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Air pollution

Particulate matter (PM10) - Annual limit value for the protection of human health
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set two limit values for particulate matter (PM10) for the protection of human health: the PM10 daily mean value may not exceed 50 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) more than 35 times in a year and the PM10 annual mean value may not exceed 40 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). In some areas time extensions have been granted by DG Environment for meeting these limit values. Information about time extensions is provided by DG Environment at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/legislation/time_extensions.htm
Nitrogen dioxide - Annual limit values for the protection of human health
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50) the EU has set two limit values for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for the protection of human health: the NO2 hourly mean value may not exceed 200 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) more than 18 times in a year and the NO2 annual mean value may not exceed 40 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). These limit values come into force for concentrations measured from 1.1.2010 so during 2009 a margin of tolerance equal to an annual mean value of 42 micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3) is still in place.
Benzo(a)pyrene - Annual target value for the protection of human health
In the directive 2004/107/EC (Fourth Daughter Directive), the EU has set a target value for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) for the protection of human health; the target is defined in terms of concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) which is used as a marker substance for PAHs generally: the BaP annual mean value may not exceed 1 nanogram per cubic metre (ng/m3). The target value enters into force 31.12.2012.
Ozone - 8 hour mean target value for the protection of human health
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set a target value and a long term objective value for ozone (O3) for the protection of human health. Target value: the maximum daily eight-hour mean may not exceed 120 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) on more than 25 days per calendar year averaged over three years. Long term objective value: the maximum daily eight-hour mean may not exceed 120 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) within a calendar year.
Sulphur dioxide - Annual limit value for the protection of ecosystems
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set two limit values for sulphur dioxide (SO2) for the protection of vegetation within the zones designated by member states: the SO2 annual mean value may not exceed 20 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) and the SO2 mean value for the winter period (1 October to 31 March) may not exceed 20 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3).
Sulphur dioxide - Hourly limit value for the protection of human health
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50) the EU has set two limit values for sulphur dioxide (SO2) for the protection of human health: the SO2 hourly mean value may not exceed 350 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) more than 24 times in a year and the SO2 daily mean value may not exceed 125 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) more than 3 times in a year.
Benzene - Annual limit value for the protection of human health
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set a limit value for benzene (C6H6) for the protection of human health: the annual mean value may not exceed 5 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). The limit value comes into effect for data measured from 1 January 2010. During 2009 a margin of tolerance was in place so the annual mean should not exceed 6 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3).
Percentage of urban population resident in areas where pollutant concentrations are higher than selected limit/target values, 2000-2012 (EU-28)
The rationale for selection of pollutant and corresponding limit/target values for CSI 004 is given in the justification for indicator selection.
Projected differences in relative yield losses (RYL), for wheat, rice, maize and soybeans, for major world regions
The figure showns projected yield losses due to elevated ozone concentrations. The 2030 scenario assumes the implementation of current legislation for the major world regions. Positive RYL values indicate an increase in crop yield loss in 2030 compared with 2005.
Historical and projected trends in peak concentrations of tropospheric ozone
The graphs shows the results from a study that estimates regionally averaged changes in surface ozone due to past or future changes in anthropogenic precursor emissions based on 14 global chemistry transport models.
Exposure of ecosystems to acidification
The maps show the average accumulated exceedance of critical loads for acidification in 1980 (top left), 1990 (top right), 2000 (middle left), 2010 (middle right), 2020 under the revised Gothenburg Protocol scenario emission reduction agreements (bottom left) and 2030 assuming maximum technically feasible reduction (bottom right).
Exposure of ecosystems to eutrophication
The maps show areas where critical loads for eutrophication of freshwater and terrestrial habitats are exceeded (CSI 005) by nitrogen depositions caused by emissions between 1980 (top left) and 2030 (bottom right)
Number of days on which ozone concentrations exceeded the long-term objective for the protection of human health during summer 2014 (provisional data)
The long-term objective (LTO, i.e. the maximum daily 8-hour mean concentration of ozone should not exceed 120 μg/m3) was exceeded in almost all Member States and in 81% of all reporting stations - except Croatia, Estonia, Ireland, Romania and Serbia.
Number of days on which the 2012 target value for the protection of human health was exceeded (summers of 2012, 2013 and 2014)
The 2012 target value was exceeded in 14 reporting EU Member States (Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain) and in two of the other reporting countries with enough data in the three years period (Serbia and Switzerland).
Number of days on which ozone concentrations exceeded the information threshold during the summer of 2014 (provisional data)
Ozone concentrations higher than the information threshold were reported from monitoring sites in 16 EU Member States and two non-member countries. No exceedances were reported from Andorra, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Sweden in summer 2014.
Trends in average Nitrogen inputs for the period 2000-2005 compared to the year 2000
Condition of Agro ecosystems map
The map shows the condition of agro ecosystems map. Based on pan-European High Nature Value farmland map using as mask the agricultural categories of Corine land cover map of 2006.
AirBase - Exchange of information
Observed air quality concentration maps for 2013 for components O3, PM10, NO2, PM2.5 and BaP.
Modelled future change (absolute and relative) in surface summertime ozone concentrations (left: daily average, right: daily maxima) over Europe at the end of the century
Absolute and relative difference between future (2071-2100) and present (1960-2010) summertime average daily and maxima ozone levels in a 3 model ensemble. The modelled changes shown are only due to climate variability and climate change. A diamond sign is plotted where the change is significant, and a plus sign is added where the change is robust across two-third of modelled years. The period 2071-2100 is taken as representative of the end of the 21st century (2100)
Modelled future change (absolute and relative) in surface summertime ozone concentrations (left: daily average, right: daily maxima) over Europe at the middle of the century
Absolute and relative difference between future (2041-2070) and present (1960-2010) summertime average daily and maxima ozone levels in a 9 model ensemble. The modelled changes shown are only due to climate variability and climate change. A diamond sign is plotted where the change is significant, and a plus sign is added where the change is robust across two-third of modelled years. The period 2041-2070 is taken as representative of the middle of the 21st century (2050)
Exceedances of air quality objectives due to traffic measured in traffic stations and background stations
The figure shows the annual mean and back ground concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 observed at traffic stations in 2013. The two highest PM10 concentration classes (dark orange and light orange) correspond to the 2005 annual LV (40 μg/m3) and to a statistically derived level (31 μg/m3) corresponding to the 2005 daily LV. The lowest class corresponds to the WHO air quality guideline for PM10 of 20 μg/m3.
Population-weighted concentration field of annual mean BaP
The map shows annual average concentration of benzo(a)pyrene weighted by population. Dark-green areas correspond to concentrations under the estimated reference level (0.12 ng/m3). Dark-red areas correspond to concentrations exceeding the 2004 AQ Directive target value of 1 ng/m3.
Annual mean PM10 concentrations observed at background stations
The figure shows the background concentrations of PM10 observed at traffic stations in 2013. The two highest PM10 concentration classes (dark orange and light orange) correspond to the 2005 annual limit value (40 μg/m3) and to a statistically derived level (31 μg/m3) corresponding to the 2005 daily limit value. The lowest class corresponds to the WHO air quality guideline for PM10 of 20 μg/m3.
EU progress in meeting emission ceilings set out in the NECD Annexes I and II
EU progress in meeting emission ceilings (for compliance and for environmental objectives) of the four main air pollutants regulated in the 2001 National Emission Ceilings Directive
Distance to emission reduction commitment
Air pollution emissions trends from 2005, 2014 and trend 2020
Air quality standards under the Air Quality Directive, and WHO air quality guidelines
Table
90.4 percentile of PM10 daily concentrations in 2014
Observed concentrations of PM10 in 2014. The map shows the 90.4 percentile of the PM10 daily mean concentrations, representing the 36th highest value in a complete series. It is related to the PM10 daily limit value, allowing 35 exceedances over 1 year of the 50 μg/m3 threshold. The red and dark-red dots indicate stations with exceedances of this daily limit value. Only stations with more than 75 % of valid data have been included in the map.
Annual mean NO2 concentrations in 2014
Observed concentrations of NO2 in 2014. The map shows the NO2 annual mean concentrations. The red and dark red dots indicate stations with exceedances of the annual limit value (40 µg/m3). Only stations with more than 75 % of valid data have been included in the map.
Annual mean benzene concentrations in 2014
Observed concentrations of benzene in 2014. The map shows the benzene annual mean concentrations. The dark red dots indicate stations with exceedances of the annual limit value (5 µg/m3). The dark green dots correspond to concentrations under the estimated WHO reference level (1.7 µg/m3). Only stations with more than 50 % of valid data have been included in the map.
Annual mean arsenic concentrations in 2014
Observed concentrations of arsenic in 2014. The map shows the arsenic annual mean concentrations. The red and dark red dots indicate stations with exceedances of the annual target value (6 ng/m3). Only stations with more than 14 % of valid data have been included in the map.