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Left graph: Decline in ocean pH measured at the Aloha station (University of Hawaii) and yearly mean surface seawater pH reported on a global scale (Copernicus Marine Service); Right graph: Decadal average sea surface temperature anomaly in different Euro

Left graph: A decline in pH corresponds to an increase in the acidity of ocean water. Data originate from the Aloha station pH time series (adapted from Dore, J.E., et al., 2009, 'Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:12235-12240). Changes here are similar to those that are observed over a shorter time frame in Europe (see here: http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/figures/WGI_AR5_Fig3-18.jpg). In figure, "In situ measurement (Aloha station)" corresponds to data based on in-situ measurements, while "Calculated (Aloha station)" corresponds to calculated data. Global annual average of surface ocean pH from the Copernicus Marine Service, based on a reconstruction method using in situ data and remote sensing data, as well as empirical relationships. Indicator is available at annual resolution, and from the year 1985 onwards. The error on each yearly value varies, and is added to the data file sheet. The estimated yearly uncertainty envelope shown in the figure is defined as the annual mean of pH ± 2 standard deviations, which corresponds to a 95% confidence interval of the mean estimate. Right graph: Time series (1870-2022) of decadal average observed sea surface temperature anomalies (°C), with respect to the period 1991-2020, for each of the European basins, for the European seas as a whole, and for the global ocean. Data sources: HadSST4.0.1.0 (1850-2022), ERSSTTv5 (1880-2022), HadISST1 (1870-2022) and satellite-based ESA CCI/C3S SST Climate Data Record v2.1 (1991-2022).

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Decadal average sea surface temperature anomaly in different European seas

Time series (1870-2022) of decadal average observed sea surface temperature anomalies (°C), with respect to the period 1991-2020, for each of the European basins, for the European seas as a whole, and for the global ocean. Data sources: HadSST4.0.1.0 (1850-2022), ERSSTTv5 (1880-2022), HadISST1 (1870-2022) and satellite-based ESA CCI/C3S SST Climate Data Record v2.1 (1991-2022).

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Projected sea surface temperature anomalies under different SSP scenarios for European seas and global ocean

European basins, Europe and Global 2071-2100 sea surface temperature warmings (ºC) of all the CMIP6 models ensemble presented in box plots (compared to 1991-2010 climatologies). Horizontal colored bars show the 25th, mean and 75th percentile. The results are considered under three different scenarios: SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5.

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Management of municipal waste in the EU-27, 2010-2020

The figure shows the development of municipal waste management in the EU-27 in the period 2010-2020, divided in four categories: recycling (material recycling and composting/digestion), incineration (energy recovery and incineration without energy recovery), and landfill. The 'other' category is the difference between generated municipal waste and treated municipal waste. It covers for losses during treatment (e.g. water loss during mechanical-biological treatment) and storage.

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Bathing water quality in Europe in the 2022 season (EU countries, Albania, and Switzerland)

The figure shows the share of bathing water quality classes by country for the season of 2022.

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Coastal and inland bathing water quality in EU between 2009 and 2022

The figure shows the share of bathing water quality classes by year.

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State of bathing waters in 2023

We all want to know the quality of 'our' local bathing area, beach or lake, and whether it conforms to EU standards. Below you will find a map viewer that will allow you to view on-line the quality of the bathing water in the around 22 000 coastal beaches and freshwater bathing waters across Europe.

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Average total concentration of pesticides in surface water in the Vemmenhög catchment area vs applied amounts analysed (1992-2018)

The vertical bars represent the time-weighted mean concentration of active substances as measured during the period May to September of each year between 1992 and 2018 (except only May to June in 1993). The dots represents the total amount of active substances (of those analysed) that were applied on field in the Vemmenhög area during the same period (1992-2018). The two vertical lines show that the first significant reduction in the concentration of active substances occurred in 1995, following the onset of the provision of site-specific guidance to farmers on how to prevent the release of pesticides to local surface waters. The second fall in pesticide levels was seen in 1998, after the implementation of economic incentives by the government and industry.

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Exceedances of (left) effect thresholds in Europe’s surface waters for the pesticide imidacloprid in 2020; and (right) quality standards in Europe’s groundwater for the pesticide atrazine in 2020

The maps show the monitoring sites in Europe that exceeded effect or quality thresholds for (left) imidacloprid in surface waters (right) atrazine in groundwater in the year 2020. The classification of 'unknown’ for some monitoring sites means that the substance was detected but the concentration was below the limit of quantification (LoQ) and the LoQ was higher than the assessment threshold. This means that it is impossible to determine whether there was an exceedance or not. The data reported for imidacloprid in surface waters cover 16 countries. The data reported for atrazine cover 18 countries. The monitoring results are reported under the Water Information System for Europe State of Environment (WISE SoE) reporting, more specifically WISE 6, and the spatial data for the monitoring sites are reported under the Water Framework Directive and the WISE 5 Spatial data reporting.

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Percentage of reported monitoring sites with pesticides exceeding thresholds in a) surface  waters and b) groundwater in Europe, weighted by country area

The figures show the percentage of monitoring sites with exceedance of effect thresholds or quality standards, set by European or national regulatory standards, and weighted by country area to reduce the impact of uneven data reporting (2013-2020). For surface waters, EU environmental quality standards and (in the absence of those) national regulatory standards were used, reflecting the lowest ecotoxicologically-based effect threshold. Effect thresholds were identified for 120 out of 248 pesticides (48%). The exceedances included here refer to those 120 pesticides. For groundwater, the Groundwater Directive quality standard of 0.1µg/l was used to identify exceedance. Twelve non-relevant metabolites (nrM) were excluded from the assessment.

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Pathways of introduction of non-indigenous species to Europe’s seas, 1970-2020

The pie chart shows the share of the different pathways of introduction of new non-indigenous species (NIS) to Europe's seas over the years 1970 to 2020. The category 'Other' includes several modes of introduction, namely 'Transport-stowaway: other', 'release in nature', 'escape from confinement', 'corridor' and 'unknown'. The stacked column chart shows the trend in the number of new NIS by pathway of introduction between 1970 and 2017, on a 6-year cycle. While introductions by Transport-Stowaway (ballast water, hull fouling and others) remain the prevalent mode, 'unaided' and 'escape from confinement' have grown in importance in the latest assessment cycles.

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Marine non-indigenous species in Europe's seas for MSFD D2

This dataset contains the list of all-know and verified records of non-indigenous species (NIS) in Europe’s seas, last updated in October 2022, and used to produce the EEA marine indicator on "Marine non-indigenous species in Europe's seas" (MAR002). MSFD D2: "Marine Strategy Framework Directive Descriptor 2"

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Water abstraction by economic sector, 2000-2019

Annual total water abstraction considered by economic sector i.e. agriculture (including forestry and fishing), electricity cooling, manufacturing cooling, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, construction and public water supply, as defined in NACE (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Communities) sections. Hydropower is excluded.

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Water abstraction by source, 2000-2019

Water abstraction is from groundwater and surface water. Surface water contains water abstraction from rivers, reservoirs and lakes. The figure illustrates total annual water abstraction from groundwater and surface water by economic sector, i.e. agriculture, electricity cooling, manufacturing cooling, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, construction and public water supply, as defined in NACE (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Communities) sections. Hydropower is excluded.

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Seasonal water scarcity conditions across Europe, measured by the water exploitation index plus (WEI+) for sub river basins, 2019

Water exploitation index plus (WEI+) illustrates the percentage of water use versus water available in the respective subbasin.

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Area affected during at least for one quarter of the year by water scarcity conditions in the EU, measured by the water exploitation index plus

The graph presents trend with the area of the European Union affected by water scarcity conditions between 2000-2019. Water scarcity conditions is adopted, i.e. when WEI+ values are above 20% for at least a quarter of the year in a given river sub basin; annual quarters are: Q1 (January-March), Q2 (April-June), Q3 (July-September), Q4 (October-December). No sufficient data available from Italy, hence Italian river basins have not been included in the analysis.

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Worst seasonal water scarcity conditions for European countries in 2019, measured by the water exploitation index plus (WEI+)

This figure gives an overview of the worst quarterly water scarcity conditions (maximum WEI+ in a consecutive 3-month period) of 2019 across countries in Europe. Seasonal WEI+ values are estimated as quarterly averages per country. The worst quarter of the year for water scarcity conditions is provided in brackets next to the name of the country. Annual quarters are: Q1 (January-March), Q2 (April-June), Q3 (July-September), Q4 (October-December). No data is available for Montenegro and Lichtenstein.

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EU underwater noise energy (J) by sea, 2014-2020

The figure shows EU underwater radiated noise (URN) emissions per sea basin per year.

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