European Red Lists of species

Prod-ID: DAT-22-en
Created 28 Mar 2018 Published 11 Sep 2018 Last modified 14 Nov 2019
8 min read
The European Red Lists of species is a review of the conservation status of more than 10 000 European species (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater and marine fishes, butterflies, dragonflies, freshwater molluscs, selected groups of beetles, terrestrial molluscs, vascular plants including medicinal plants, bees, grasshoppers, locusts and crickets, lycopods and ferns), according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines applied to the EU28 and to the Pan-European level. New in the 2017 December version of the database is the updated European Red List of saproxylic beetles.

European data

European Red List

The dataset contains European Red List data. All species groups data are merged into one table.

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European Red List

Field nameField definitionNoteCodesData type
speciesGroup Distinct group of species, used as a label of the original delivery tables text(50)
extracted Year and month when the particualar data has been extracted from the IUCN system text(20)
taxonomicRankKingdom Standard taxonomic rank text(20)
taxonomicRankPhylum Standard taxonomic rank text(20)
taxonomicRankClass Standard taxonomic rank text(30)
taxonomicRankOrder Standard taxonomic rank text(40)
taxonomicRankFamily Standard taxonomic rank text(40)
taxonomicRankGenus Standard taxonomic rank text(50)
taxonomicRankSpecies Standard taxonomic rank text(50)
taxonomicRankSubspecies Standard taxonomic rank text(50)
scientificName Standard taxonomic rank text(60)
taxonomicAuthority Name(s) of the author(s) who published the original description of the taxon. If a taxon’s name or placement has been changed since the original description, the original authority's name is placed in parentheses. For animals, the authority’s names(s) are followed by the year the original description was published. For animal subspecies, only one authority name appears: for nominate subspecies (i.e. the subspecies name matches the species name), the authority for the species description is used; for other subspecies, the authority is the name and year for the description of that subspecies. For plants, the author(s) name(s) are often abbreviated and the year of original publication is not included; if taxonomic changes are made for plants, the original author(s) name(s) are placed in brackets and the author(s) responsible for the altered name are added outside of the brackets. For plant subspecies and varieties, the authors of both the species-level and subspecies/variety-level descriptions are cited. text(60)
taxonomicNotes Notes documenting recent taxonomic changes or any current taxonomic doubts or debates about the validity or identity of the taxon text(max)
endemicToEurope Indicates species endemic to geographical Europe (except the Caucassus) from Iceland in the west to Urals in the east (including parts of the Russian federation), and from Franz Josef Land in the north to the mediterranean in the south. The Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores are also included. In the southest, the Caucasus region is not included. 1 = True, 0 = false boolean
europeanRegionalRedListCategory European regional Red List status see IUCN Red List definitions at EX - Extinct; RE - Regionally Extinct; CR - Critically Endangered (= threatened species); EN - Endangered (= threatened species); VU - Vulnerable (= threatened species); NT - Near Threatened; LC - Least Concern; DD - Data Deficient; NA - Not Applicable; N text(10)
europeanRegionalRedListCriteria Criteria used to define the European regional Red List status see IUCN Red List definitions at text(50)
endemicToEu Indicates species endemic to the area of the Member States of the European Union 1 = True, 0 = false boolean
euRegionalRedListCategory EU regional Red List status see IUCN Red List definitions at EX - Extinct; RE - Regionally Extinct; CR - Critically Endangered (= threatened species); EN - Endangered (= threatened species); VU - Vulnerable (= threatened species); NT - Near Threatened; LC - Least Concern; DD - Data Deficient; NA - Not Applicable; N text(10)
euRegionalRedListCriteria Criteria used to define the EU regional Red List status see IUCN Red List definitions at text(50)
euScope Scope (number of member states) of the EU for which the data were collected text(4)
conservationStatusAnalysis Preliminary assessment of the Conservation status of the species, based on the IUCN Red List data text(40)
redListCategoryRationale Provides a rationale to justify the assessment in the Rationale for the Red List Assessment field. text(max)
populationTrend Documents the trend of the population of the species (Increasing, Decreasing, Stable, unknown) text(20)
range Summarizes the current information available for the geographic range for the species text(max)
population Summarizes the information available for size and trend of the global population text(max)
habitat Summarizes the information available for suitable habitats and ecological requirements for the species text(max)
threats Documents the major threats affecting, or likely to affect, the taxon. text(max)
conservationAction Documents the conservation actions currently in place, and realistic actions needed to mitigate the threats causing declines (if any). text(max)
useAndTrade Information available for any utilization and/or trade of the taxon (local, national and international trade). text(max)
redListReviewers Names of the reviewers of the assessment. The Reviewers role is to read the information presented in the assessment and confirm whether the information has been interpreted appropriately and the IUCN Red List Criteria have been applied correctly text(max)
redListAssessors Experts that assessed the European and EU regional Red list status for the species text(max)
redListContributors Names of the Contributors of the assessment. Contributors provide information specifically for use in the species account, but they are not directly involved in the actual assessment itself. text(max)

Additional information

Table definitions

Definition and field description of the data table.


Additional information

The Red List identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the European level so that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status.

European red list assessments so far have been done at two geographical levels:

1) EU level : European part of the territory of the EU28, EU27 or EU25 as stated in the specific table (including Canary Islands, Madeira and Açores)

2) Pan-European level : this level is including all European countries (including the entire area in level 1), the European part of Turkey and the European part of Russia up to the Ural, but excluding the Russian Caucasus, Anatolian Turkey and the other Caucasus countries.

Exceptions from this approach has been taken by the EU Red list of freshwater fishes, where the Pan-European level assessment includes the entire Black sea basin, the northern Caspian sea basin and hence the northern Caucasus in general.

For the Red List of Marine Fishes, no distinction has been made between the EU28 and the Pan-European assessment. In addition, for practical reasons, the European Red List of Marine Fishes covers the entire Mediterranean sea rather than only its European part.

The year of delivery and the number of species assessed by group is as follows

Delivery yearGroupNumber of assessed species
2009 mammals; reptiles and amphibians 261; 237
2010 butterflies; dragonflies; saproxylic beetles (living in deadwood) 483; 142; 436
2011 vascular plants; freshwater molluscs; terrestrial molluscs; freshwater fishes 1826; 868; 1234; 532
2015 medicinal plants; birds; bees; marine fishes 400; 533; 1965; 1220
2016 grasshoppers, locusts and crickets 1082
2017 lycopods and ferns; saproxylic beetles (update) 194; 693


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage