Escompte Campaign performed in June 2001 over the Marseille area (France). The aim of the ESCOMPTE project is to produce an appropriate high quality 3-D data base from emissions, transport and air composition measurements during urban photochemical pollution episodes at the meso-scale.
    The Exercise was focused on ozone could be reproduced quite well by the model, although some underestimations of the ozone peaks arose in some rural areas." "Urban" "ESCOMPTE project
    References: Lemonsu (2003), Menut (2004)
    Short term application concerning a 6 days IOP of the Escompte Campaign performed in June 2001 over the Marseille area (France). The aim of the ESCOMPTE project is to produce an appropriate high quality 3-D data base from emissions, transport and air composition measurements during urban photochemical pollution episodes at the meso-scale.
    The Exercise was focused on ozone could be reproduced quite well by the model, although some underestimations of the ozone peaks arose in some rural areas." "ESCOMPTE project
    References: Lemonsu (2003), Menut (2004)
    Short term application concerning a 6 days IOP of the Escompte Campaign performed in June 2001 over the Marseille area (France). The aim of the ESCOMPTE project is to produce an appropriate high quality 3-D data base from emissions, transport and air composition measurements during urban photochemical pollution episodes at the meso-scale.
    The Exercise was focused on ozone could be reproduced quite well by the model, although some underestimations of the ozone peaks arose in some rural areas." "Documentations are available:
    Level 1: CAMx (www.camx.com), physical description of model, code administration, installation guide, evaluation.
    Level 1: ALADIN (www.cnrm.meteo.fr/aladin), physical description of the model, variable settings." "Level 2: Baumann-Stanzer K., M. Hirtl, B.C. Krüger: Regional-scale air quality forecasts for Austria. Abstracts of the 5th EMS Annual Meeting/ECAM, Volume 2, 12 - 16 September 2005, Utrecht, Netherlands, ISSN 1812-7053 (CD-ROM).
    Level 2: Baumann-Stanzer K., Hirtl, M., Krüger, B.C.: Regional-scale air quality forecasts for Austria. Abstracts of the 5th EMS Annual Meeting/ECAM, Volume 2, 12 - 16 September 2005, Utrecht, Netherlands, ISSN 1812-7053 (CD-ROM).
    Level 2: Hirtl, M., Baumann-Stanzer, K., Krüger, B.C.: Operational ozone forecasts for Austria. COST728/NetFAM workshop on Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models. 21-23 May 2007, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Level 2: Hirtl, M., Baumann-Stanzer, K., Krüger, B.C: Operational Ozone Forecasts for Austria. EGU - General Assembly 16.-20.4. 2007, Vienna, Austria.
    Level 2: Hirtl, M.: A new Ozone prediction system using operational ALADIN data. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Harmonisation, 17.-20.October 2005, Sissi (Malia), Crete, Greece. " "For CAMx model:

    Citydelta project
    Reference: Vautard R. et al (2006)
    City delta was aimed to explore the changes in urban air quality predicted by different chemistry-transport (CTM) dispersion models in response to changes in urban emissions.
    Particularly in the frame of Citydelta, CAMx was applied over the milan region (300kmx300km 2,5 km resolution) for year 1999. Model provided good performances for ozone (both on average and for extreme values). Acceptable results have been obtained for PM10 yearly means.

    ESCOMPTE project
    References: Lemonsu (2003), Menut (2004)
    Short term application concerning a 6 days IOP of the Escompte Campaign performed in June 2001 over the Marseille area (France). The aim of the ESCOMPTE project is to produce an appropriate high quality 3-D data base from emissions, transport and air composition measurements during urban photochemical pollution episodes at the meso-scale.
    The Model has highlighted quite good performance for both ozone and NO2. CAMx reproduces the different features of IOP2a and IOP2b. The first one is characterized by NW mesoscale winds that induce the development of higher concentrations along the coast, downwind the urban areas. differently, IOP2b shows a clear sea-breeze condition, with an overburden of high ozone concentrations in the rural areas placed in the NE part of the domain. As for the latter, CAMx reconstructs the development and the position of the ozone plume, even if a clear underestimation of the peak value is observed." "How is the coupling between ALADIN and CAMx done? The interface between the two models is mainly based on the existing code mm5camx which couples MM5 with CAMx at the CAMx webpage." "UNIX and LINUX platforms (NEC-Opteron)" "4 Dual Opteron CPU with 2,6 GHz
    18 min for 12 hour simulation" "To store the results from a model run with two domains (286x256x1 grid cells and 168x183x1 grid cells) 177 MB per day are needed.
    only surface concentration fields are stored" "ALADIN-Austria is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining the model can be provided by the contact person.
    CAMx is open source software: www.camx.com" "R.E. Morris, S. Lau, and G. Yarwood. Development and Application of an Advanced Air Toxics Hybrid Photochemical Grid Modeling System. Presented at 96th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the A&WMA, San Diego, California (June 2003). R.E. Morris, G. Yarwood, C. Emery, and B. Koo. Development and Application of the CAMx Regional One-Atmosphere Model to Treat Ozone, Particulate Matter, Visibility, Air Toxics and Mercury. Presented at 97th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the A&WMA, Indianapolis, IN (June 2004). Peer Review of ENVIRON`s Ozone Source Apportionment Technology and the CAMx Air Quality Model Sonoma Technology, Inc. Report to the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Division of Air Pollution Control Columbus, OH (June 1997). " "Bedogni et al. (2005). SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF OZONE LONG TERM SIMULATIONS TO GRID RESOLUTION. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 24, Nos. 1/2/3/4, 2005 , pg. 51-64. Carter, W.P.L. 2000. Programs and Files Implementing the SAPRC-99 Mechanism and its Associates Emissions Processing Procedures for Models-3 and Other Regional Models. January 31, 2000. http://pah.cert.ucr.edu/~carter/SAPRC99.htm A. Lemonsu, C.S.B. Grimmond, V. Masson ,43, 312-327, 2004, Modelisation of the surface energy balance of an old meditarranean city core. L. Menut, I. Coll, S. Cautenet submitted, 2003 Sensitivity of modelled regional ozone to meteorological forcing in a coastal and urbanized area: the ESCOMPTE IOP 2. Minguzzi et al.(2005). SENSITIVITY OF LONG-TERM CTM SIMULATIONS TO METEOROLOGICAL INPUT. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 24, Nos. 1/2/3/4, 2005, pg. 36-50. Vautard R. et al. (2006). Evaluation and intercomparison of Ozone and PM10 simulations by several chemistry- transport models over four European cities within the City-Delta project. Atm Env. (submitted). Vestreng, V., K. Breivik, M. Adams, A. Wagener, J. Goodwin, O. Rozovskkaya, J. M. Pacyna, 2005: Inventory Review 2005, Emission Data reported to LRTAP Convention and NEC Directive, Initial review of HMs and POPs, Technical report MSC-W 1/2005, ISSN 0804-2446." 3/29/2011 18:23:38 182 "CAMx-CEAM" "Jose Luis" "Fundacion CEAM (www.ceam.es) " "palau_josalo@gva.es, joseluis@ceam.es" "Valencia, SPAIN" "Climate change, Tropospheric ozone, Acidification, Summer smog, Winter smog, Urban air quality" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Policy support, Public information, Scientific research" "Concentrations, Deposition fluxes" "Emissions from the stack of a plant (point source), Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local-to-Regional (30-300 km), Regional-to-Continental (300-3000 km)" "Statistical (analysis of long-term AQ indicators), Episodic (analysis of short-term AQ indicators)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Ammonia (NH3), PM2.5 and PM10" "Non-reactive primary pollutants, Chemically active" "Eulerian models, Chemical models" "More than 24 hours" "PC, Workstation" "CAMx-CEAM" "Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions" "v5.10, continuous development and updates" "2009, September" "Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo" "Nuria Castell-Balaguer" "Fundacion CEAM. Parque Tecnológico,
    c/Charles R.Darwin, 14.
    46980 Paterna,Valencia, Spain. " "+34 961318227" "+34 961318190" "nuria@ceam.es" "http://www.ceam.es" "Provided by contact person " "Advanced" "CEAM Foundation has also developed several tools to prepare CAMx input data (anthropogenic and biogenic emissions) and process output fields (graphics, statistics, etc.). " "Photochemical air pollution
    Air quality assessment
    Scientific research " "CAMx is an Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that allows for an integrated one-atmosphere assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution over many scales ranging from sub-urban to continental. Offline coupled with MM5 and RAMS-CEAM meteorological models (provide the meteorological fields to CAMx-CEAM). " "The CAMx-CEAM model is coupled offline with MM5 and RAMS-CEAM for the integrated assessment of photochemical and particulate air pollution. Some notable features are:
    Two-way nested grid structure and flexi-nesting
    Multiple photochemical and gas phase chemistry mechanism options
    Treatment of particulate matter
    Plume-in-Grid module " "CAMx-CEAM can be applied in scales ranging from sub-urban to continental. " "Time steps typically range form 5-15 minutes for grid cell sizes of 10-50km, to a minute or less for small cell sizes of 1-2km. Typical output frequency is 1 hour, but this can be chosen by the user. " "Resolution can range from a recommended minimum around 1km to 50km. Multiple nested grids can be used where high-resolution is needed. " "Typically, 15-30 vertical layers up to approximately 5-10 km above ground level are employed, with higher resolution near the ground. " "Eulerian continuity equation closed by K-theory. " "Horizontal diffusion based on Smagorinsky approach. Vertical diffusion coefficients supplied via input file (from the meteorological model). " "Dry deposition: Separate resistance models for gases and aerosols.
    Deposition velocity as surface boundary conditions for vertical diffusion.
    Wet deposition: Separate scavenging models for gases and aerosols. Uptake as a function of rainfall rate, cloud water content, gas solubility and diffusivity, PM size. " "Gas-Phase Chemistry: Carbon Bond IV; Carbon Bond 2005; or SAPRC99 mechanisms.
    Aerosol Chemistry: Dry and aqueous inorganic and organic chemistry and thermodynamics; static 2-mode or evolving multi-section size models. " "Horizonal advection/diffusion: Bott or PPM advection, explicit diffusion.
    Vertical transport/diffusion: Implicit advection, implicit K-theory diffusion or explicit ACM2 diffusion.
    Gas-Phase Chemistry: EBI solver, IEH solver, or LSODE.
    Aerosol Chemistry: RADM-AQ; ISORROPIA, SOAP, CMU sectional model.
    Master time step is internally computed in order to ensure stability of the advection scheme.
    Multiple time steps per transport time step are used for gas chemistry.
    A 15 minutes time step is defined to couple gas and aerosol chemistry.
    Coordinate systems: Lat/Lon; UTM; Polar stereographic;
    Lambert Conformal
    Arakawa C grid configuration.
    Vertical level structure supplied via input file.
    Two way nesting allowed " "Meteorological fields are provided by MM5 or RAMS-CEAM meteorological models.
    Emission data are provided by research institutes (EMEP) or National Inventories. CEAM Foundation has also developed a high-resolution emission inventory, including the estimation of biogenic, road-traffic and main industrial emissions. These emission sources are calculated with a 1-h temporal and 1 km2 horizontal resolution using a bottom-up approach for primary pollutants, and are built into a Geographical Information System (GIS). " "Gridded (low-level) and elevated point sources (plume rise is determined within the model).
    The CAMx-CEAM model includes vegetation, traffic, and industry emissions in each of the nested domains. The anthropogenic emissions in the outer domains (Europe) are estimated from the EMEP emission inventory. The traffic and industry for the study domain is based in the National Inventory of Emissions, European Pollutant Emission Register and national data bases. Traffic emissions are suitably disaggregated both spatially, taking into account the road network configuration and the average traffic intensity, and temporally, considering the hourly distribution for weekdays and weekends. Industrial emissions included the estimated emissions from area sources as well as point sources. For the estimation of biogenic emissions the Guenther model is used adapted to the emission conditions of Mediterranean vegetation species. " "3-dimensional gridded fields of: horizontal wind components, temperature, pressure, water vapor, vertical diffusivity, clouds, rainfall.
    Meteorological fields are provided by MM5 or RAMS-CEAM meteorological models. " "Both land use cover and terrain heigh are taken from MM5 or RAMS-CEAM with the apllication of mm5camx or ramscamx, respectively. " "Gridded three-dimensional time-varying initial conditions are needed for all or a subset of species.
    Initial condicions for all species in 3D are used from the results of the previous model run.
    Furthermore, the impact of initial conditions can be minimized or even eliminated with a reasonable spin-up time (usually, 48-72 h) " "Gridded two-dimensional time-varying boundary conditions are needed for all or a subset of species.
    The boundary conditions are selected as average background concentrations for the area. The use of larger master domains could reduce the boundary conditions impact in the nested domains. " "Not available. " " Top concentration file (constant over the domain).
    Albedo/Haze/Ozone lookup table (uses TOMS ozone column data).
    Photolysis rates lookup table.
    Run Control file. " "Hourly (or user-defined interval) two- or three-dimensional concentration fields (ppm for gases, ug/m3 for aerosols).
    Hourly (or user-defined interval) two-dimensional surface deposition fields (m/s for deposition velocity, mol/h for gases, g/h for aerosols).
    Diagnostic and mass balance output files. " "GNU/Linux cluster " "Model should be applied by skilled users. " "Regional" "Project title: Evaluation of control strategies for ozone reduction in a complex terrain.
    Description: The study of air pollution in complex terrains requires high-resolution modelling to resolve the local flow structures and the influence of emission sources. However, to deal with the influence of larger-scale transport, this high-resolution domain has to be nested in larger domains to generate appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the finer resolution study domain.
    European Directive 2008/50/EC defines information and health protection thresholds. These thresholds are exceeded during the summer months in the Mediterranean area. Thus, appropriate emission reduction policies have to be defined to reduce ozone pollution episodes. In this application we evaluate the ozone response to several emission control strategies, assessing the benefits of each emission control strategy. The impact assessment is based on the differences between each of the control scenarios and the base case scenario. Results are thus formulated in terms of the expected reduction (or increase) in the ozone levels, using the maximum hourly and 8-hourly ozone values as representative of these ozone levels because of their direct relation to the legislative indications.
    Relevant References: Castell, N., Mantilla, E., Stein, A.F., Salvador, R., Millán, M. Simulation and evaluation of control strategies for ozone reduction in a complex terrain in Southwestern Spain. Environmental Modeling and Assessment (in review) " "Regional" "Project title: Evaluation of control strategies for ozone reduction in a complex terrain.
    Description: The study of air pollution in complex terrains requires high-resolution modelling to resolve the local flow structures and the influence of emission sources. However, to deal with the influence of larger-scale transport, this high-resolution domain has to be nested in larger domains to generate appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the finer resolution study domain.
    European Directive 2008/50/EC defines information and health protection thresholds. These thresholds are exceeded during the summer months in the Mediterranean area. Thus, appropriate emission reduction policies have to be defined to reduce ozone pollution episodes. In this application we evaluate the ozone response to several emission control strategies, assessing the benefits of each emission control strategy. The impact assessment is based on the differences between each of the control scenarios and the base case scenario. Results are thus formulated in terms of the expected reduction (or increase) in the ozone levels, using the maximum hourly and 8-hourly ozone values as representative of these ozone levels because of their direct relation to the legislative indications.
    Relevant References: Castell, N., Mantilla, E., Stein, A.F., Salvador, R., Millán, M. Simulation and evaluation of control strategies for ozone reduction in a complex terrain in Southwestern Spain. Environmental Modeling and Assessment (in review) " "Regional" "Project title: Evaluation of control strategies for ozone reduction in a complex terrain.
    Description: The study of air pollution in complex terrains requires high-resolution modelling to resolve the local flow structures and the influence of emission sources. However, to deal with the influence of larger-scale transport, this high-resolution domain has to be nested in larger domains to generate appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the finer resolution study domain.
    European Directive 2008/50/EC defines information and health protection thresholds. These thresholds are exceeded during the summer months in the Mediterranean area. Thus, appropriate emission reduction policies have to be defined to reduce ozone pollution episodes. In this application we evaluate the ozone response to several emission control strategies, assessing the benefits of each emission control strategy. The impact assessment is based on the differences between each of the control scenarios and the base case scenario. Results are thus formulated in terms of the expected reduction (or increase) in the ozone levels, using the maximum hourly and 8-hourly ozone values as representative of these ozone levels because of their direct relation to the legislative indications.
    Relevant References: Castell, N., Mantilla, E., Stein, A.F., Salvador, R., Millán, M. Simulation and evaluation of control strategies for ozone reduction in a complex terrain in Southwestern Spain. Environmental Modeling and Assessment (in review) " "Level 1: Complete documentations available, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals with details on the machine code.
    Can be downloaded via http://www.camx.com" "The evaluation of the model performance on the known gas and aerosol species like ozone, NOx, sulfates, nitrates etc, has been included in several publications worldwide (www.camx.com). " "Air quality network measurements for the species concentration have been used to evaluate the simulations. " "How can I get more detailed information on model technical features? You can rely on the user`s guide (http://www.camx.com/) to provide the information needed to have a good understanding of CAMx. Are there any reference materials that describe various developments and applications of CAMx? Yes, a selected list of publications can be found at http://www.camx.com. " "Unix and Linux platforms " "2 grids domain (148 x 112 x 19) and (170 x 179 x 19).
    Mechanism 4 CMU (4 sections, 86 total species),.
    Memory: 1 gB
    CPUs: 1
    Execution time: 8hrs / episode day " "2.3 gB/ episode day " "CAMx is publicly available for free at: www.camx.com " "ENVIRON. 2009. Users Guide; Comprehensive Air Quality model with Extensions, version 5.10. ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, California (USA). September 2009. Available at www.camx.com. " "Castell, N., Mantilla, E., Salvador, R., Stein, A.F., and Millán, M. A modeling study of the impact of a power plant on ground-level ozone in relation to its location: Southwestern Spain as a case study. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, DOI 10,1007/s11270-009-0181-y, 2009. Castell, N., Mantilla, E., Salvador, R., Stein, A., and Millán, M. Photochemical model evaluation of the surface ozone impact of a power plant in a heavily industrialized area of southwestern Spain. Journal of Environmental Management, DOI 10.1016/j.envman.2009.09.30, 2009. Castell, N., Stein, A., Salvador, R., Mantilla, E., and Millán, M. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to modified initial and boundary conditions in both rural and industrial zones. Adv. Sci. Res., 2, 113-118, 2008. Castell, N., Stein, A., Salvador, R.,Mantilla, E., and Millán, M.: The impact of biogenic VOC emissions on photochemical ozone formation in a high ozone pollution episode in the Iberian Peninsula for the 2003 summer season. Adv. Sci. Res., 2, 9-15, 2008. " 3/29/2011 18:23:40 183 "MCM-CEAM" "Jose Luis" "Fundacion CEAM (www.ceam.es) " "palau_josalo@gva.es, joseluis@ceam.es" "Valencia, SPAIN" "Tropospheric ozone, Summer smog, Winter smog, Air toxics, Urban air quality, Chemical emergencies" "Air quality assessment, Regulatory purposes and compliance, Scientific research" "Concentrations" "Traffic emissions (line source), Multiple source, Emission inventory database (gridded data)" "Continuous release without interruption" "Local (up to 30 km), Local-to-Regional (30-300 km)" "Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Ozone (O3), Benzene, Ammonia (NH3)" "Chemically active" "Lagrangian models, Chemical models" "10 minutes to 1 hour" "PC" "MCM-CEAM" "Master Chemical Mechanism" "Version 3.1" "March 2004" "Center for Environmental Studies of the Mediterranean Foundation (CEAM Foundation) " "Monica Vazquez-Moreno" "C. Charles Darwin, 14
    46980 Parque Tecnologico
    Paterna, Valencia (Spain)" "+34 96 131 82 27" "+34 96 131 81 90" "monica@ceam.es" "http://www.ceam.es" "Provided by contact person" "Intermediate" "The user should have some experience in air quality modeling and specially in atmospheric chemistry, chemical mechanisms and kinetic parameters. Knowledge on UNIX/LINUX operation systems and FORTRAN programming language should be also necessary." "1) Simulation of the experiments performed in smog chambers for the study of chemical mechanisms and degradation prod