Climate change mitigation - National Responses (Croatia)

SOER 2010 Common environmental theme (Deprecated) expired
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SOER Common environmental theme from Croatia
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 21 Mar 2015

Measures and activities in the Energy sector

The Energy sector (stationary sources) accounts for around 50% of total GHG emissions in Croatia. The activities intensified during the recent years, and a number of bylaws aiming at increase in energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources and efficient cogenerations has been passed, which should indirectly result in mitigation of the environmental impact of Energy sector. The Energy Strategy is a baseline document which defines energy policy and sets the following targets and measures for the reduction of GHG emissions [7]:

  • Energy efficiency in energy production and consumption

    - 10% reduction of direct energy consumption by 2020 as compared to average consumption in 2001–2005 period.

  • Increase in share of renewable energy sources in gross direct energy consumption to 20% by 2020. Sectoral targets are:

     - 35% RES in electricity production, including large hydroelectric power plants (9.2% of total RES share);

     - 10% in transport (2.2.% of total RES share);

     - 20% for heating and cooling systems (8.6% of total RES share).

  • Inclusion in EU emission trading system and the application of other flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol
  • Preparation for the application of CO2 capture and separation technology in new coal-firing thermal power plants and storage in geologic formations
  • Research and application of CO2 injection technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
  • Decisions on the use of nuclear energy
  • Promotion of research and transfer of new technologies for energy production, energy conservation, renewable energy sources, use of hydrogen, transportation efficiency, intelligent network systems, CO2 storage, etc.


Setting up the emissions trading system

In order to harmonise the Croatian legislation with Directive 2003/87/EC which introduced the system of GHG emission trading among EU Member States, the Croatian government issued the Regulation on Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowances and Emissions Trading (Official Gazette 142/08) in 2008. This regulation establishes a GHG emissions trading system in accordance with the criteria used to establish the EU trading system. For the first time this sets an upper limit for GHG emissions for electricity producers and industrial facilities in Croatia. By the Air Protection Act (Official Gazette 178/04, 60/08) the government adopted an Allocation Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowances in the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette 76/09). The plan sets upper limits for  carbon dioxide emissions for the period 2010 to 2012 for the operators to which the Regulation applies. The Croatian emission trading system is planned to be implemented in two phases. During 2009-2010, the operators will obtain permits for emissions, and during 2010-2012 they will monitor emissions from the plants and submit verified reports thereon. Upon the accession of Croatia to the EU, allowances will be allocated to the accounts of plants in the Register and the Croatian ETS system will be integrated into the EU ETS.


UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

The UN Convention on Climate Change came into force in July 1996 (Official Gazette-International Treaties, 2/96). As a country in transition to a market economy Croatia assumed obligations as a party to Annex I of the Convention and now regularly submits its Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reports (NIR) and periodic reports to the UNFCCC Secretariat [5].

When it ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2007, Croatia accepted a series of additional requirements and commitments, including:

  • The establishment of a national system for the assessment of emissions from anthropogenic sources and removals by sinks of all GHG gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol (in accordance with Article 5 of the Kyoto Protocol);
  • The setting up of a national register of GHG emissions in order to calculate allocated amounts exactly and meet requirements for monitoring, reporting and revision under Articles 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol.

The key document defining the position, goals and methods for fulfilling the commitments under the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol is the National Strategy and Action Plan for the Implementation of UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. Furthermore, in May 2008, the Croatian government adopted the Air Quality Protection and Improvement Plan for the Republic of Croatia 2008-2011 (Official Gazette 61/2008). The National Strategy and Action Plan for the Implementation of UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol is an integral part of this plan.

The GHG emissions are currently below the Croatia's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol in relation to the base year 1990, including the additional 3,500 Gg CO2–eq. approved at the 12th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC Convention from Nairobi (Decision 7/CP12). Applicability of the Decision 7/CP12 is under consideration. In case it will not be able to use the base year determined by the 7/CP12, Croatia will have to invest additional efforts and funds in "additional measures" scenario in order to meet its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. 



[1] Human Development Report – Climate for Change, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Croatia, Zagreb, 2008

[2] Report of the Greenhouse Gas Inventory of the Republic of Croatia for the Period 1990-2007 (NIR 2009)

[3] Draft Report on the State of the Environment in the Republic of Croatia, Croatian Environment Agency

[4] Air Quality Protection and Improvement Plan for the Republic of Croatia for the Period 2008-2011 (Official Gazette 61/08)

[5] Fifth National Communication of the Republic of Croatia under the United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Official Gazette 24/10)

[6] Quantified economy-wide emissions targets for 2020

[7] Energy Strategy for the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette 130/09)




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