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Combined effects of land-based pressures on species and habitat in Europe's seas

The map describes combined effects index values for pressures caused by land-based human activities. The relative values indicate areas where the pressures potentially affect the marine ecosystem. The table shows the frequency of assessment units indicating pressure

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Combined effects of sea-based pressures on marine species and habitats in Europe's seas

The map describes the combined effects index values for pressures on marine species and habitats in Europe's seas. The relative values indicate areas where the pressures potentially affect the marine ecosystem. The table shows the spatial coverage of the sea-based pressures in three marine zones

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Combined effects of human activities and pressures

The map describes combined effects index values for pressures caused by human activities. The relative values indicate areas where the pressures potentially affect the marine ecosystem. The charts shows the ranking of key groups of pressures causing ecosystem effects and ecosystem components being affected by them in Europe’s seas

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WISE WFD reference spatial data sets

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) reference spatial data sets include information about European river basin districts, river basin district sub-units, surface water bodies, groundwater bodies and monitoring sites used in the first and second River Basin Management Plans (RBMP). The data sets are part of the Water Information System for Europe (WISE), and compile information reported by the EU Member States, Norway, Iceland and the United Kingdom to the European Commission (EC) and the European Environment Agency (EEA) since 2010.

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WISE Water Framework Directive Database

The WISE Water Framework Directive database contains data from the 1st and 2nd River Basin Management Plans reported by EU Members States, Norway and the United Kingdom according to article 13 of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The database includes information about surface water bodies (number and size, water body category, ecological status or potential, chemical status, significant pressures and impacts, and exemptions) and about groundwater bodies (number and size, quantitative status, chemical status, significant pressures and impacts, and exemptions). The information is presented by country, river basin district (RBD) and river basin district sub-unit (where applicable).

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Floodplain statistics viewer

This viewer provides statistics on spatial extent and land use distribution of floodplain areas of Europe. Here, floodplains are defined as the flood prone area, i.e. the area that would be flooded during a 100-year flood, if there were no flood protection in place. Most flood prone areas are, however, protected against flooding. The statistics are presented in a series of dashboards providing an overview of floodplain characteristics, by country, by river basin districts, and in Natura 2000 sites. The statistics include the extent of floodplains, their ecosystem distribution based on MAES classification and the Copernicus Riparian Zone Products, as well as land cover flows between 2000 and 2018.

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The European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR), Member States reporting under Article 7 of Regulation (EC) No 166/2006

The European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) is a web-based register established by Regulation (EC) No 166/2006 which implements the UNECE PRTR Protocol, signed in May 2003 in Kiev.

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EEA potential flood-prone area extent

The EEA potential flood prone area extent delineates the area that is flooded once every 100 years, i.e. the probability of flooding is 1% assuming that flooding is unrestricted. The potential flood prone area is comprised of the river channel and floodplain. In reality, the floodplain is split into an active floodplain where flooding still occurs, and former floodplain where flooding is restricted due to flood protection. The former floodplain could be flooded again either if a flood exceeds the capacity of flood protection, or if factors that control the presence of water were removed. These factors include channel and floodplain morphological alterations as well as structural flood protection measures. The spatial coverage of the data set is EEA39 countries.

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Use of freshwater resources in Europe

Overall, water abstraction and economic growth in the EU showed absolute decoupling over the period 2000–2017. Total water abstraction declined by 17 %, while total gross value added generated from all economic sectors increased by 59 %. However, water scarcity conditions and drought events continue to cause significant risks in southern Europe, as well as in specific areas of other European regions. Agriculture remained the sector exerting the highest pressure on renewable freshwater resources overall, being responsible for 59 % of total water use in Europe in 2017. This is mainly because of agriculture levels in southern Europe. In 2017, 64 % of total water abstraction was from rivers and 24 % from groundwater. Annual renewable freshwater resources per inhabitant showed a decreasing trend across all regions except eastern Europe over the period 1990-2017. Large decreases were observed in Spain (-65 %), Malta (-54 %) and Cyprus (-32 %). Climate change and population increase exerted high pressures on renewable freshwater resources in Europe over this period. The increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme droughts and floods enhance the risk of there being reduced volumes of renewable freshwater resources in the future.

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WISE Water Accounts Spatial Units dataset

The Water Accounts Spatial Units dataset is an extraction of the European catchments and Rivers network system (ECRINS), aggregation catchments and reference layers - version 1, Jun. 2012. It contains 117 river basins extracted from the ECRINS functional river basin districts (EcrAgg). The Ecrins river basin districts are delineated according to the hydrological thresholds and do not necessarily follow administrative boundaries. The main purpose of the data set is to display the EEA water accounts outputs at the river basin level.

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WISE Water Accounts database for Europe

The WISE Water Accounts database contains monthly water accounts for the years 1990-2015 for 117 European river basins extracted from the ECRINS functional river basin districts. The water accounts data can be downloaded in two different formats: a spreadsheet that contains each accounting variable in a separate worksheet, and a database that contains all the variables of the asset and flow accounts to facilitate an integrated analysis. The WISE Water Accounts Spatial Units can also be downloaded from the EEA web site. Extensive clarifications on the development of the European water accounts can be found in the following reports published by the European Commission (DG ENV): "Guidance document on the application of water balances for supporting the implementation of the Water Framework Directive" (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/blueprint/balances.htm) and "Water ecosystem accounts reports" (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/blueprint/balances.htm)

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Fraction of REACH chemicals which are persistent and mobile, and found in surface water

Note: Logarithmic scale; PM: substances that are Persistent and Mobile.

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Total pollutant emissions to water and transfers to UWWTPs by industry for EEA-33 in 2007 to 2017 by pollutant group

Total pollutant emissions to water and transfers to UWWTPs by industry from 2007 to 2017 by pollutant group

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Sea surface temperature

Time series of annual average sea surface temperature (°C), referenced to the average temperature between 1993 and 2012, in the global ocean and in each of the European seas.

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