Air pollution - State and impacts ()

SOER 2010 Common environmental theme (Deprecated) expired
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This content has been archived on 21 Mar 2015, reason: A new version has been published
SOER Common environmental theme from Montenegro.
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 21 Mar 2015

Systematic measuring of emissions of basic polluting substances to the air

Systematic measuring of emissions of basic polluting substances to the air of Montenegro includes continuous 24 hour measuring of: sulphur dioxide (SO2), total nitrogen oxides (NOx), tropospheric ozone (O3), black soot, the overall content of suspended particles including the content of heavy metals and PAHs, and the content of heavy metals in sedimentary materials at 14 locations in 10 settlements of Montenegro (Figure 1). Measurements at these locations have been performed continually since 1998. Since 2007, measurement of particles that have a special impact on human health (PM2,5 and PM10) is being performed in one location.

Systematic measuring of emissions of specific polluting substances

Systematic measuring of emissions of specific polluting substances includes analysis of ammonia, fluorides and phenols. Systematic measuring of ammonia emissions is performed at 14 locations in the same 10 urban settlements in Montenegro, as well as of the basic polluting substances. Systematic measuring of fluoride and phenol emissions to air is performed at seven stations.           

Occasional measuring of polluting emissions from traffic fumes of motor vehicles

Occasional measuring of basic and specific polluting emissions – sulphur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, total nitrogen oxides, tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), suspended particles and meteorological parameters – is performed at high-traffic intersections and on roads.


Measuring points in Montenegro

Figure 1 Measuring points in Montenegro

Source: CETI Montenegro, 2008.


Measured concentrations (mean annual concentration) of sulphur dioxide (Figure 2), nitrogen dioxide (Figure 3), tropospheric ozone (Figure 4) and black soot (Figure 5) have been below the limit values specified in the EU Directives at all measuring points, from 1999 to 2008.

Mean annual concentration of SO2

Figure 2 Mean annual concentration of SO2                

Source: EPA Montenegro, 2009.     

Mean annual concentration of  NO2

Figure 3 Mean annual concentration of  NO2

Source: EPA Montenegro, 2009.


 Mean annual concentration of O3

Figure 4 Mean annual concentration of O3

Source: EPA Montenegro, 2009.   

Black soot

Figure 5 Black soot

Source: EPA Montenegro, 2009.


Concentration of black soot measured during the winter period was higher than the mean annual concentration. Main reason for this was heating by solid fuels.

Mean annual concentration of fluoride

Figure 6 Mean annual concentration of fluoride

Fluoride as a specific polluting substance of the air in Montenegro originates from aluminum industry (Podgorica), and from burning of coal in Pljevlja and Niksic. At the annual level (figure 6), a downward trend is noticeable, whereas maximum measured concentrations in localities near the emission source are above the allowed level. 

Source: EPA Montenegro, 2009.


Data collected and processed in Podgorica, the capital city, covers about 30 % of the whole population of Montenegro. During 2008 at this location, with little variation, the concentrations of basic pollutants – SO2, NO2 and PM10 – can be seen in terms of the air quality index AQI_MN_08 (Figure 7).


State of air quality in Podgorica in 2008 based on daily SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentrations

Figure 7 State of air quality in Podgorica in 2008 based on daily SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentrations

Source: EPA Montenegro, 2009.


Air quality assessment using the air quality index AQI_MN_08, defined in EPA Montenegro, indicates that during 2008 in Podgorica, air quality was mostly EXCELLENT because the daily mean concentration of SO2 was small, 98.7%. NOx concentrations were mainly within the limits of  GOOD air quality, 53.6 %. The PM10 concentrations had the biggest impact on air quality under the categories of ACCEPTABLE, 48 3 %, and POLLUTED, 23 4 %. Measured PM10 concentrations during 2008 (Figure 8) were above 50 µg/m3 87 times – it should not exceeded more than 35 times per year.


Measured concentrations frequency of PM10 in urban location (Podgorica)

Figure 8 Measured concentrations frequency of PM10 in urban location (Podgorica)

Source: EPA Montenegro, 2009.


Montenegro has prepared a national registry of emissions of atmospheric pollutants in accordance with the Convention on cross-border pollution at large distances (CLRTAP). The Register of Gases covered by LRTAP was prepared for 2006. Assessment of emissions was implemented in accordance with EMEP/CORINAIR methodology, whereby total emissions on Montenegrin territory are given as the total of emissions from 11 main sectors (Figure 9).


         9 Total emissions of main pollutants by sectors based on CORINAIR methodology

Figure 9 Total emissions of main pollutants by sectors based on CORINAIR methodology


1  COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION  INDUSTRY                                                 

2  NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS                                                                             

3  COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY                                                                   

4  PRODUCTION PROCESSES                                                                                                 



6  SOLVENT AND OTHER PRODUCT USE                                                                             

7  ROAD TRANSPORT                                                                                                               

8  OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY                                                                         

9  WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL                                                                               

10  AGRICULTURE                                                                                                                     

11  OTHER SOURCES AND SINKS                                                                                          

Total emissions of main pollutants, the main sectors   


                      CO (Mg)   VOC (Mg)   NOX (Mg)    PM10 (Mg)   PM2,5 (Mg)     SOX (Mg)

Total            34 543.04      20 230.2    7 244.25       10 377.4      6 906.68         15 092


Source: EPA Montenegro, 2009.      


Policy context and solution and actions taken by the country

New regulation adopted in 2008 in order to harmonise with EU legislation are the Decree on limit values of levels and types of ambient air pollutants and alert thresholds, and other air quality standards. The decree sets deadlines for limit value achievement, margins of tolerance for the limit values, target values and long-term targets.

· New bylaws are in preparation.

Further national information

·        Homepages:,,,,

·        State of the Environment Report (,



The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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