Indicator Assessment

Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances

Indicator Assessment
Prod-ID: IND-3-en
  Also known as: CLIM 049
Published 15 Oct 2007 Last modified 11 May 2021
11 min read
This is an old version, kept for reference only.

Go to latest version
This page was archived on 24 Aug 2015 with reason: Other (New version data-and-maps/indicators/production-and-consumption-of-ozone-2/assessment was published)

The total production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in EEA member countries has decreased strongly since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987. In 2006, consumption and production stood at 615 and 114 ODP tonnes, respectively.

Production of ozone depleting substances in EEA member countries, 1986-2006

Note: Some of the calculated production or consumption figures may be negative

Data source:


Consumption of ozone depleting substances in EU-27, 1986-2006

Note: Consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances under the Montreal Protocol

Data source:


'The Montreal Protocol is working'. This is the main conclusion from UNEP's 2006 Synthesis Assessment under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. UNEP's Synthesis Assessment is supported by the three 2006 Assessment Panel Reports (i.e. Scientific Panel, Environmental Effects Panel and Technology and Economic Panel).  The Panels are the pillars of the ozone protection regime since the implementation of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 (i.e. the UNEP treaty to protect the Earth's ozone layer).

The 2006 UNEP Assessment shows there is clear evidence of a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere. There are also some early signs of an onset of the expected stratospheric ozone recovery.

For the EEA member countries as a whole, consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances fell significantly between 2005 and 2006. Before the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, the production of ODSs in the EEA stood at about 516616 ODP tonnes. In 2006, production was down to 114 OPD tonnes. The consumption of ODPs fell from 406320 in 1986 to -615 in 2006 (see charts).

According to the conclusions from the Panels, there are a number of options available to return to the pre-1980 levels (the period used as benchmark for the global ozone layer recovery). These include: 1) accelerated phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and tighter control of methyl bromide applications and 2) immediate collection and destruction, in order of importance, of halons, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and HCFCs.

HCFCs both damage the ozone layer (although less than CFCs) and contribute to global warming. They were planned as interim substitutes and were due to be phased out in 2030 by developed countries and in 2040 by developing ones. However, HCFC concentrations continue to increase in the atmosphere. Governments have recently agreed to freeze production of HCFCs in developing countries in 2013 and bring forward the final phase-out date of these chemicals by ten years in both developed and developing countries (Montreal/Nairobi, 22 September 2007). This can be seen as a historic agreement to tackle the challenges of protecting the ozone layer and combating climate change at the same time.

It is worth noting that according to UNEP's 2006 Assessment, there exist technically and economically feasible substitutes for almost all ODS applications.

Some other key findings are:

  • Polar ozone loss will remain large and highly variable in the coming decades, and the Antarctic ozone hole will persist longer than previously estimated.
  • Failure to continue to comply with the Montreal Protocol could delay or even prevent the recovery of the ozone layer.
  • UV-B radiation influences living organisms, ecosystems, and materials. In human populations it can cause severe damage to the eyes, skin cancers, and suppressions of the immune system.
  • The projected recovery of the ozone layer is sensitive to future levels and greenhouse gases and the associated changes in climate.
  • Climate change will influence the exposure of all living organisms to UV-B radiation via changes in cloudiness, precipitation, and ice cover. 

Supporting information

Indicator definition

This indicator quantifies the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in Europe. ODS are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine or/and bromine and that destroy the stratospheric ozone layer.


Tonnes of ODS weighted by their Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP).


Policy context and targets

Context description

Following agreement of the Vienna convention (1985) and the Montreal protocol (1987) and its subsequent amendments and adjustments, policy measures have been taken to limit or phase-out production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to protect the stratospheric ozone layer against depletion. This indicator tracks progress towards this limiting or phasing-out production and consumption of ODS.

For the European Union, the ratification rates were the following:


Date of Ratification

Vienna Convention

 17 Oct 1988

Montreal Protocol

 16 Dec 1988

London Amendment

 20 Dec 1991

Copenhagen Amendment

 20 Nov 1995

Montreal Amendment

 17 Nov 2000

Beijing Amendment

 25 Mar 2002


The international target under the Ozone Conventions and Protocols is the complete phase-out of ODS, according to the schedule below.

Countries falling under Article 5, paragraph 1 of the Montreal Protocol are considered as developing countries under the protocol. Phase-out schedules for Article 5(1) countries are delayed by 10 - 20 years as compared to non-article 5(1) countries.

Montreal protocol EEA member ountries 
article 5(1)  Cyprus, Malta, Romania and Turkey
non-article 5(1) all other EEA member countries

Summary of phase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countries, including Beijing adjustments.

Group Phase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countries Remark

Annex-A, group 1: CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115)

Base level: 1986

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex A, group 2: Halons (halon 1211, halon 1301, halon 2402)

Base level: 1986

100% reduction by 1-1-1994 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 1: Other fully halogenated CFCs (CFC-13, CFC-111, CFC-112, CFC-211, CFC-212, CFC-213, CFC-214, CFC-215, CFC-216, CFC-217)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 2: Carbontetrachloride (CCl4)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 3: 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH3CCl3) (=methyl chloroform)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 1: HCFCs (HydroChloroFluoroCarbons)

Base level: 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1996

35 % reduction by 1-1-2004

65 % reduction by 1-1-2010

90 % reduction by 1-1-2015

99.5 % reduction by 1-1-2020, and thereafter consumption restricted to the servicing of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment existing at that date.

100 % reduction by 1-1-2030

Applicable to consumption


Base level: Average of 1989 HCFC production + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC production and 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1-1-2004, at the base level for production

Applicable to production

Annex C, group 2: HBFCs (HydroBromoFluoroCarbons)

Base level: year not specified.

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 3: Bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl)

Base level: year not specified.

100% reduction by 1-1-2002 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex E, group 1: Methyl bromide (CH3Br)

Base level: 1991

Freeze: 1-1-1995

25 % reduction by 1-1-1999

50 % reduction by 1-1-2001

75 % reduction by 1-1-2003

100 % reduction by 1-1-2005 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Related policy documents



Methodology for indicator calculation

The indicator presents production and consumption in units of tonnes of ODS, which is the amount of ODS produced or consumed, multiplied by their respective ozone depleting potential value. The UNEP - Ozone secretariat data are already provided in tonnes of Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP tonnes). All data can be downloaded from


How is production and consumption calculated? 


Calculation formulae are defined by Articles 1 and 3 of the Montreal Protocol.


Simple definition:

Consumption = Production + Imports - Exports

Subtract Destroyed amounts

Subtract Feedstock Uses

Exclude Quarantine and Pre-shipment applications for methyl bromide

Include Exports to non-Parties as consumption


Parties report each of the above components annually to the Ozone Secretariat in the official data reporting forms. The Parties do not, however, make the above subtractions and other calculations themselves. The Ozone Secretariat performs this task


Calculated Production = (Production - Feedstock Production - Feedstock Exports - Quarantine Production) - Destroyed

Calculated Consumption = (Production - Feedstock Production - Quarantine Production) + (Imports - Feedstock Imports - Quarantine Imports) - (Exports - Quarantine Exports) - Destroyed + Non Party Exports


Parties that only import ozone-depleting substances, ODS, (that is, they do not produce ODS, use ODS for feedstock, destroy ODS or re-export ODS) will usually have zero annual calculated production of ODS, and their annual calculated consumption will be equal to their imports.


(Feedstock Production is only for internal use)

(Quarantine Production is both for internal use and for export)

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling takes place.

Methodology references



Methodology uncertainty


Data sets uncertainty


Rationale uncertainty

Policies focuses on the production and consumption of ODS rather than emissions. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver for industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after disposal of products in which ODS are used (fire-extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.).

Data sources

Other info

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Policy-effectiveness indicator (Type D)
Indicator codes
  • CLIM 049
Frequency of updates
Updates are scheduled once per year
EEA Contact Info


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage



Filed under:
Filed under: ozone, csi, air
Document Actions