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This report provides a non-technical summary of the latest information on electric road vehicles in Europe, including those with hybrid technologies. It focuses upon electric passenger vehicles, explaining the different types that are now available on the market, how each type works, and their respective advantages and disadvantages.
Transport and environment in Europe
Road transport is an important source of both greenhouse gases and air pollutants. Despite improvements in vehicle efficiencies over past decades, today the sector is responsible for almost one fifth of Europe's greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions from vehicles also lead to high concentrations of air pollutants above EU standards in many of Europe's cities. This report provides a summary of the current knowledge on vehicle emissions in Europe. It also explains how emissions are monitored and the common technologies used to limit them.
This report provides a summary of the quality of petrol and diesel used for road transport in the European Union under the requirements of the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), based on the information reported by Member States for 2014. EU Member States must sample fuels each year and analyse technical characteristics of petrol and diesel fuels sold in their territories to ensure that they are consistent with the requirements of the FQD.
Evaluating 15 years of transport and environmental policy integration — TERM 2015: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe14 Dec 2015
The report analyses the evolution of the transport sector (freight and passenger) and its pressures on the environment since 2000, including the impacts of the economic recession in 2008. It makes use of the latest available data in order to assess key trends, measures and overall progress in meeting policy targets. It concludes that a fundamental decarbonisation of the transport sector will require not just technological solutions but also policies that stimulate significant behavioural changes, including the correct pricing of transport externalities and planning approaches that stimulate the use of sustainable modes of transport.
This report provides an overview of the performance of car and van manufacturers in meeting their 2014 CO2 emission targets. In order to evaluate the progress that manufacturers are making towards their targets, the EEA has collected and quality checked data on CO2 emissions from passenger cars and vans registered in all EU Member States since 2010. The reported CO2 emissions data presented in this report are based on measurements performed in the laboratory using a standard European vehicle test cycle. Such measurements may not reflect real-world driving performance.
Challenges and options across transport modes and stakeholders. This report explores current climate change adaptation practices concerning transport across European countries. It provides an overview on the challenges and state adaptation action, a review of a number of initiatives in different countries, and conclusions on a potential way forward. Its purpose is to stimulate discussions among the many different stakeholders concerned with transport adaptation. Opening the perspective on the transport system and sector as a whole should inspire and encourage learning from practices across modes and areas of responsibility and support efforts to mainstream adaptation within transport-related policy and practices. The factual information collected is based on data available in the Climate-ADAPT information platform, a literature review, case studies provided by many stakeholders, and a questionnaire on transport and adaptation addressed to EEA member countries in 2013.
Focusing on environmental pressures from long‑distance transport - TERM 2014: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe08 Dec 2014
The EEA's annual Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) report presents an overview of transport demand and pressures from the sector on the environment, as well as selected related impacts and policy responses. The report makes use of the latest available data in order to assess key trends and overall progress in meeting policy targets. Part A of the report provides an assessment of the progress made in the environmental performance of the transport system as a whole. Part B presents a dedicated assessment of the impact of long‑distance transport activities on the environment.
This report presents final data for both vehicle types, updating preliminary data published earlier in 2014.
Noise pollution is a growing problem for Europe’s environment. Transport and industry are the main sources of concern and long term exposure can damage human health and adversely affect ecosystems. European legislation aims to reduce noise pollution and also highlights the need to preserve areas that are currently unaffected. These so called quiet areas may be found, not only in rural areas, but also inside our busiest cities. They are not only where people recreate, but also where they live and work, so how can they be identified and preserved in order to protect environmental health and well-being? This report offers a digest of actions from all across Europe to identify and protect environments with good acoustic quality.
A closer look at urban transport – TERM 2013: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe03 Dec 2013
This TERM 2013 report includes an assessment of progress towards the transport-related environmental targets set out in the 2011 White Paper and other transport and environment regulations. It also includes a focus on the environmental impacts of urban transport.
The EEA has collected Member States' data on passenger car registrations, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 (CO2 from cars). All Member States reported information on CO2 emissions and the mass of cars, together with other vehicle characteristics. This data was used to evaluate the performance in 2012 of the new vehicle fleet, and its progress toward meeting the CO2 emissions target.
The EEA has collected EU Member States' data on passenger car registrations, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 443/2009. All Member States reported information on Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the mass of cars, together with other vehicle characteristics. This data was used to evaluate the performance in 2012 of the new vehicle fleet, and its progress toward meeting the CO2 emissions target of 130 grams of CO2 per kilometre (gCO2/km) by 2015. The current dataset is provisional, and will now be sent for verification to all car manufacturers responsible for cars registered in the EU in 2012.
This EEA Technical report provides an overview on the state of knowledge on the impact of international shipping in European waters to air quality and climate change. Based on literature review and model assessment studies information is provided on past and future emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, monitoring of ship emissions, emission mitigation policies and impact on European air quality and radiative forcing.
Starting from 2012, a specific binding CO2 target is calculated for each manufacturer every year based on the average mass of its fleet. For evaluating the progress of manufacturers towards their targets, the EEA is collecting and quality checking data on CO2 emissions from passenger cars registered in all Member States of the European Union since 2010. Using the Member State data, this note provides an overview of the performance of cars manufacturers in meeting their CO2 emissions targets.
The contribution of transport to air quality - TERM 2012: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe27 Nov 2012
TERM 2012 presents the most relevant and up to date information on the main issues regarding transport and environment in Europe, particularly in areas with specific policy targets such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, transport demand levels, noise and other issues. It also offers an overview of the transport sector's impact on air pollutant emissions and air quality. It discusses the contributions made by all modes of transport to direct air pollutant emissions and also to 'secondary' air pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Alongside the recently published Air quality in Europe - 2012 report, TERM 2012 aims to inform the European Commission’s review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution.
For the second year, the EEA has collected Member States' data on passenger car registrations, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 (CO2 from cars). All Member States reported information on CO2 emissions and the mass of cars, together with other vehicle characteristics. This data was used to evaluate the performance in 2011 of the new vehicle fleet, and its progress toward meeting the CO2 emissions target of 130 gCO2/km by 2015.
Laying the foundations for greener transport — TERM 2011: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe09 Nov 2011
For the first time ever the European Commissions is proposing a greenhouse gas emissions target for transport. But how is transport going to provide the services that our society needs while minimising its environmental impacts? This is the theme for the Transport White Paper launched in 2011. TERM 2011 and future reports aim to deliver an annual assessment on progress towards these targets by introducing the Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism Core Set of Indicators (TERM-CSI). TERM 2011 provides also the baseline to which progress will be checked against, covering most of the environmental areas, including energy consumption, emissions, noise and transport demand. In addition, this report shows latest data and discuss on the different aspects that can contribute the most to minimise transport impacts. TERM 2011 applies the avoid-shift-improve (ASI) approach, introduced in the previous TERM report, analysing ways to optimise transport demand, obtain a more sustainable modal split or use the best technology available.
COPERT 4 (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) is a Microsoft Windows® application to calculate emissions from the road-transport sector.
Indicators tracking transport and environment in the European Union
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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