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Addressing climate change requires a globally coordinated, long-term response across all economic sectors. The 2015 Paris Agreement provides the framework for limiting global warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and for pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Early in this process, the European Union has adopted ambitious and binding climate and energy targets for 2020 and 2030. Member States have set the strategic objective of building an Energy Union, which aims to provide affordable, secure and sustainable energy (European Council, 2014) and which has a forward‑looking climate policy at its core (European Council, 2015). The most recent package of legislative measures, adopted by the European Commission in November 2016, aims to consolidate and match national climate and energy efforts, and facilitate the delivery of the 2030 targets for climate, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources (RES). This report provides information about progress in RES in 2014 at the EU, country, energy market sector and RES technology levels.
This report was developed in cooperation with the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) — a partnership network of the EEA and its member and cooperating countries involving more than 1 000 experts and 350 national institutions across Europe. Drawing on evidence collected from across the network, the report represents an initial attempt to explore what the concepts of sustainability transitions and transformations mean in practice, and how the EEA and Eionet can help develop the knowledge needed to support systemic change in Europe. Case studies are used to explain and illustrate key concepts and to give a sense of what activities are already under way at local levels. The report concludes with reflections from the EEA's Scientific Committee and Executive Director, which provide further insights into the new knowledge needs and the potential role of the EEA and Eionet in responding to them.
Trends and projections in Europe 2016 - Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets01 Dec 2016
The 2016 edition of the annual EEA report, Trends and projections in Europe, provides an updated assessment of the progress of the EU and European countries towards their climate mitigation and energy targets.
The report provides an analysis of past, present and future emissions trends under the EU ETS, based on the latest data and information available from the European Commission and Member States. It also analyses the balance between supply and demand of allowances in the market. The report's annexes provide extensive material describing the functioning, scope and cap of the EU ETS.
With fossil fuels still contributing to roughly half of the electricity generated in Europe, moving away from a carbon-intensive power supply over the next few decades will require a commitment to increase investment in clean technology, restructure the fossil fuel energy infrastructure and ensure a secure and affordable power supply. In this context, this report fills an important information gap by looking at: • the theoretical evolution of fossil fuel capacity by 2030 in the absence of strong drivers to counter present trends; • how this hypothetical evolution would fit in with the need to create a qualitatively different EU power sector by 2030 and beyond, in line with EU climate goals.
This report provides a non-technical summary of the latest information on electric road vehicles in Europe, including those with hybrid technologies. It focuses upon electric passenger vehicles, explaining the different types that are now available on the market, how each type works, and their respective advantages and disadvantages.
A fundamental change within the road transport sector is required if Europe wants to achieve its objective of a long-term transition to a low-carbon European economy. Electric vehicles charged with electricity from renewable sources can reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from road transport. This briefing (based on an assessment carried out on behalf of the EEA) presents the key implications for emissions and Europe's energy system arising from the potential wide-scale use of electric cars in 2050.
This report complements the findings shown in the "Trends and Projections in Europe 2015 - Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets" report with details about the 2013 renewable energy sources (RES) progress at EU and at country level, and for key RES technologies. Furthermore, it provides approximated estimates for RES development in 2014 and seeks to answer the following key questions: Which fossil energy sources were substituted by the growth of RES consumption since 2005 and what would have been their GHG emissions? How do European RES developments compare against renewable energy transformations occurring in other parts of the world?
The 2015 report introduces several methods the European Environment Agency (EEA) has developed for assessing and communicating early RES growth and the important knock-on effects that RES growth has on the energy sector and related areas. The report provides specific information at EU and country level on estimated RES progress in 2013, estimated gross avoided carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and avoided fossil fuel use due to the additional use of renewable energy since 2005, as well as an assessment of the statistical impacts of growing RES use on primary energy consumption.
Governments support energy production and consumption in order to meet social, economic and environmental objectives, and they have been doing so for decades. In times of economic crisis, public budgets and household incomes come under pressure. At the same time, countries need to kick‑start their economies by creating new employment opportunities in emerging industries such as the renewable sector. This report examines the support allocated to energy production and consumption in Europe and its impact on innovation in renewable energy.
Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets
Trends and projections in Europe 2013 – Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets until 202009 Oct 2013
This report provide an assessment of the progress of the EU and European countries towards achieving their climate mitigation and energy policy objectives. These targets include international commitments pursuant the KP and the EU 2020 commitment to reduce by 20 % greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to 1990, to create 20 % of energy consumption from renewables and to increase energy efficiency by 20 %. The assessment is based on GHG data for the period 2008–2012, including recent estimates of proxy 2012 GHG emissions, GHG projections until 2020 submitted by Member States in 2013, as well as energy statistics until 2011.
The main objective of this report is to review the implications of resource efficiency principles for developing EU bioenergy production. The results presented are primarily based on the 2013 ETC/SIA study, capturing key messages while excluding some of the more technical elements. The report aims to be a more accessible version of the ETC/SIA study, aimed at the non-technical reader.
An assessment of potential emission reductions of NOX, SO2 and dust - This report presents an assessment of the hypothetical emission reduction potential of NOx, SO2 and dust from more than 1 500 of Europe's large combustion plants that operated in 2009. Emissions of these air pollutants could be significantly lower if all plants were to meet the emission limit values as set out in European Union legislation.
This report provides a review of available literature on measures targeting consumer behaviour in order to achieve energy savings. It focuses on: Energy efficiency measures and behaviour change; structural factors - such as the impact of liberalisation and the energy mix and energy tariff structures; the rebound effect.
End-user GHG emissions from energy: Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005 -201020 Dec 2012
The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past GHG emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostats energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005 -2010.
Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005–2009
This report provides a Europe-wide resource assessment of onshore and offshore wind potential in a geographically explicit manner. In addition to calculating raw wind resource potential, this study also introduces and quantitatively analyses the environmental and social constraints on wind sector development. Concerns addressed include the noise and visual impact of wind power, as well as the deaths of birds and bats that fly into rotor blades. The report also evaluates the future costs of wind energy production across Europe in order to gauge the potential output at competitive rates.
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/energy/publications/publications_topic or scan the QR code.
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