Indicator Assessment

CO2 performance emissions of new vans in Europe

Indicator Assessment
Prod-ID: IND-546-en
  Also known as: TERM 041
Published 01 Jun 2021 Last modified 01 Jun 2021
1 min read

Following a steady decline until 2017 and a slight increase between 2017 and 2018, average specific CO2 emissions from new vans registered in Europe remained stable at 158.0 g CO2/km in 2019. Although this is below the fleet-wide target of 175 g CO2/km that applied in the period 2014-2019, it is well above the 147 g CO2/km target which applies since 2020. In 2019, almost all van manufacturers met their binding CO2 emissions target.

Average specific CO2 emissions (g/km) from new vans

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Emissions from transport account for one quarter of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. The European Green Deal calls for a 90 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from transport, compared with 1990 levels, to support the EU’s aim of becoming climate neutral by 2050 and its zero-pollution ambition.

To reduce CO2 emissions in the road transport sector, emission performance standards for new vans were introduced in 2011, setting a fleet-wide target of 175 g CO2/km for the period 2014-2019 and 147 g CO2/km for the period 2020-2024, as well as specific CO2 emission targets for each manufacturer (or pool of manufacturers). In 2019, a new regulation introduced fleet-wide targets for 2025 and 2030, namely a 15 % reduction from 2021 emission levels by 2025 and a 31 % reduction by 2030.

After a steady decline from 2012 to 2017, by 24 g CO2/km, average emissions from new vans had slightly increased by 2018 and remained stable at 158.0 g CO2/km, in 2019. Although these emissions are below the 2014-2019 target of 175 g CO2/km, they are well above the 2020-2024 target of 147 g CO2/km.

In 2019, 1.67 million new vans were registered in the EU, Iceland, Norway and the United Kingdom. Diesel vehicles constituted 94 % of registrations in 2019.

Registrations of plug-in hybrid electric and battery-electric vans nearly doubled between 2018 (0.8 %) and 2019 (1.4 %), but overall remained low. Norway (6.1 %) and Iceland (4.4 %) had the highest shares of battery-electric vans registered, while hardly any plug-in hybrid electric vans were registered in the EU, Iceland, Norway or the United Kingdom in 2019.

Average CO2 emissions and targets of pools of van manufacturers in EU, Iceland, Norway and the United Kingdom, 2019

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According to the Regulation, manufacturers can group together as pools and act jointly to meet their CO2 standards. Pools or individual manufacturers responsible for fewer than 22 000 newly registered vans registered in the EU per calendar year may benefit from a derogation target.

In 2019, all 58 van manufacturers except SsangYong met their binding specific emissions target, either individually or as members of a pool.

Among the pools, Kia achieved the lowest average specific CO2 emissions, of 121.1 g CO2/km, followed by the PSA Group and Renault, with CO2 emissions of 135.7 and 143.9 g CO2/km, respectively.  

Supporting information

Indicator definition

Average specific emissions of CO2 are calculated as a weighted average of the Member State's fleet of new registrations of vans in a particular year. 


Emissions are expressed in grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre (g CO2/km).


Policy context and targets

Context description

Transport consumes one third of all final energy used in the EU. The bulk of this energy comes from oil. This means that transport is responsible for a large share of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions and a major contributor to climate change. While most other economic sectors, such as power production and industry, have reduced their emissions since 1990, those from transport have risen. They now account for more than one quarter of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. A reversal of this trend is currently not in sight. That makes the transport sector a major obstacle to realising the EU’s climate protection goals. EU strategy documents focus on decarbonising transport. The European Commission’s 2018 strategy ‘A clean planet for all: A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy’ seeks to chart the course for a transition towards ‘net-zero’ greenhouse gas emissions across the EU by 2050. For transport, it underlines the need for a system-based approach, stresses the importance of switching to low-carbon modes of transport and zero-emission vehicles, underlines the central role of electrification and renewable energy sources, and pushes for operational efficiency improvements. Similarly, from 2016, the ‘European strategy for low-emission mobility’ has identified a more efficient transport system, the rapid deployment of low-emission fuels and the transition towards low- and zero-emission vehicles as priority areas for action. In the context of these policies, the EEA collects and publishes data on all new cars and vans registered in Europe, in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2019/631. These data are required to evaluate the efficiency of the new vehicle fleet and include information on CO2 emissions and vehicle weights.



No targets have been specified

Related policy documents

No related policy documents have been specified



Methodology for indicator calculation

Average specific CO2 emissions are calculated as a weighted average of the fleet registered in a particular year. For calculating manufacturers’ average emissions eco-innovations are also taken into account.

For each manufacturer annual specific emissions target is defined, calculated on the basis of the fleet-wide target and the average ‘mass in running order’ of the registered vehicles.

The following formulae applied for calculating the specific emission targets for vans until 2019 (included):

Vans: 175 + a × (M – M0)


M is the average mass of the manufacturer’s fleet in kilograms;

M0 is the reference mass equal to 1766.4 kg;

a is 0.093.

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling was applied

Methodology references

No methodology references available.



Methodology uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Data sets uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Data sources

Other info

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • TERM 041
Frequency of updates
Updates are scheduled once per year
EEA Contact Info


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage





Filed under: co2 emissions, vans, transport
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