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The direct and indirect impacts of EU policies on land

The 2011 Roadmap to a resource efficient Europe states, in its milestone of actions to address land as a resource, that 'By 2020, EU policies take into account their direct and indirect impact on land use in the EU and globally. This report presents a methodology for the assessment of European Union (EU) policies in terms of their land-related implications in Europe and provides an initial testing of the methodology across key EU policies and two in-depth case studies, which focus on Cohesion Policy spending on transport in Poland and Spain.

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Soil resource efficiency in urbanised areas - analytical framework and implications for governance

In this report, we have explored the notion of soil as an integral part of ecosystems and natural capital, and thus focused on the stock of the soil resource and the flows of valuable goods and services that can be derived from this stock. The concept of natural capital recognises soil as an asset that is of use and benefit to society (also called a 'productive' asset). Putting soil within the framework of the land system allows a connection to be made with governance, including soil resource efficiency.

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Exploring nature-based solutions — The role of green infrastructure in mitigating the impacts of weather- and climate change-related natural hazards

This report focuses on certain types of extreme events and natural hazards at European scale that will be very likely amplified by ongoing climate change, i.e. landslides, avalanches, floods and storm surges. In addition, the report also touches upon the green infrastructure and ecosystem services contributing to global climate regulation. The analysis is carried out using spatially explicit data centred on the physical capacity of ecosystems to deliver services that can mitigate natural hazard risks.

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Developing a forest naturalness indicator for Europe

Concept and methodology for a high nature value (HNV) forest indicator: European forests are a complex mosaic of conditions, constantly influenced by internal dynamics and external pressures determined by natural and anthropogenic factors. This report documents the first steps for the development of a forest naturalness indicator for Europe. An enhanced European HNV forest indicator and its corresponding map will enable us to gain better insight into the current status and extent of forest naturalness, and will allow for further analyses on spatial and time trends.

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Progress on resource efficiency and decoupling in the EU‑27

Messages emerging from environmentally extended input‑output analysis with relevance to the Resource Efficiency Roadmap and the 7EAP

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Spatial analysis of green infrastructure in Europe

The objective of this report is to propose a feasible and replicable methodology for use by different entities and at varying scales, when identifying Green Infrastructure (GI) elements. The proposed methodology will help those policymakers and practitioners define a landscape GI network to identify areas where key habitats can be reconnected and the overall ecological quality of the area improved.

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Global megatrend update: 7 Intensified global competition for resources

In 2010, the EEA produced its first assessment of global megatrends as part of its five-yearly assessment of the European environment's state, trend and prospects (SOER 2010). In preparation for SOER 2015, the EEA updated each of the megatrends, providing a more detailed analysis based on the latest data. This publication is one of the 11 updates being published separately. In mid-2015 the chapters will be consolidated into a single EEA technical report.

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Consumption and the environment — 2012 update

Update to the European Environment State and Outlook 2010 (SOER 2010) thematic assessment

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Earnings, jobs and innovation: the role of recycling in a green economy

This short report explains the role of recycling in the green economy and examines the evidence of its contribution in Europe, focusing primarily on the economic benefits that recycling offers.

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Consumption and the environment - SOER 2010 thematic assessment

The consumption of goods and services in EEA member countries is a major driver of global resource use and associated environmental impacts. Growth in global trade is resulting in an increasing share of environmental pressures and impacts from European consumption taking place beyond Europe. Food and drink, housing, mobility and tourism are responsible for a large part of the pressures and impacts caused by consumption in the EU. Achieving significant reductions in environmental pressures and impacts will require changing private and public consumption patterns, to supplement gains achieved through better technology and improved production processes.

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CLC2006 technical guidelines

This technical report provides guidelines for the update of Corine land cover data for the reference year 2006.

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