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Summary of data reported by companies on the production, import and export of fluorinated greenhouse gases in the European Union. This report is based on submissions for 2014, the first reporting year under the new F-Gas Regulation 517/2014. The new regulation requires, among other things, that companies report on produced, imported and exported quantities of fluorinated greenhouse gases, including mixtures.
Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union. This document summarises the data reported under the ODS Regulation for the year 2014, and looks at the major trends since 2006.
Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union.
Data reported by companies on the production, import and export of fluorinated greenhouse gases in the European Union
Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union – SUMMARY
Science and the precautionary principle - lessons for preventing harm
The 2013 Late lessons from early warnings report is the second of its type produced by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in collaboration with a broad range of external authors and peer reviewers. The case studies across both volumes of Late lessons from early warnings cover a diverse range of chemical and technological innovations, and highlight a number of systemic problems. The 'Late Lessons Project' illustrates how damaging and costly the misuse or neglect of the precautionary principle can be, using case studies and a synthesis of the lessons to be learned and applied to maximising innovations whilst minimising harms.
Aggregated data reported by companies on the production, import, export, destruction and use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union.
The impacts of endocrine disrupters on wildlife, people and their environments – The Weybridge+15 (1996–2011) report10 May 2012
Rates of endocrine diseases and disorders, such as some reproductive and developmental harm in human populations, have changed in line with the growth of the chemical industry, leading to concerns that these factors may be linked. For example, the current status of semen quality in the few European countries where studies have been systematically conducted, is very poor: fertility in approximately 40 % of men is impaired. There is also evidence of reproductive and developmental harm linked to impairments in endocrine function in a number of wildlife species, particularly in environments that are contaminated by cocktails of chemicals that are in everyday use. Based on the human and wildlife evidence, many scientists are concerned about chemical pollutants being able to interfere with the normal functioning of hormones, so-called endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), that could play a causative role in these diseases and disorders. If this holds true, then these 'early warnings' signal a failure in environmental protection that should be addressed.
Chemicals are an essential part of our daily lives and are used to produce consumer goods, to protect or restore our health and to boost food production, to name but a few examples. Some chemicals, however, are hazardous, raising concerns for the environment and human health. Hazardous substances are emitted to fresh and marine waters via a number of pathways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic biota. Humans can be exposed to hazardous substances in water through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water and the consumption of contaminated freshwater fish and seafood. A wide range of legislation now exists in Europe to address the release of hazardous substances to the environment, including water. New challenges exist, however, including the issues of chemical mixtures and emerging pollutants.
Following the principles of the European Thematic Strategy on the Protection and Conservation of the Marine Environment, the collective interest of EEA and UNEP/MAP has been developed towards a product focusing on priority pollution zones in the Mediterranean Sea and addressing emerging issues. All these issues come under the prism of an ecosystem approach. The core of this report derives from the latest (2003–2004) country National Diagnostic Analyses reports (NDA).
Late lessons from early warnings is about the gathering of information on the hazards of human economic activities and its use in taking action to better protect both the environment and the health of the species and ecosystems that are dependent on it, and then living with the consequences. The report is based on case studies. The authors of the case studies, all experts in their particular field of environmental, occupational and consumer hazards, were asked to identify the dates of early warnings, to analyse how this information was used, or not used, in reducing hazards, and to describe the resulting costs, benefits and lessons for the future.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
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