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Indicator Assessment

GHG emissions - outlook from EEA

Indicator Assessment
Prod-ID: IND-65-en
Published 08 Jun 2007 Last modified 11 May 2021
19 min read
This page was archived on 09 Feb 2021 with reason: Other (Discontinued indicator)

EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions are decreasing. This overall trend is projected to continue until 2020 but further emission reductions will be needed to meet the target of a 20 % reduction by 2020 compared to 1990. In 2006, EU-15 emissions were above the Kyoto Protocol target of - 8 %. However, as indicated in the 2007 analysis, projections from Member States for 2010 suggest that the target will be met by a large margin through further implementation of existing and additional measures, use of carbon sinks and Kyoto mechanisms.

For more recent and broader assessment please read CSI 011 Specification - Greenhouse gas emission projections

http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/greenhouse-gas-emission-projections

Required information is not filled in: Information about the starting date of the publishing schedule is missing.

EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions and projections for the Kyoto period 2008-2012

Note: Note: The full effect of the EU Emission Trading Scheme is not reflected in all Member States´; projections.

Data source:

EEA, based on EU-15 Member States greenhouse gas inventories and projections

The EU is committed to achieve at least a 20 % reduction of its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 compared to 1990 and is ready to reduce emissions by as much as 30 % under a new global climate change agreement when other developed countries make comparable efforts. With the measures currently in place, EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions are projected to increase by 1 % between 2006 and 2010. With the implementation of additional measures, EU-27 emissions are projected to decrease continuously between 2006 and 2020. Nevertheless, current projections indicate that the EU-27 will not be able to reach the 20 % reduction target. Most projections from Member States do not, however, take into account the effects of the EU climate change and energy package proposed by the Commission in January 2008.

In 2006, EU-15 emissions were above the Kyoto Protocol target of - 8 %. However, as indicated in the 2007 analysis, projections from Member States for 2010 suggest that the target will be met by a large margin through further implementation of existing and additional measures, use of carbon sinks and Kyoto mechanisms. Furthermore, the EU emission trading scheme will bring important further reductions, which are not yet fully accounted for by Member States in their projections.

Twelve EU-15 Member States project they will achieve their individual targets. Four of them reached a level below their target in 2006. (France, Greece, Sweden and the United Kingdom).

Projections from three Member States  (Denmark, Italy and Spain) indicate that they will not meet their targets. However, projections submitted in 2008 indicate that gaps between targets and projections are much narrower than last year.

In 2006, aggregated emissions of the EU-12 Member States were 25 % below 1990 levels. However, by 2010, if no additional measures are implemented, greenhouse gas emissions are projected to increase from the current level to a level 19 % below that of 1990.

All the 10 Member States that joined the EU after 1st May 2004 (EU-12) and that have a Kyoto target project to meet it with existing measures, except Slovenia. Slovenia projects that it will reach its target with additional measures, and the use of carbon sinks and Kyoto mechanisms

Greenhouse gas emissions have been decreasing in all main sectors (except transport) and are projected to further decrease (except in industrial processes). Significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions between 2006 and 2010 (in relative terms) can be expected from existing measures in the waste sector and from additional measures in the transport sector. The targets on renewable energy for 2010 and 2020 will not be met without significant further efforts from Member States.

Source: EEA report No 5/2008 EEA Report No 5/2008. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2008 Tracking progress towards Kyoto targets. Executive summary. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2008.

CSI 011 - Greenhouse gas emission projections

Supporting information

Indicator definition

Definition:

This indicator illustrates the projected trends in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in relation to the EU and Member State targets, using existing policies and measures and/or additional policies and/or use of Kyoto mechanisms. The greenhouse gases are those covered by the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, HFCs and PFCs), weighed by their respective global warming potential, aggregated and presented in CO2-equivalent units.

The indicator also provides information on emissions from the main greenhouse gas emitting sectors: energy supply and use (including energy industry, fugitive emissions, energy use by industry and by other sectors); transport; industry (processes); agriculture; waste and other (non-energy).

Model used: PRIMES, IMAGE, WEM

Ownership: European Environment Agency


Temporal coverage: 1990 - 2030

Geographical coverage: EU 15 : Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom; EU 10 : Cyprus, Czech republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia

Units

The indicator is measured in Mt CO2 eq. per year


 

Policy context and targets

Context description

Over a decade ago, most countries joined an international treaty -- the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) -- to begin to consider what can be done to reduce global warming and to cope with whatever temperature increases are inevitable. Recently, a number of nations have approved an addition to the treaty: the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol, an international and legally binding agreement to reduce greenhouse gases emissions world wide, entered into force on February 16th 2005. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol shares the Convention's objective, principles and institutions, but significantly strengthens the Convention by committing Annex I Parties to individual, legally-binding targets to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

EU level

The indicator is aimed to support the Commission's annual progress assessment of the EU and the Member States reduction of emissions towards achieving the Kyoto Protocol target under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (Council Decision 280/2004/EC)

Targets

Pan-Eurepan level

31 countries and the EEC are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions below levels specified for each of them in the Kyoto Protocol.  The individual targets for Annex I Parties are listed in the Kyoto Protocol's Annex B. These add up to a total cut in greenhouse-gas emissions of at least 5% from 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008-2012.


EU-level

For the EU-15 Member States, the targets are those set out in Council Decision 2002/358EC in which Member States agreed that some countries would be allowed to increase their emissions, within limits, provided these are offset by reductions in others.

 

The EU-15 Kyoto Protocol target for 2008-2012 is a reduction of 8 % from 1990 levels for the basket of six greenhouse gases. For the new Member States, the candidate countries and other EEA member countries, the targets are included in the Kyoto Protocol.


Overview of national Kyoto targets (reduction from base year levels):

 




Kyoto Target 
2008-2012



Kyoto Target 
2008-2012
Austria -13% Luxembourg -28.0%
Belgium -7.5% Malta -
Bulgaria -8.0% Netherlands -6.0%
Croatia -5.0% Norway 1.0%
Czech Republic -8.0% Poland -6.0%
Cyprus - Portugal +27.0%
Denmark -21.0% Romania -8.0%
Estonia -8.0% Slovakia -8.0%
Finland 0% Slovenia -8.0%
France 0% Spain +15.0%
Germany -21.0% Sweden +4.0%
Greece +25.0% Turkey -
Hungary -6.0% United Kingdom -12.5%
Iceland -10.0% 15 old EU Member
States (EU15)
-8.0%
Ireland +13.0% Belarus 0
Italy -8.0% Russian Federation 0
Latvia -8.0% Ukraine 0
Liechtenstein -8.0%
Lithuania -8.0%

Non-Annex I countries are not bound to such commitments and do not expect reduction of the GHG emissions.

The post 2012 climate regime will look different compared to Kyoto. In March 2007, the Council of the European Union decided that the EU would make a firm independent commitment to achieving at least a 20 % reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 compared to 1990. On 23 January 2008 the European Commission put forward a package of proposals that will deliver on the European Union's ambitious commitments to fight climate change and promote renewable energy up to 2020 and beyond. In December 2008 the European Parliament and Council reached an agreement on the package that will help transform Europe into a low-carbon economy and increase its energy security. The Package sets a number of targets for EU member states with the ambition to achieve the goal of limiting the rise in global average temperature to 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial times including: GHG reduction of 20% compared to 1990 by 2020 (under a satisfactory global climate agreement this could be scaled up to a 30% reduction); 20% reduction in energy consumption through improved energy efficiency, an increase in renewable energy's share to 20% and a 10% share for sustainably produced biofuels and other renewable fuels in transport.

Related policy documents

No related policy documents have been specified

 

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Projections of GHG emissions are produced using the PRIMES; IMAGE Scenarios Model and AEA technology approach (for methane).

Overview of the IMAGE Scenarios Model

The Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) developed by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), is a dynamic integrated assessment modelling framework for global change. The main objectives of IMAGE are to contribute to scientific understanding and support decision-making by quantifying the relative importance of major processes and interactions in the society-biosphere-climate system. To accomplish this, IMAGE provides:

  • dynamic and long-term perspectives on the systemic consequences of global change
  • insights into the impacts of global change
  • a quantitative basis for analyzing the relative effectiveness of various policy options to address global change.

Components of IMAGE 2.2 model

In the IMAGE 2.2 framework the general equilibrium economy model, WorldScan, and the population model, PHOENIX, feed the basic information on economic and demographic developments for 17 world regions into three linked subsystems:  

  • The Energy-Industry System (EIS), which calculates regional energy consumption, energy efficiency improvements, fuel substitution, supply and trade of fossil fuels and renewable energy technologies. On the basis of energy use and industrial production, EIS computes emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ozone precursors and acidifying compounds.
  • The Terrestrial Environment System (TES), which computes land-use changes on the basis of regional consumption, production and trading of food, animal feed, fodder, grass and timber, with consideration of local climatic and terrain properties. TES computes emissions from land-use changes, natural ecosystems and agricultural production systems, and the exchange of CO2 between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere.
  • The Atmospheric Ocean System (AOS) calculates changes in atmospheric composition using the emissions and other factors in the EIS and TES, and by taking oceanic CO2 uptake and atmospheric chemistry into consideration. Subsequently, AOS computes changes in climatic properties by resolving the changes in radiative forcing caused by greenhouse gases, aerosols and oceanic heat transport.

Overview of the PRIMES Model

PRIMES, which is partial equilibrium model for the European Union energy system developed by, and maintained at, the National Technical University of Athens, E3M-Laboratory calculates energy consumption, energy efficiency improvements, fuel substitution, supply and trade of fossil fuels and renewable energy technologies (see description below).

The most recent version of the model used in the calculations covers each of the EU Member States, EU candidate countries and Neighbouring countries, uses Eurostat as the main data source, and is updated with 2000 as the base year. The PRIMES model is the result of collaborative research under a series of projects supported by the Joule programme of the Directorate Geberal for Research of the European Commission.

The model determines the equilibrium by finding the prices of each energy form such that the quantity producers find best to supply match the quantity consumers wish to use. The equilibrium is static (within each time period) but repeated in a time-forward path, under dynamic relationships. The model is behavioural but also represents in an explicit and detailed way the available energy demand and supply technologies and pollution abatement technologies. It reflects considerations about market economics, industry structure, energy/environmental policies and regulation. These are conceived so as to influence the market behaviour of energy system agents. The modular structure of PRIMES reflects a distribution of decision-making among agents that decide individually about their supply, demand, combined supply and demand, and prices. Then the market-integrating part of PRIMES simulates market clearing. PRIMES is a general purpose model. It conceived for forecasting, scenario construction and policy impact analysis. It covers a medium to long-term horizon. It is modular and allows either for a unified model use or for partial use of modules to support specific energy studies.

For more information see: http://www.e3mlab.ntua.gr/manuals/PRIMESld.pdf and http://www.e3mlab.ntua.gr/.

Overview of AEA technological approach

to be added

Use of Scenarios and Key model assumptions

Baseline scenario

The baseline scenario follows a conventional definition and expands on current expectations regarding macro-economic, sectoral, technological and societal developments, as well as including those policies that have been implemented and/or adopted, which typically refer to pieces of legislation such as EU directives or political agreements.

EEA's outlooks across the various sectors and themes use a common reference set of assumptions for the key driving forces to ensure consistency across the board and facilitate cross-cutting analysis. This reference set builds on the socio-economic assumptions developed for the DG TREN baseline projections 'European energy and transport trends to 2030', which are also being used within the Clean Air forEurope (CAFE, DG ENV) programme. Within this framework, assumptions have been developed as a consistent set and cover the following key driving forces:

  • population
  • macro and macro-economic activity
  • household expenditure
  • number of households
  • average household size
  • energy flows.

Population
The European population is expected to stabilize, but gradually to become an ageing society. Main demographical trends are presented in the Table 1. below

Table 1. Demography - population development 1990 - 2030

Population (millions)

Year

EEA - 31

EU - 25

EU - 15

New - 10

1990

540

441

366

75

2000

563

453

379

75

2010

586

461

388

73

2020

586

462

390

72

2030

587

458

389

69

Average annual growth rates (%)

1990 -2000

0.4

0.3

0.3

-0.1

1990 -2030

0.2

0.1

0.2

-0.2

The age distribution in the EU is a growing concern, particularly in connection with pension and health expenditure and working life-time. While the accession of the 10 new Member States in 2004 has somewhat rejuvenated the EU population, it failed toreserve the trend of increasing old age dependency from 30% in the 1960s to 39% today in the EU-25.

This trend is expected t continue over the 2000-2030 period, with the share of people of 65 years and older in the total population increasing from 15% to 25% in the EU-15, and from 10% to 22% in the New-10.

The macro-economic assumptions
The macro-economic assumptions for Europe are moderately optimistic and entail challenging trade-offs in light of achieving sustainable economic development.

Average annual economic growth in the EU is expected to be 2.4% and 3.5% in the New-10. GDP assumptions are presented in the table 2.
Table 2. Income - GDP growth 2000 - 2030

GDP per capita (1000 Euro, year 2000)

Year

EEA - 31

EU - 25

EU - 15

New - 10

2000

17.1

19.7

22.6

5.3

2010

21.3

24.8

28.0

7.8

2020

26.9

31.3

34.9

11.5

2030

33.7

39.3

43.5

15.9

Average annual growth rates (%)

2000-2010

2.5

2.5

2.4

3.8

2010-2020

2.5

2.4

2.3

3.6

2020-2030

2.3

2.2

2.2

3.0

2000-2030

2.4

2.4

2.3

3.

Technological developments
Technological progress is moderate but essential in key areas such as energy, agriculture and water, but no technological breakthroughs are assumed.

More detailed information concerning technology can be found in the European Environment Outlook N4/2005 (pp. 22-23)

Sectoral developments
The service sector is expected to retain its predominance in the European economy and be instrumental in sustaining economic growth. The base line scenario uses specific technological assumptions at the sctoral level, which directly affect most of European environmental concerns. The explanations of such assumptions are available in the European Environment Outlook N4/2005 (pp. 23-24).

'Low economic growth' scenario (2000-2030)

For the scenario (low GDP growth), it has been estimated that moderately pessimistic assumptions would lead to average annual growth rates of 1.6% to 3.2% over the 2000/30 for different regions in Europe.

'Accelerated renewables' scenario (RES)

In the scenario, the targets for the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption are 12% in 2010, and 20% in 2030. For the generation sector, subsidies are introduced to achieve the targets of 27% electricity generation from renewables in 2020 and 35% in 2030.

'Low GHG emission' scenario

The scenario has been developed as an alternative scenario, which aims at identifying the implications of the EU's long term sustainable objective as stated in the 6th EAP for future GHG patterns, sectoral developments and the costs of policies. The scenario bears similarities with current initiatives, studies and political debate across the EU for far-reaching climate change policies.

 

One of the main assumptions are shifts induced by the low GHG emissions scenario. It is concerning the power generation sector in terms of fuel inputs. In particular, the share of solids is significantly reduced, and there is a greater deployment of renewables.

Methodology for gap filling

No methodology for gap filling has been specified. Probably this info has been added together with indicator calculation.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

 

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Many unknowns and uncertainties in the climate system are not reflected in the IMAGE scenarios. Some of the major uncertainties in the causal chain are the climate sensitivity and regional climate-change patterns. The direct effects of a changed climate are changes in carbon uptake by the biosphere and oceans and in the distribution and productivity of crops, as well as shifts in ecosystems. Indirectly, many other processes are influenced, which can lead to the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere being built up differently and to different land-use patterns. IMAGE simulates the consequences of these changes in an integrated fashion, accounting for interactions and feedbacks. The outcome is thus not necessarily a linear function of climate sensitivity.

These climate uncertainties were addressed by providing additional simulations to illustrate the uncertainty in the climate sensitivity and in the regional climate-change patterns.

Many unknowns and uncertainties in the climate system are not reflected in the IMAGE scenarios. Some of the major uncertainties in the causal chain are the climate sensitivity and regional climate-change patterns. The direct effects of a changed climate are changes in carbon uptake by the biosphere and oceans and in the distribution and productivity of crops, as well as shifts in ecosystems. Indirectly, many other processes are influenced, which can lead to the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere being built up differently and to different land-use patterns. IMAGE simulates the consequences of these changes in an integrated fashion, accounting for interactions and feedbacks. The outcome is thus not necessarily a linear function of climate sensitivity.

These climate uncertainties were addressed by providing additional simulations to illustrate the uncertainty in the climate sensitivity and in the regional climate-change patterns.

Data sets uncertainty

Description of the date sets uncertainties is not found in the reference documentation.

Rationale uncertainty

In common with all attempts to describe future trends, the energy projections and GHG projections in the Outlook are subject to a wide range of uncertainties. The reliability of projections depends both on how well the model represents reality and on the validity of the assumptions it works under.

Data sources

  • No datasets have been specified.

Other info

DPSIR: Pressure
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)
Indicator codes
  • Outlook 012
EEA Contact Info info@eea.europa.eu

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