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Bathing water quality in Europe

Bathing water quality is improving in Europe. In 2016, the vast majority (85.5 %) of the more than 21,000 monitored bathing sites had excellent water quality. About two thirds of all monitored sites are by the coast and one third in inland rivers and lakes.

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Trends in summer soil moisture in Europe

Soil moisture content was modelled using a soil moisture balance model in the upper soil horizons (up to 1 m).

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Change in the frequency of flooding events under projected sea level rise

This map shows the estimated multiplication factor, by which the frequency of flooding events of a given height changes between 2010 and 2100 due to projected regional sea relative level rise under the RCP4.5 scenario. Values larger than 1 indicate an increase in flooding frequency

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Projected change in 20 year return level minimum flow and deficit volumes due to climate change and changes in water use

Differences between the end of the 21st century (SRES A1B scenario) and the control period (1961-1990) for minimum discharges (left) and change in occurrence of deficits (right) for climate change only (top row) and a combination of climate change and water use (bottom row).

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Observed trends in frequency and severity of meteorological droughts

Trends in frequency (upper) and severity (lower) of meteorological droughts between 1950 and 2012. Trends are based on a combination of three different drought indices - SPI, SPEI and RDI accumulated over 12-month periods. Dots: trends significant at ≥ 95%.

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Projected change in the frequency of meteorological droughts

The maps show changes in the frequency of meteorological droughts for two future periods (2041-2070, left and 2071-2100, right) and for two emissions scenarios (RCP4.5, top and RCP8.5, bottom). Drought frequency is defined as the number of months in a 30 year period with the Standardised Precipitation Index accumulated over a 6 month period (SPI-6) having a value below -2.

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Projected annual rate of change of the crop water deficit of grain maize during the growing season in Europe for the period 2015-2045 for two climate scenarios.

Projected annual rate of change of the crop water deficit of grain maize during the growing season in Europe for the period 2015-2045 for two climate scenarios. The crop water deficit is the difference between the crop-specific water requirement (in this case grain maize) and the water available through precipitation. The climate forcing of the two simulations is based on the two global climate models HadGEM2 and MIROC, taken from CMIP5 and bias-corrected by the ISI-MIP project (Warszawski et al., 2014). Crop model simulations have been done with the crop model WOFOST at 25 km resolution. Red colours show an increase of the gap between crop water requirement and water availability, blue colours indicate a reduction of the deficit. Areas where the seasonal crop water requirement exceeds regularly (i.e. in more than 90 % of the years) the water available through precipitation have been marked by hatches. Areas without hatches experience both deficit and surplus or only a surplus of water. In this case, red colours refer to a reduced surplus, while blue colours indicate an increasing surplus of water.

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Projected change in mean water-limited yield of winter wheat by 2030

Simulated change in mean water-limited crop yield of winter wheat between the baseline period around year 2000 and 2030. The four simulations are a combination of two climate models (HadGEM2 and MIROC, taken from CMIP5 archive and bias-corrected by the ISI-MIP project), and the crop model WOFOST at 25 km spatial resolution, with and without taking into account the effect of CO2 fertilization. Crop variety and agro-management practice have been kept constant. For each time horizon of 2000 and 2030, a 30-year averaging period has been considered. Red colours show a reduction in winter wheat yield, while green colours indicate an increase in crop productivity in the given period as a response to the climate signal of each climate scenario (Araujo Enciso et al., 2014).

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Trend in crop water deficit of grain maize during the growing season

Annual rate of change of the crop water deficit of grain maize during the growing season for the period 1985-2014 in Europe. The crop water deficit is the difference between the crop-specific water requirement (in this case grain maize) and available water through precipitation. The simulation is based on the JRC-MARS gridded meteorological data at 25 km resolution. Red colours show an increase of the gap between crop water requirement and the available water, blue colours indicate a reduction of the deficit. Areas where the seasonal crop water requirement exceeds regularly (i.e. in more than 90 % of the years) the available water (through precipitation) have been marked by hatches. Areas without hatches experience both deficit and surplus or only a surplus of water in their crop water balance. In this case, red colours refer to a reduced surplus, while blue colours indicate an increasing surplus of available water.

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Mapping EU policies that influence land in the Netherlands

A recent analysis by PBL, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, has mapped key EU policies that influence land in the Netherlands. This map shows the results, including: locations supported by EU subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy (pillars 1 and 2), EU regional policy, the LIFE+ Programme and the fisheries fund; Trans-European Transport networks (TEN-T); safety zones designated under the Seveso Directive (2012/18/EU); river basin districts as well as water bodies who quality is insufficient; and Natura 2000 sites (both terrestrial and marine) as well as their zones of influence.

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Water Exploitation Index plus (WEI+) for summer and Urban Morphological Zones (UMZ)

The water exploitation index plus (WEI+) compares water use against renewable water resources. The map illustrates the relation between Urban Morphological Zone and the WEI+ at the sub-basin scale for summer months (July, August and September) defined in calendar year.

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Water exploitation index plus for river basin districts

The water exploitation index plus has been calculated as a multi-annual average per river basin district, for the years 2002-2012, as defined in ECRINS. The ECRINS delineation of river basin districts differs from those defined by Member States under the Water Framework Directive, particularly for transboundary river basin districts. Click on the "downloads and more info" button below to see the dynamic map with time slider, which provides information on water abstraction by source and water use by sector at sub-basin or river basin scale.

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Bathing water quality in the European Union in the period 2011-2014

Bathing water quality in the European Union in the 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 bathing seasons.

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