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Indicator Specification

Primary and final energy consumption in Europe

Indicator Specification
  Indicator codes: ENER 016
Published 18 Dec 2020 Last modified 09 Sep 2021
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This page was archived on 09 Sep 2021 with reason: Other (New version data-and-maps/indicators/final-energy-consumption-by-sector-12 was published)
This indicator shows final and primary energy consumption for the 27 Member States of the EU from 2005 to 2019. Values for 2019 are approximated. Underlying disaggregated data on sectoral and fuel compositions were used in the assessment discussion. In simplified terms, FEC represents the energy used by final consumers for all energy uses. It is the energy that reaches the final consumer’s door. PEC represents the total energy demand within a country, excluding the energy products consumed for purposes other than producing useful energy (non-energy uses, e.g. oil for plastics). For example, the electricity consumed by a household counts towards FEC; the fuel burned to generate that electricity counts towards PEC. FEC is the total energy consumed by end users, such as households, industry and agriculture.  PEC is the total energy demand of a country, excluding all non-energy uses of energy carriers (e.g. natural gas used not for combustion but for producing chemicals).  PEC includes transformation losses (e.g. the energy lost when transforming fuels into electricity). Renewables such as hydropower, wind power and solar photovoltaic power generate electricity directly, without any accounted transformation. As a result, generating electricity from these renewables results in lower PEC than from fossil fuels for the same amount of electricity produced.  More details on how FEC and PEC are calculated are provided in the methodology section below . Values for 2019 are approximate (proxies) and have been estimated by the EEA with the intention of providing early indications of recent trends in energy consumption. These proxies were not obtained following the formal collection process for official statistics and are therefore less accurate and reliable than official statistics. Proxies will be replaced with official statistics once they become available. Values for 2015-2018 were compiled and published by Eurostat, in collaboration with the relevant national authorities. Eurostat energy statistics are deemed to be the most accurate and reliable at EU level.  

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)
 

Rationale

Justification for indicator selection

Rationale for this indicator has not ben identified

Scientific references

  • No rationale references available

Indicator definition

This indicator shows final and primary energy consumption for the 27 Member States of the EU from 2005 to 2019. Values for 2019 are approximated. Underlying disaggregated data on sectoral and fuel compositions were used in the assessment discussion.

In simplified terms, FEC represents the energy used by final consumers for all energy uses. It is the energy that reaches the final consumer’s door. PEC represents the total energy demand within a country, excluding the energy products consumed for purposes other than producing useful energy (non-energy uses, e.g. oil for plastics). For example, the electricity consumed by a household counts towards FEC; the fuel burned to generate that electricity counts towards PEC.

FEC is the total energy consumed by end users, such as households, industry and agriculture. PEC is the total energy demand of a country, excluding all non-energy uses of energy carriers (e.g. natural gas used not for combustion but for producing chemicals). PEC includes transformation losses (e.g. the energy lost when transforming fuels into electricity). Renewables such as hydropower, wind power and solar photovoltaic power generate electricity directly, without any accounted transformation. As a result, generating electricity from these renewables results in lower PEC than from fossil fuels for the same amount of electricity produced. More details on how FEC and PEC are calculated are provided in the methodology section below.

Values for 2019 are approximate (proxies) and have been estimated by the EEA with the intention of providing early indications of recent trends in energy consumption. These proxies were not obtained following the formal collection process for official statistics and are therefore less accurate and reliable than official statistics. Proxies will be replaced with official statistics once they become available.

Values for 2015-2018 were compiled and published by Eurostat, in collaboration with the relevant national authorities. Eurostat energy statistics are deemed to be the most accurate and reliable at EU level.

 

Units

Million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe)

 

Policy context and targets

Context description

Directive 2012/27/EU established a set of binding measures to help the EU reach its target of decreasing energy consumption by 20 % by 2020, compared with projected levels. This was amended by Directive (EU) 2018/2002, which provides a policy framework for 2030 and beyond. This new regulatory framework includes an energy efficiency target for the EU for 2030 of a 32.5 % reduction in energy consumption compared with projected levels, with a revision clause by 2023.

The amending of the directive was part of the comprehensive clean energy for all Europeans package, which aims to facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels towards cleaner energy and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The package includes other relevant legislation such as Directive (EU) 2018/844 (amending directives on the energy performance of buildings and energy efficiency), the recast Renewable Energy Directive (2018/2001/EU) and the Governance Regulation (2018/199/EU).

The composition of the energy mix and the level of consumption provide an indication of the environmental pressures associated with energy consumption. The type and magnitude of the environmental impacts associated with energy consumption, such as resource depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, water pollution and the accumulation of radioactive waste, strongly depend on the types and amounts of fuels consumed, as well as on the abatement technologies applied.

Targets

No targets has been defined for this indicator

Related policy documents

No related policy documents have been specified

Key policy question

Final energy consumption by sector and fuel in Europe, aggregated level assessment

Specific policy question

Final energy consumption by sector and fuel in Europe, disaggregate level assessment

 

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Eurostat data
To ensure comparability with energy efficiency targets, this indicator follows the Eurostat methodology for final energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030) [FEC2020-2030] and primary energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030) [PEC2020-2030].

Primary energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030) = gross inland consumption (all products total) - gross inland consumption (ambient heat (heat pumps)) - final non-energy consumption (all products total)

Final energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030) = final energy consumption (all products total) - final energy consumption (ambient heat (heat pumps)) + international aviation (all products total) + transformation input blast furnaces (all products total) - transformation output blast furnaces (all products total) + energy sector blast furnaces (solid fossil fuels) + energy sector blast furnaces (manufactured gases) + energy sector blast furnaces (peat and peat products) + energy sector blast furnaces (oil shale and oil sands) + energy sector blast furnaces (oil and petroleum products) + energy sector blast furnaces (Natural gas).

Data set used: 'Complete energy balances nrg_bal_c'

Codes:

      • FEC2020-2030 Final energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030)/all products
      • PEC2020-2030 Primary energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030)/all products
      • GIC Gross inland consumption/all products
      • NRG_BF_E Energy sector — blast furnaces — energy use/all products
      • FC_NE Final non-energy consumption/all products
      • FC_TRA_E Final consumption — transport sector — energy use/renewables and biofuels
      • FC_E Final consumption — energy use/ambient heat
      • PPRD Primary production/ambient heat

Details about this methodology are available from Eurostat at: ENERGY BALANCE GUIDE (Draft 31 January 2019) 

Proxy data
Proxy values are estimated using an array of methods and sources. This includes, in order of priority, direct consultation with Member States, official national statistics, unofficial data sets, grey literature and mathematical interpolation. The amount and quality of available data differ by country. More information can be found on the EEA’s web page on FEC and PEC proxies.

Geographical coverage
The time series for the EU-27 was made by summing the values for each year of the 27 countries that are currently Member States, regardless of whether they were members of the EU in any given year.

Targets
Official 2020 energy efficiency targets refer to the EU-28 as a whole and individual Member States. The EU-27 target used in this indicator is indicative only and has been calculated by subtracting the United Kingdom target from the EU-28 target.

Comparability
Geographical comparability: the same method is applied for every country for the 2005-2018 series. For the 2019 proxies, the quality and availability of data varies among countries.

Comparability over the time series: the values for 2019 are approximated and have been estimated by the EEA. The rest of the values (2005-2018) have very good comparability, as exactly the same method has been used for every year and come from the same source (Eurostat).

Comparability with previous indicators: Poor comparability with indicators published in previous years due to: 1) merging of the old ENER016 and ENER026 indicators into a single indicator; 2) moving the scope from EU-28 to EU-27; and 3) changes in the Eurostat methodology over time.

Methodology for gap filling

Data gap filling is not necessary 

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

 

Data specifications

EEA data references

External data references

Data sources in latest figures

 

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Data sets uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Stephanie Schilling

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
ENER 016
Specification
Version id: 7
Primary theme: Energy Energy

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year

Classification

DPSIR: Impact
Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
Filed under: energy consumption
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