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Average concentrations and trends of surface chlorophyll-a in Europe's transitional, coastal and marine waters

Average summer surface chlorophyll-a concentration (left) and trends (right), in locations recently updated (last update>2016) with at least 5 years of observations, in the period between 1980 and 2021. Green circles indicate stations with significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends (i.e., improving); orange circles show stations with significant (p<0.05) increasing trends (i.e., deteriorating); and grey circles show stations with no significant trends. Colour keys of symbols and values are included in the legend.

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The Harrestrup Brook Capacity Plan

The map shows the planned interventions along the Harrestrup Brook to ensure sufficient capacity to reduce the impacts of flooding on the neighbouring residential areas

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Concentrations of CB118 relative to assessment criteria

The figure shows concentrations of CB188 relative to the assessment criteria BAC (Background Assessment Concentration) and EQS (Environmental Quality Standard as given in the Water Framework Directive). For instance, a point at '4x EQS' indicates a site where the observed concentration was four (4) times the EQS limit. The points have been spread in the x direction in order to avoid too much overlap.

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Percentage of reported monitoring sites with pesticides exceeding thresholds in surface waters, different sized rivers, lakes and groundwater in European countries, 2016-2021

The figure shows the percentage of monitoring sites with threshold exceedances of pesticides in surface waters, different sized rivers, lakes and groundwater in European countries. This was used to examine threshold exceedances according to Surface Waters; Rivers, small; Rivers, medium; Rivers, large; Lakes, and Groundwater.

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Percentage of reported monitoring sites with pesticides exceeding thresholds in a) surface  waters and b) groundwater in Europe, weighted by country area

The figures show the percentage of monitoring sites with exceedance of effect thresholds or quality standards, set by European or national regulatory standards, and weighted by country area to reduce the impact of uneven data reporting. For surface waters, EU environmental quality standards and (in the absence of those) national regulatory standards were used, reflecting the lowest ecotoxicologically-based effect threshold. Effect thresholds were identified for 116 out of 237 pesticides (49%). The exceedances included here refer to those 116 pesticides. For groundwater, the Groundwater Directive quality standard of 0.1µg/l was used to identify exceedance. Twelve non-relevant metabolites (nrM) were excluded from the assessment.

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Trends in dissolved inorganic nitrogen and orthophosphate concentrations in transitional, coastal and marine waters in Europe, 1980-2021

Trends in concentrations of nitrogen (dissolved inorganic nitrogen—DIN) and phosphorus (orthophosphate) in the upper 10m of the water column in European seas during the season of low phytoplankton growth (SLPG) are shown for the period 1980-2021. Green circles indicate stations with significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends; orange circles show stations with significant (p<0.05) increasing trends; and grey circles show stations with no significant trends. In these cases, p is a statistical term describing the probability that the trend is significant.

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Number of time series available showing increasing, decreasing or no trends in dissolved inorganic nitrogen and orthophosphate concentrations for each regional sea during the period 1980-2021

The different sea regions are presented in the Y axis. The X axis corresponds to the number of time series with statistically significant decreasing trends (green), increasing trends (orange) and no trends (grey). Statistical significance at p<0.05.

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Nutrients in European water bodies

This figure shows the trends in nitratre concentrations in European rivers and groundwater and the trends in phosphorus in European lakes and rivers

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Biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium in European Rivers

This figure shows the trends in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonium in European rivers.

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Left graph: Decline in ocean pH measured at the Aloha station (University of Hawaii) and yearly mean surface seawater pH reported on a global scale (Copernicus Marine Service); Right graph: Decadal average sea surface temperature anomaly in different Euro

Left graph: A decline in pH corresponds to an increase in the acidity of ocean water. Data originate from the Aloha station pH time series (adapted from Dore, J.E., et al., 2009, 'Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:12235-12240). Changes here are similar to those that are observed over a shorter time frame in Europe (see here: http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/figures/WGI_AR5_Fig3-18.jpg). In figure, "In situ measurement (Aloha station)" corresponds to data based on in-situ measurements, while "Calculated (Aloha station)" corresponds to calculated data. Global annual average of surface ocean pH from the Copernicus Marine Service, based on a reconstruction method using in situ data and remote sensing data, as well as empirical relationships. Indicator is available at annual resolution, and from the year 1985 onwards. The error on each yearly value varies, and is added to the data file sheet. The estimated yearly uncertainty envelope shown in the figure is defined as the annual mean of pH ± 2 standard deviations, which corresponds to a 95% confidence interval of the mean estimate. Right graph: Time series (1870-2022) of decadal average observed sea surface temperature anomalies (°C), with respect to the period 1991-2020, for each of the European basins, for the European seas as a whole, and for the global ocean. Data sources: HadSST4.0.1.0 (1850-2022), ERSSTTv5 (1880-2022), HadISST1 (1870-2022) and satellite-based ESA CCI/C3S SST Climate Data Record v2.1 (1991-2022).

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Decadal average sea surface temperature anomaly in different European seas

Time series (1870-2022) of decadal average observed sea surface temperature anomalies (°C), with respect to the period 1991-2020, for each of the European basins, for the European seas as a whole, and for the global ocean. Data sources: HadSST4.0.1.0 (1850-2022), ERSSTTv5 (1880-2022), HadISST1 (1870-2022) and satellite-based ESA CCI/C3S SST Climate Data Record v2.1 (1991-2022).

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Projected sea surface temperature anomalies under different SSP scenarios for European seas and global ocean

European basins, Europe and Global 2071-2100 sea surface temperature warmings (ºC) of all the CMIP6 models ensemble presented in box plots (compared to 1991-2010 climatologies). Horizontal colored bars show the 25th, mean and 75th percentile. The results are considered under three different scenarios: SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5.

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Management of municipal waste in the EU-27, 2010-2020

The figure shows the development of municipal waste management in the EU-27 in the period 2010-2020, divided in four categories: recycling (material recycling and composting/digestion), incineration (energy recovery and incineration without energy recovery), and landfill. The 'other' category is the difference between generated municipal waste and treated municipal waste. It covers for losses during treatment (e.g. water loss during mechanical-biological treatment) and storage.

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