Habitat loss — a major concern70 % of species are threatened by the loss of their habitat (IUCN). Farmland birds declined by 20–25 % between 1990 and 2007 (Eurostat, 2010).
Overexploitation — more sustainability needed30 % of species are threatened by overexploitation (IUCN). For instance: 88 % of stocks are being fished beyond Maximum Sustainable Yields (ICES, 2008) and 46 % outside safe biological limits, which means that stocks may not be replenished (EEA, 2010).
Pollution — improvements in some areasDespite improvements in some areas, 26 % of species are threatened by pesticides, and fertilisers like nitrates and phosphates (IUCN).
Invasive alien species — an increasing phenomenon22 % of species are threatened by invasive alien species (IUCN).
Shifts in habitats and species distribution are being observed, so is desertification. Climate change interacts and often exacerbates other threats.