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Sound and independent information
on the environment

Endnotes

 

Chapter 1

A. Under the SOER 2010 umbrella, a number of assessments have been developed — all of which are available on a dedicated web-portal at www.eea.europa.eu/soer:

• a synthesis report (this report) that presents an integrated assessment based on the evidence from the range of assessments developed in the SOER 2010 context and other EEA activities;

• a set of thematic assessments that describe the state of and trends in key environmental issues, review related socio-economic driving forces, and contribute to an evaluation of policy objectives;

• a set of country assessments of the environmental situation in individual European countries;

• an exploratory assessment of global megatrends relevant for the European environment.

B. Overview of the most recent national ‘state of the environment’ reporting across Europe:

Austria

2010

Umweltsituation in Österreich

Belgium

2009

2008
2008

Brussels: Synthèse de l'état de l'environnement
2007–2008
Flanders: MIRA-T 2008 — Flanders Environment Report
Wallonia: Environmental Outlook for Wallonia

Bulgaria

2007

Annual State of the Environment Report

Cyprus

2007

State of the Environment Report 2007

Czech Republic

2008

Report on the Environment in the Czech Republic

Denmark

2009

Natur og Miljø 2009

Estonia

2010
2010

Estonian Environmental Review 2009
Estonian Environmental Indicators 2009

Finland

2008

Finland State of the Environment

France

2010

L'environnement en France

Germany

2009
2008

Daten zur Umwelt (Environmental Data for Germany)
Daten zur Natur

Greece

2008

Greece — The State of the Environment — A Concise Report

Hungary

2010

State of environment in Hungary 2010

Iceland

2009

Umhverfiog auðlindir

Ireland

2008

Ireland's environment 2008

Italy

2009

Environmental Data Yearbook — Key Topics

Latvia

2008

Nacionālais ziņojums par vides stāvokli 2008

Liechtenstein

n.a.

Lithuania

2009

Lithuania 2008 State of environment. Only facts

Luxembourg

2003

L'Environnement en Chiffres 2002–2003

Malta

2008

The Environment Report 2008

Netherlands

2009

Milieubalans

Norway

2009

Miljoestatus 2009

Poland

2010

Raport o stanie środowiska w Polsce 2008 — raport wskaźnikowy

Portugal

2008

Relatório do Estado do Ambiente

Romania

2009

Raport anul privind Starea Mediului în România pe anul 2008

Slovakia

2009

State of the Environment Report of the Slovak Republic 2008

Slovenia

2010

Poročilo o okolju v Sloveniji 2009

Spain

2010

2009

Perfil Ambiental de España 2009 — Informe basado en indicadores
El medio ambiente y el medio rural y marino en España 2008

Sweden

2009

Sweden's Environmental Objectives

Switzerland

2009

Environment Switzerland

Turkey

2007

Turkey State of the Environment Report

United Kingdom

2007

2008

2006
2003

England: Several, separate SOE reports for different regions in England
Northern Ireland: State of the Environment Report for Northern Ireland
Scotland: State of Scotland's Environment
Wales: A Living and Working Environment for Wales

Albania

2008

Raport per Gjendjen e Mjedisit — State of Environment Report

Bosnia and Herzegovina

2010

State of Environment in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2010

Croatia

2007

Izvješće o stanju okoliša u Republici Hrvatskoj

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

2000
2008

Sostojba na zivotnata sredina 2000
Environmental Indicators — Republic of Macedonia 2008

Montenegro

2008

State of Environment in Montenegro

Serbia

2008

Report on the State of Environment in the Republic of Serbia for '08

C. The assessment is based largely on the EEA’s indicator sets (CSI — Core Set of Indicators, SEBI — Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators, ENER — Energy Indicators) plus the EUAnnual Environment Policy Review (EPR):

Greenhouse gas emissions

EPR, CSI 10

Energy efficiency

ENER 22, ENER 23, ENER 24, ENER 25

Renewable energy sources

ENER 28

Global mean temperature change

EPR, CSI 12

Pressure on ecosystems

EPR, CSI 05

Conservation status

EPR, SEBI 03, SEBI 05, SEBI 08

Biodiversity

SEBI 01 (birds and butterflies) EPR(fisheries) SEBI 12, SEBI 21

Soil degradation

IRENA (soil erosion)

Decoupling

SD indicator (Eurostat)

Waste generation

EPR, SOER2010 including CSI 16

Waste management

EPR, SOER2010 including CSI 17

Water stress

EPR, CSI 18

Water quality

CSI 19, CSI 20

Water pollution

CSI 22, CSI 24

Transboundary air pollution

EPR, CSI 01, CSI 02, CSI 03, CSI 05

Air quality in urban areas

EPR, CSI 04

D. The ambition is to limit global mean temperature increase to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This depends critically also on greenhouse gas emissions originating outside Europe.

E. The EU-27 in 2008 was more than halfway towards its unilateral target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% in 2020 compared to 1990. The provisions of the EU Emission Trading Scheme and the effort-sharing decision ensures that the 2020 target will be met, although the built-in flexibility makes it difficult to foresee the exact mix of policies and measures that industry, individual countries and the EU will use to reduce emissions.

F. Includes both terrestrial and marine areas.

G. Soil degradation in Europe is accelerating, with negative effects on human health, natural ecosystems and climate change, as well as on our economy. Soil erosion by wind and water, which is largely the result of unsuitable land management, is of particular concern in large parts of southern Europe and increasing. (See SOER 2010 Thematic assessment — Soil for further details.)

H. The most recent ‘Annual Environment Policy Review’ assesses the EU’s generation and management of municipal waste to be of ‘average performance or trend not clear, overall problem remains despite some mixed progress’. However, as the assessment presented here concentrates on the generation of waste only, it corresponds with the negative trend described in the Annual Environment Policy Review.

I. The targets set out in the Water Framework Directive have to be reached by 2015; first assessments by member states show that a large percentage of water bodies will not reach good ecological and chemical status.

J. The 6th Environment Action Programme (6th EAP) is a decision of the European Parliament and the Council adopted on 22 July 2002. It sets out the framework for environmental policymaking in the EU for the period 2002 to 2012 and outlines actions that need to be taken to achieve them. It identifies four priority areas: climate change; nature and biodiversity; environment and health; and natural resources and waste. Furthermore, the 6th EAP promotes the full integration of environmental protection into all Community policies and actions and provides the environmental component of the Community’s strategy for sustainable development.

Chapter 2

A. These include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as various chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Note that much of the discussion in this section focuses on the role of carbon in general, and CO2 in particular.

B. The IAC (Inter Academy Council) has, in early 2010, started an independent review of the IPCC processes to further strengthen the quality of IPCC reports. Meanwhile, the conclusions from the IPCC 2007 report remain valid. (IAC, 2010. Inter Academy Council Asked to Review Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, press release, 10March 2010).

C. The growth in global GHG emissions increased steeply from 2000 to 2004 compared to the 1990s, but slowed down considerably after 2004. This is partly due to mitigation measures. The economic downturn is estimated to cause a decrease in global CO2 emissions of 3% in 2009, compared to 2008. (PBL, 2009. News in Climate Science and Exploring Boundaries, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), PBL publication number 500114013, Bilthoven, the Netherlands).

D. Changes in greenhouse gas emission presented here exclude net greenhouse gas emissions from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), as well as emissions from international aviation and international maritime navigation.

E. ‘Flexible mechanisms’ is a term used to summarise means of meeting national GHG emission targets by market-based approaches to account for mitigation efforts supported in other countries. Such mechanisms include the clean development mechanism (which allows countries to benefit from GHG emissions in countries without emission reduction targets), and joint implementation (which allows countries to get credit investing in emission reduction projects with other countries).

F. Targets based on: EC, 2009. Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC.

G. The hot summer of 2003 in Europe, for example, has been estimated to have led to EUR 10 billion of economic losses to farming, livestock and forestry from the combined effects of drought, heat stress and fire.

H. An updated overview table of progress towards developing national adaptation strategies is available at www.eea.europa.eu/themes/climate/national-adaptation-strategies.

I. However, it should be noted that these benefits are expected to be greater by 2030 than in 2020, especially since a longer period would be available for implementing measures and for changes to occur in the energy system.

Chapter 3

A. For the formal definition, see Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD).
(UNEP, 1992. Convention on Biological Diversity. www.cbd.int/convention/articles.shtml?a=cbd-02).

B. This chapter deals with biotic natural resources, such as food and fibre. Non-renewable natural resources, such as materials, metals and other minerals, as well as water as a resource, are dealt with in Chapter 4.

C. Based on Corine land-cover data for 2006. Data coverage is for all 32 EEA member countries — with the exception of Greece and the United Kingdom — and 6 EEA cooperating countries.

D. Forest undisturbed by man is forest which shows natural forest dynamics such as natural species composition, occurrence of dead wood, natural age structure and natural regeneration processes, the area of which is large enough to maintain its natural characteristics and where there has been no known human intervention or where the last significant human intervention was long enough ago to have allowed the natural species composition and processes to have become re-established. (This definition is based on the Temperate and Boreal Forest Resources Assessment of the Timber Committee of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).)

E. HNV (High Nature Value) farmland is defined as those areas in Europe where agriculture is a major (usually the dominant) land use and where that agriculture supports, or is associated with, either a high species and habitat diversity or the presence of species of European conservation concern, or both.

F. Decoupled subsidies are paid not on the basis of the product volume, but, for example, on the basis of historical rights (the received payments in a reference year).

G. Collection of data on exposure of biota to other chemicals (industrial chemicals, pesticides, biocides, pharmaceuticals) and its mixtures would be desired to provide a basis for the evaluation of effects of chemical pollution on biodiversity.

H. sA fish stock is considered to be within safe biological limits (SBL), if the spawning stock biomass is more than approximately 17% of an unexploited stock. This SBL indicator does not take wider ecosystem functioning into account. Much stricter criteria have therefore been proposed within the framework of the EUMarine Strategy Framework Directive. The reference level is the ‘spawning stock biomass producing Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)’, corresponding to about 50% of an unexploited stock. An MSY indicator for Europe is not yet available.

Chapter 4

A. The definition of natural resources given in the EU Thematic Strategy on the sustainable use of natural resources is quite broad, including raw materials, environmental media, flow resources (such as running water, tides, wind) and space (such as land area).
(EC, 2005. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — Thematic Strategy on the sustainable use of natural resources. COM(2005) 0670 final).

B. Marine litter is any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in marine and coastal environments.

C. For Germany, it has been estimated that the platinum group metals embedded within catalytic converters exported in used cars equals around 30% of the annual domestic consumption of these metals.
(Buchert, M.; Hermann, A.; Jenseit, W.; Stahl, H.; Osyguß, B.; Hagelüken, C., 2007. Verbesserung der Edelmetallkreisläufe: Analyse der Exportströme von Gebraucht-Pkw und -Elektro(nik)geräten am Hamburger Hafen. UBA-FB-Nr: 001005, Förderkennzeichen: 363 01 133. Umweltbundesamt.
www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/3200.pdf).

D. Biowaste refers to biodegradable garden and park waste, food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises and comparable waste from food processing plants.

E. In the EU, between 118 and 138 million tonnes of bio-waste are produced every year, of which about 88 million tonnes is municipal waste.
(EC, 2010. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on future steps in bio-waste management in the European Union. Brussels, 18.5.2010. COM(2010)235 final. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/compost/pdf/com_biowaste.pdf).

F. WEI (water exploitation index) divides the total water abstraction by the long-term annual average resource. However, this indicator does not fully reflect the level of stress upon local water resources: this is primarily because the WEI is based on annual data and cannot, therefore, account for seasonal variations in water availability and abstraction.

G. EEA analyses of environmental impacts — GHG emissions, acidifying substances, ozone forming substances, material resources use — are based on a sample of nine EU Member States using NAMEA (National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts): Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden.

Chapter 5

A. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) indicate the potential number of healthy life years lost in a population, due to premature mortality, and to years spent with reduced quality of life due to disease.

B. Sum of Ozone Means Over 35 ppb (SOMO35) — the sum of the differences between maximum daily 8-hour running mean concentrations greater than 70µg/m3 (= 35 parts per billion) and 70µg/m3.

C. EU-25 refers to EU-27 Member States, without Bulgaria and Romania.

D. PM10 — fine and coarse particulate matter with a diameter below 10micrometer.

E. 50 µg/m3 — daily mean not be exceeded on more than 35 days a calendar year.

F. PM2.5 — fine particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5micrometer.

G. For a discussion of uncertainty and methodological details, see ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2009/1: http://air-climate.eionet.europa.eu/docs/ETCACC_TP_2009_1_European_PM2.5_HIA.pdf.

H. The average exposure indicator (AEI) is a 3-year running annual mean PM2.5 concentration averaged over the selected monitoring stations in agglomerations and larger urban areas, set in urban background locations.

I. Lden is the day-evening-night noise indicator. Lnight is the night-time noise indicator.
(EC, 2002. Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 June 2002 relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise).

J. Such EU-funded research projects include the NoMiracle, EDEN and Comprendo project.

K. The first outbreak of a chikungunya fever, transmitted by the Asian tiger mosquito, in Europe was reported in northern Italy in 2007.

L. Cities in their administrative borders; see: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/region_cities/city_urban.

Chapter 6

A. Based on EEA Corine land-cover data for 2006. Data coverage is for all 32EEA member countries — with the exception of Greece and the United Kingdom — and 6 EEA cooperating countries.
(CLC, 2006. Corine land cover. Corine land cover 2006 raster data. www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2006-raster).

Chapter 7

A. HANPP (human appropriation of net primary production) can be calculated in different ways, depending on the reference value for primary production. For estimating the impact on natural ecosystems, this can be related to an estimated primary production of the potential natural vegetation. In this definition, HANPP also takes changes in primary production resulting from land conversion into account.

B. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) indicate the potential number of healthy life years lost in a population, due to premature mortality, and to years spent with reduced quality of life due to disease.

C. There is little agreement, however, about the definition of ‘middle class’ in economic terms.

Chapter 8

A. However, it should be noted that these benefits are expected to be greater by 2030 than in 2020, especially since a longer period would be available for implementing measures and for changes to occur in the energy system.

Bibliography

Chapter 1

1. EEA, 2007. The pan-European environment: glimpses into an uncertain future. EEAReport No 4/2007. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

2. Eurostat, 2009. Europe in figures — Eurostat Yearbook 2009. Eurostat statistical books, Luxembourg.

3. Eurobarometer, 2008. Attitudes of European citizens towards the environment. Special Eurobarometer 295.

4. EC, 2009. Regulation (EC) No 401/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the European Environment Agency and the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Codified version).

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6. EEA, 1999. Environment in the European Union at the turn of the century. Environmental assessment report No 2. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

7. EEA, 2005. The European environment — State and outlook 2005. State of the environment report. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

8. EEC, 1992. Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora.

9. EC, 2009. Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds 1979/404. EUBirds Directive (79/409/EEC).

10. EC, 2009. Environment Policy Review 2008. COM(2009) 304.

11. EC, 2010. Commission Staff Working Document — 2009 Environment Policy Review. SEC(2010) 975 final.

12. EC, 2002. Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2002 laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme.

13. Council of the European Union, 2006. Review of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (EU SDS) — Renewed Strategy. Brussels, 26 June 2006.

14. World Economic Forum (WEF), 2010. Global Risks Report 2010. World Economic Forum, Geneva.

Notes for table 1.2

(a) Council of the European Union, 2009. Council Conclusions on EU position for the Copenhagen Climate Conference (7–18 December 2009) 2968th Environment Council meeting. Luxembourg, 21 October 2009.

(b) EC, 2008. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: 20 20 by 2020, Europe’s climate change opportunity. COM(2008) 30 final.

(c) EC, 2001. Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants.

(d) EC, 2009. Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds 1979/404. EUBirds Directive (79/409/EEC).

(e) EC, 2006. Communication from the Commission — Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010 — and beyond — Sustaining ecosystem services for human well-being. COM(2006) 0216 final.

(f) EC, 2008. Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive).

(g) EC, 2006. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. COM(2006) 0231 final.

(h) EC, 2002. Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2002 laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme.

(i) EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy.

(j) EEC, 1991. Council Directive 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources.

(k) EC, 2006. Directive 2006/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 February 2006 concerning the management of bathing water quality and repealing Directive 76/160/EEC.

(l) EEC, 1991. Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste-water treatment.

(m) EC, 2005. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: thematic strategy on air pollution. COM(2005) 446 final.

Chapter 2

1. University of Copenhagen, 2009. International Scientific Congress Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions — Synthesis Report, IARU (International Alliance of Research Universities), Copenhagen,
10–12March 2009.

2. WMO, 2009. WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin, The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Using Global Observations through 2008, No 5, 23 November 2009, Geneva.

3. WMO, 2010. WMO statement on the status of the global climate in 2009, WMO-No1055, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.

4. IPCC, 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report (Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

5. Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency (PBL), 2009. News in Climate Science and Exploring Boundaries. PBL publication number 500114013. Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

6. EEA-JRC-WHO, 2008. Impacts of Europe’s changing climate — 2008indicator-based assessment. Joint EEA-JRC-WHO report. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

7. UNFCCC, 2009. Copenhagen Accord, 18 December 2009, UNFCCC secretariat, Bonn.

8. EU Climate Change Expert Group Science, 2008. The 2°C target, Information Reference Document, European Commission, Brussels.

9. EEA, 2010. Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2008 and inventory report 2010. EEA Technical report No6/2010. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

10. IEA, 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. International Energy Agency.

11. EEA, 2009. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2009. EEAReport No 9/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

12. EC-JRC and PBL, 2009. European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), release version 4.0. http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu.

13. Velders, G.J.M.; Andersen, S.O.; Daniel, J.S.; Fahey, D.W.; McFarland, M., 2007. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 4814–4819.

14. EEA, 2009. Transport at a crossroads. TERM 2008: indicators tracking transport and environment in the European Union. EEA Report No3/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

15. EC, 2008. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: 20 20 by 2020, Europe’s climate change opportunity. COM(2008) 30 final.

16. EC, 2010. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage (SEC(2010) 65).

17. EC, 2004. Directive 2004/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 October 2004 amending Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community, in respect of the Kyoto Protocol’s project mechanisms. COM(2004) 101.

18. EC, 2008. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. COM(2008) 19 final.

19. EC, 2008. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings. COM(2008) 780 final.

20. EEA, 2007. The pan-European environment: glimpses into an uncertain future. EEAReport No 4/2007. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

21. EEA, 2009. Regional climate change and adaptation — The Alps facing the challenge of changing water resources. EEA Report No 3/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

22. WHO, 2010. Protecting health in an environment challenged by climate change: European Regional Framework for Action. Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health, Parma, Italy, 10–12 March 2010.

23. IPCC, 2007. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

24. EC, 2009. White paper, adapting to climate change: towards a European framework for action. COM(2009) 147 final.

25. Stern, N., 2006. Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change. HMTreasury, London.

26. EC, 2005. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: thematic strategy on air pollution. COM(2005) 446 final.

27. Tollefsen, P.; Rypdal, K.; Torvanger, A.; Rive, N., 2009. Air pollution policies in Europe: efficiency gains from integrating climate effects with damage costs to health and crops. Environmental Science and Policy 12: 870–881.

28. EEA, 2006. Air quality and ancillary benefits of climate change policies. EEATechnical report No 4/2006. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

29. EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy.

30. UNEP, 2009. Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources: assessing biofuels. (A report produced by the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme.) www.unep.fr/scp/rpanel/Biofuels.htm.

Figure 2.1

a. IPCC, 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report (Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Box 2.1

c. EEA, 2010. Towards a resource-efficient transport systems. TERM 2009: indicators tracking transport and environment in the European Union. EEAReport No2/2010. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

Box 2.2

c. DESERTEC — www.desertec.org.

d. EC, 2008. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: second strategic energy review, an EU energy security and solidarity action plan. COM(2008) 781 final.

e. (e) Joint Declaration of the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean, 13July 2008.

f. (f) Diyva, K.; Ostergaard, J.; Larsen, E.; Kern, C.; Wittmann, T.; Weinhold, M., 2009. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration.European Transactions on Electrical Power. doi:10.1002/etep.371.

Map 2.1

g. EEA-JRC-WHO, 2008. Impacts of Europe’s changing climate — 2008indicator-based assessment. Joint EEA-JRC-WHO report. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Table 2.1

h. Hinkel, J.; Nicholls, R.; Athanasios, T.; Vafeidis, A.; Tol, R.; Exner, L.; Avagianou, T., 2009. The vulnerability of European coastal areas to sea level rise and storm surge, Contribution to the EEA SOER 2010 report. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK).

i. Hinkel, J.; Nicholls, R.; Vafeidis, A.; Tol, R.; Avagianou, T., 2009. Assessing risk of and adaptation to sea-level rise: An application of DIVA, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (forthcoming).

Chapter 3

1. EEA, 2010. EU Biodiversity Baseline 2010. www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eu-2010-biodiversity-baseline. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

2. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being. Synthesis report. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

3. EC, 2006. Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010 — and beyond. Sustaining ecosystem services for human well–being. COM(2006) 216 final.

4. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), 2009. TEEB for Policy Makers — Summary: Responding to the Value of Nature 2009.

5. EC, 2008. A mid-term assessment of implementing the EC Biodiversity Action Plan. COM(2008) 864 final.

6. EC, 2009. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Composite report on the conservation status of habitat types and species as required under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. COM(2009) 358 final.

7. EEA, 2009. Progress towards the European 2010 biodiversity target. EEA Report No 4/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

8. EEA, 2009. Progress towards the European 2010 biodiversity target — indicator fact sheets. Technical report No 5/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

9. Council of the European Union, 2010. Press Release, 3002nd Council meeting: Environment. Brussels, 15 March 2010.

10. EEC, 1992. Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora.

11. EC, 2009. Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds 1979/404. EUBirds Directive (79/409/EEC).

12. EC, 2010. Options for an EU vision and target for biodiversity beyond 2010. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM(2010) 4 final.

13. EC, 2006. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. COM(2006) 0231 final.

14. EC, 2008. Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe.

15. EC, 2001. Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants.

16. EEC, 1991 Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources for the period 2004–2007. COM(2010)47.

17. EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy.

18. EC, 2008. Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive).

19. EC, 2009. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Composite report on the conservation status of habitat types and species as required under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. COM(2009) 358 final.

20. Fontaine, B. et al., 2007. ‘The European Union’s 2010 target: Putting rare species in focus.’ Biological Conservation 139, pp.167–185.

21. Kell, S.P.; Knüpffer, H.; Jury, S.L.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V.; Maxted, N., 2008. ‘Crops and wild relatives of the Euro-Mediterranean region: making and using a conservation catalogue’. In: Maxted, N.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V.; Kell, S.P.; Iriondo, J.; Dulloo, E.; Turok, J. (eds.). Crop wild relative conservation and use. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 69–109.

22. EEA, 2006. Integration of environment into EU agriculture policy — the IRENA indicator-based assessment report. EEA Report No2/2006. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

23. Bradbury, R.B.; Bailey, C.M.; Wright, D.; Evans, A.D., 2008. ‘Wintering Cirl Buntings Emberiza cirlus in southwest England select cereal stubbles that follow a low-input herbicide regime’. Bird Study 55: 23–31.

24. Bradbury, R.B.; Browne, S.J.; Stevens, D.K.; Aebischer, N.J., 2004. ‘Five-year evaluation of the impact of the Arable Stewardship Pilot Scheme on birds’. Ibis146 (Supplement 2): 171–180.

25. Donald, P.F.; Sanderson, F.J.; Burfield, I.J.; Bieman, S.M.; Gregory, R.D.; Waliczky, Z., 2007. International Conservation Policy Delivers Benefits for Birds in Europe. Science Vol.317. No 5839, pp. 810–813.

26. EEA, 2005. The European environment — State and outlook 2005. State of the environment report. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

27. Lõhmus, A.; Kohv, K.; Palo, A.; Viilma K., 2004. Loss of old-growth and the minimum need for strictly protected forests in Estonia. Ecological Bulletins 51: 401–411.

28. Veen, P.; Fanta, J.; Raev, I.; Biris, I.-A.; de Smidt, J.; Maes, B., 2010. ‘Virgin forests in Romania and Bulgaria: results of two national inventory projects and their implications for protection.’ Biodiversity and Conservation (inpress). doi:10.1007/s10531-010-9804-2.

29. Hanski, I., 2000. Extinction debt and species credit in boreal forests: modelling the consequences of different approaches to biodiversity conservation. Ann.Zool. Fennici 37: 271–280.

30. Forest Europe (Ministerial Conference on Protection of Forests in Europe) — www.foresteurope.org.

31. EC, 2010. Green Paper On Forest Protection and Information in the EU: Preparing forests for climate change. COM(2010) 66 final.

32. Eurostat 2010. Environmental statistics and accounts in Europe. Eurostat, Luxembourg.

33. Andersen, E.; Baldock, D.; Bennet, H.; Beaufoy, G.; Bignal, E.; Brower, F.; Elbersen, B.; Eiden, G.; Godeschalk, F.; Jones, G.; McCracken, D.I.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.; van Eupen, M.; Hennekes, S.; Zervas, G., 2003. Developing a high nature value farming area indicator. Consultancy report to the EEA. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

34. Halada, L.; Evans, D.; Romão, C.; Petersen, J.-E. (in press). Which habitats of European Importance depend on agricultural practices? Biodiversity and Conservation.

35. ETC-BD, 2008. Habitats Directive Article 17 report (2001–2006).

36. EEA, 2010. Distribution and targeting of the CAP budget from a biodiversity perspective. EEA Technical report No 12/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

37. EC, 2008. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: 20 20 by 2020, Europe’s climate change opportunity. COM(2008) 30 final.

38. Nowicki, P.; Goba, V.; Knierim, A.; van Meijl, H.; Banse, M.; Delbaere, B., Helming, J.; Hunke, P.; Jansson, K, Jansson, T.; Jones-Walters, L.; Mikos, V.; Sattler, C.; Schlaefke, N.; Terluin, I., and Verhoog, D., 2009. Scenar-II — update of analysis of prospects in the Scenar 2020 study. European Commission, DGAgriculture and Rural Development, Brussels.

39. EEA, 2007. Air pollution in Europe 1990–2004. EEA Report No2/2007. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

40. EFMA, 2009. 2020 fertiliser outlook.

41. EEC,1991. Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste-water treatment.

42. Selman, M.; Sugg, Z.; Greenhalgh, S.; Diaz, R., 2008. Eutrophication and hypoxia in coastal areas: a global assessment of the state of knowledge. World Resources Institute Policy Note. ISBN No 978-1-56973-681-4.

43. Helcom, 2009. Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea — An integrated thematic assessment of the effects of nutrient enrichment and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea region. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No 115A.

44. FAO — Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2009. The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0250e/i0250e.pdf.

45. ICES, 2008. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. www.ices.dk/indexfla.asp.

46. Pauly, D.; Christensen, V.; Dalsgaard, J.; Froese, R.; Torres Jr., F., 1998. ‘Fishing Down Marine Food Webs.’ Science 6, Vol. 279. No5352, pp.860–863.

47. EC, 2009. Green Paper — Reform of the Common Fisheries Policy. COM(2009) 163 final.

48. Failler, P. 2007. ‘Future prospects for fish and fishery products. Chapter 4: Fish consumption in the EU in 2015 and 2030.’ FAO Fisheries Circular 972/4 FIEP/c972/4, FAO Rome. 204 pp.

49. SERI (Sustainable Europe Research Institute), Global 2000, Friends of the Earth Europe, 2009. Overconsumption? Our use of the world’s natural resources.

Box 3.1

a. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being. Synthesis report. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

Figure 3.1

b. EBCC, RSPB, BirdLife, Statistics Netherlands, 2009. European Bird Census Council, www.ebcc.info/; The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, www.rspb.org.uk/; BirdLife International, www.birdlife.org/; Statistics Netherlands, www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/home/default.htm.

c. SEBI indicators, 2010. www.eea.europa.eu/themes/biodiversity/indicators.

Figure 3.2

d. ETC/BD, 2008. Habitats Directive Article 17 Report (2001–2006). http://biodiversity.eionet.europa.eu/article17.

e. SEBI indicators, 2010. www.eea.europa.eu/themes/biodiversity/indicators.

Figure 3.3

f. CLC, 2006. Corine land cover 2006 raster data, www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2006-raster;
Corine land cover 2000 raster data, www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-raster;
Corine land cover 1990 raster data, www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-1990-raster;
Corine land cover 1990–2000 changes, www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-1990-2000;
Corine land cover 2000–2006 changes, www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-2006.

Figure 3.4

g. Forest Europe (Ministerial Conference on Protection of Forests in Europe) — www.foresteurope.org.

Map 3.2

h. JRC-EEA, 2008. High Nature Value Farmland in Europe. An estimate of the distribution patterns on the basis of land cover and biodiversity data. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, 47063. http://agrienv.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pdfs/HNV_Final_Report.pdf.

i. SEBI indicators, 2010. www.eea.europa.eu/themes/biodiversity/indicators.

Map 3.3, Map 3.4

j. Hettelingh, J.-P.; Posch, M.; Slootweg, J. (eds.), 2008. Critical Load, Dynamic Modelling and Impact Assessment in Europe. CCE Status Report 2008. Report No.500090003, ISBN No 978-90-6960-211-0.

k. Hettelingh, J.-P.; Posch, M.; Slootweg, J. (eds.), 2009. Progress in the modelling of critical thresholds, impacts to plant species diversity and ecosystem services in Europe. CCE Status Report 2009. Report No.500090004.
ISBN No 978-90-78645-32-0.

l. SEBI indicators, 2010. www.eea.europa.eu/themes/biodiversity/indicators.

Map 3.5

m. ICES, 2008. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.
www.ices.dk/indexfla.asp.

n. GFCM, 2005. General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean.
www.gfcm.org/gfcm/en.

o. SEBI indicators, 2010. www.eea.europa.eu/themes/biodiversity/indicators.

Chapter 4

1. SERI (Sustainable Europe Research Institute), Global 2000, Friends of the Earth Europe, 2009. Overconsumption? Our use of the world’s natural resources. http://old.seri.at/documentupload/SERI%20PR/overconsumption--2009.pdf [accessed 01.06.2010].

2. UNEP, 2009. From Conflict to Peacebuilding: The Role of Natural Resources and the Environment.

3. EC, 2005. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee of the Regions — Taking sustainable use of resources forward — AThematic Strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste. COM(2005)0666 final.

4. EC, 2005. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — Thematic Strategy on the sustainable use of natural resources. COM(2005) 0670 final.

5. EC, 2002. Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2002 laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme.

6. EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy.

7. United Nations University (UNU); AEA Technology; GAIKER; Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe; TUDelft, 2007. 2008 review of Directive 2002/96/EC on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), final report and annexes. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/weee/pdf/final_rep_unu.pdf.

8. EEA, 2007. The pan-European environment: glimpses into an uncertain future. EEAReport No 4/2007. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

9. EEC, 1991. Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste-water treatment.

10. OSPAR, 2007. OSPAR Pilot Project — Monitoring of marine litter on beaches in the OSPAR region. Publ. No 306/2007.

11. OSPAR, 2009. Marine litter in the North-East Atlantic Region, pp.14–15.

12. UNEP/MAP-Plan Bleu, 2009. State of the Environment and Development in the Mediterranean. UNEP/MAP-Plan Bleu, Athens.

13. EC, 2008. Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive).

14. UNEP/ROE, UNDP and OSCE, 2003. Transforming risks into cooperation. The case of Environment and Security. The case of Environment and Security Central Asia and South Eastern Europe.

15. EC, 2009. Commission staff working document: Lead Market Initiative for Europe. Mid-term progress report. SEC (2009) 1198 final, 9.9.2009, http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/innovation/files/swd_lmi_midterm_progress.pdf.

16. EC, 2007. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A Lead Market Initiative for Europe (COM(2007) 860 final SEC(2007) 1730).

17. Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP), 2006. Environmental benefits of recycling. An international review of life cycle comparisons for key materials in the UK recycling sector. www.cri.dk/images/downloads/file4a0f.pdf.

18. EC, 2008. Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives.

19. EEA, 2009. Water resources across Europe — confronting water scarcity and drought. EEA Report No 2/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

20. EEA, 1999. Environment in the European Union at the turn of the century. Environmental assessment report No 2. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

21. EC, 2003. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament — Integrated Product Policy — Building on Environmental Life-Cycle Thinking. COM(2003) 0302 final.

22. EC, 2009. Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products.

23. EC, 2007. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A Lead Market Initiative for Europe. COM(2007) 860 final SEC(2007) 1730.

24. EC, 2008. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the Sustainable Consumption and Production and Sustainable Industrial Policy Action Plan. COM(2008)0397 final.

25. AEA Energy & Environment, 2008. Significant Natural Resource Trade Flows into the EU. Report to DG ENV.

26. Sustainable Europe Research Institute (SERI), Global 2000, Friends of the Earth Europe, 2009. Overconsumption? Our use of the world’s natural resources. http://old.seri.at/documentupload/SERI%20PR/overconsumption--2009.pdf [accessed 01.06.2010].

27. Failler, P., 2007. Future prospects for fish and fishery products. Chapter 4: Fish consumption in the EU in 2015 and 2030. FAO Fisheries Circular 972/4 FIEP/c972/4, FAO Rome. 204 pp.

28. Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R., 2006. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries, Ecological Economics 60(1): 186–203.

Figure 4.2, Figure 4.4, Figure 4.5

a. Data reproduced with permission from The Conference Board Inc. ©2010 The Conference Board Inc.

Box 4.1

b. Best, A.; Giljum, S.; Simmons, C.; Blobel, D.; Lewis, K.; Hammer, M.; Cavalieri, S.; Lutter, S.; Maguire, C., 2008. Potential of the Ecological Footprint for monitoring environmental impacts from natural resource use: Analysis of the potential of the Ecological Footprint and related assessment tools for use in the EU’s Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources. Report to the European Commission, DG Environment.

Chapter 5

1. Eurostat, 2010. Eurostat’s population projection scenario — EUROPOP2008, convergence scenario.

2. EC, 2010. European Community Health Indicators. http://ec.europa.eu/health/indicators/echi/list/index_en.htm.

3. Eugloreh, 2009. The Report on the Status of Health in the European Union.

4. GA2LEN 2010. Global Allergy and Asthma European Network.
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5. WHO, 2006. Preventing Disease through Healthy Environments. Prüss-Üstün, A.; Corvalán, C. (Eds.). WHO, Geneva.

6. EBoDE, 2010. Environmental Burden of Disease in Europe (EBoDE) pilot project. http://en.opasnet.org/w/Ebode.

7. EC, 2008. Addressing the social dimensions of environmental policy — a study on the linkages between environmental and social sustainability in Europe. Pye, S.; Skinner, I.; Meyer-Ohlendorf, N.; Leipprand, A.; Lucas, K.; Salmons, R. (Eds.).

8. RCEP, 2007. The Urban Environment. 26th report, the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, London.

9. PINCHE, 2005. PINCHE project: Final report WP5 Socioeconomic Factors. Bolte, G.; Kohlhuber, M. (Eds). Public Health Services Gelderland Midden, Arnhem, the Netherlands.

10. OECD, 2006. The Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy. Serret, Y.; Johnstone, N. (Eds.). Paris.

11. EC, 2002. Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2002 laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme.

12. EC, 2003. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee. A European Environment and Health Strategy. COM(2003) 338 final.

13. EC, 2004. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee. ‘The European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010’. COM(2004)416 final (SEC(2004) 729).

14. WHO, 2004. Declaration of the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health. Budapest, Hungary, 23–25 June 2004.

15. WHO, 2010. Declaration of the Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health. Parma, Italy, 10–12 March 2010.

16. Council of the European Union, 2007. Council Conclusions on Environment and Health. 2842nd Environment Council meeting Brussels, 20 December 2007.

17. WHO, 2005. Air quality guidelines. Global update 2005. Particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

18. IIASA, 2008. National Emission Ceilings for 2020 based on the 2008 Climate & Energy Package. NEC Scenario Analysis Report Nr. 6, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

19. Russell, A.; Brunekreef, B., 2009. ‘A Focus on Particulate Matter and Health.’ Environmental Science and Technology 43: 4620–4625.

20. COST 633, 2009. COST action 633. Particulate Matter — Properties Related to Health Effects. Final Report, May 2009.

21. WHO, 2007. Health relevance of particulate matter from various sources. Report on a WHO Workshop Bonn, Germany, 26–27 March 2007. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

22. Barrett, K.; Fiala, J.; de Leeuw, F.; Ward, J., 2008. Air pollution by benzene, carbon monoxide, PAHs and heavy metals. ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2008/12.

23. EC, 2005. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament — Thematic Strategy on air pollution. COM(2005)0446 final.

24. EC, 2008. Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe.

25. UNECE, 2009. ECE/EB.AIR/WG.1/2009/16. Review of air pollution effects, Indicators and targets for air pollution effects. Report by the Extended Bureau of the Working Group on Effects.

26. EC, 2009. Road Safety 2009. How is your country doing?

27. Bauer, R.; Steiner, M., 2009. Injuries in the European Union. Statistics Summary 2005–2007.

28. WHO, 2009. Night Noise Guidelines. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

29. EC, 2002. Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 June 2002 relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise.

30. Noise Observation and Information Service for Europe — http://noise.eionet.europa.eu/.

31. UBA, 2009. The German Environmental Survey (GerES) for Children 2003/2006: Noise. Environment & Health 01/2009, Dessau-Roßlau.

32. Pronet, 2008. Rauterberg-Wulff, A. Advantages of an integrated air quality control and noise abatement plan and its implementation — experiences from Berlin. Transport, Environment and Health: what can be done to improve air quality and to reduce noise in European regions? Workshop report, 16–17 June 2008, Stockholm, Sweden.

33. EC, 2004. Information Note. Methyl mercury in fish and fishery products.

34. EFSA, 2005. ‘Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a Request from the European Parliament Related to the Safety Assessment of Wild and Farmed Fish.’ The EFSA Journal (2005) 236: 1–118.

35. WHO, 2010. Health and Environment in Europe: Progress Assessment. WHORegional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

36. EC, 1998. Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption.

37. EC, 2009. Revision of the Drinking Water Directive. Survey on the quality of drinking water of small water supply zones. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-drink/revision_en.html.

38. EFSA, 2010. ‘The Community Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in the European Union in 2008.’ The EFSA Journal: 1496.

39. EEC, 1991. Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste-water treatment.

40. EC, 2009. 5th Commission Summary on the Implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive. Commission Staff Working Document SEC(2009) 1114 final, 3.8.2009.

41. EEA, 2009. Annual summary report of bathing water quality in EU Member States. EEA Report No 6/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

42. UNESCO/IHP, 2005. CYANONET — A Global Network for Cyanobacterial Bloom and Toxin Risk Management — Initial Situation Assessment and Recommendations. IHP-VI Technical Document in Hydrology N°76 UNESCO Working Series SC-2005/WS/55.

43. OECD, 2009. Alternative Ways of Providing Water. Emerging Options and Their Policy Implications.

44. Jobling, S.; Williams, R.; Johnson, A.; Taylor, A.; Gross Sorokin, M.; Nolan, M.; Tyler, C.R.; van Aerle, R.; Santos, E.; Brighty, G., 2006. ‘Predicted exposures to steroid estrogens in UK rivers correlate with widespread sexual disruption in wild fish populations.’ Environ Health Perspect 114: 32–39.

45. KNAPPE, 2009. Knowledge and Need Assessment on Pharmaceutical Products in Environmental Waters. www.knappe-eu.org/.

46. EEA, 2010. Pharmaceuticals in the environment — Result of an EEA workshop. EEATechnical report No 1/2010. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

47. EC, 2006. Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC.

48. EC, 2008. Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy.

49. EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy.

50. RCEP, 2005. Crop Spraying and the Health of Residents and Bystanders.

51. DEFRA 2006. The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution report on crop spraying and the health of residents and bystanders — Government response.

52. Csillik, B.; Fazakas, J.; Nemcsók, J.; Knyihár-Csillik, E., 2000. ‘Effect of the pesticide Deltamethrin on the Mauthner cells of Lake Balaton fish’. Neurotoxicology, 21(3): 343–352.

53. EC, 2006. Monitoring of pesticide residues in products of plant origin in the EU, Norawy, Iceland, and Liechtenstein. Commission Staff Working Document.

54. Laetz, C.A.; Baldwin, D.H.; Collier, T.K.; Hebert, V.; Stark, J.D.; Scholz, N.L., 2009. ‘The Synergistic Toxicity of Pesticide Mixtures: Implications for Risk Assessment and the Conservation of Endangered Pacific Salmon.’ Environ Health Perspect 117: 348–353.

55. Hayes, T.B.; Case, P.; Chui, S.; Chung, D.; Haefele, C.; Haston, K.; Lee, M.; Mai, V.P.; Marjuoa, Y.; Parker, J.; Tsui, M., 2006. ‘Pesticide mixtures, Endocrine disruption, and amphibian declines: Are we underestimating the impact?’ Environ Health Perspect 114 (suppl 1): 40–50.

56. EC, 2006. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides. COM(2006) 372.

57. Schulz, R.; Liess, M., 1999. ‘A field study of the effects of agriculturally derived insecticide input on stream macroinvertebrate dynamics.’ Aquatic Toxicology 46: 155–176.

58. EC, 2010. Risk from Organic CMR substances in toys. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/environmental_risks/docs/scher_o_121.pdf.

59. ULSOP, 2009. Service contract: the State of the Art Report on Mixture Toxicity. Kortenkamp, A.; Backhaus, T.; Faust, M. (Eds); the School of Pharmacy University of London.

60. Council of the European Union, 2009. Council conclusions on combination effects of chemicals. 2988th Environment Council meeting, Brussels, 22December 2009.

61. Danish Ministry of the Environment. 65000 reasons for better chemicals. www.mst.dk/English/Focus_areas/LivingWithChemicals/65000/.

62. RAPEX, 2010. Keeping European Consumers Safe. 2009 Annual Report on the operation of the Rapid Alert System for non-food consumer products.

63. Confalonieri, U.; Menne, B.; Akhtar, R.; Ebi, K.L.; Hauengue, M.; Kovats, R.S.; Revich, B.; Woodward, A., 2007. Human health. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry, M.L.; Canziani, O.F.; Palutikof, J.P.; van der Linden, P.J.; Hanson, C.E. (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, 391–431, Cambridge, the United Kingdom.

64. Robine, J.M.; Cheung, S.L.K.; Le Roy, S.; Van Oyen, H.; Griffiths, C.; Michel, J.P.; Herrmann, F.R., 2008. Death toll exceeded 70000 in Europe during the summer of 2003. Comptes Rendus Biologies 331: 171–178.

65. WHO, 2009. Improving public health responses to extreme weather/heat-waves — EuroHEAT. Technical summary. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

66. Kirch, W.; Menne, B.; Bertollini, R. (Eds.), 2005. Extreme Weather Events and Public Health Responses. Springer, 303 pp.

67. WHO, 2004. Heat-waves: risks and responses. WHO Europe, Copenhagen.

68. WHO, 2008. Protecting health in Europe from climate change. WHO Europe, Copenhagen.

69. JRC, 2009. Climate change impacts in Europe. Final report of the PESETA research project. Juan-Carlos Ciscar (ed). EC, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Institute for Environment and Sustainability.

70. ECDC, 2010. Climate change and communicable diseases in the EU Member States.

71. Semenza, J.; Menne, B., 2009. ‘Climate change and infectious diseases in Europe.’ Lancet Infect Dis 9: 365–375.

72. ECDC, 2009. Development of Aedes albopictus risk maps. Technical report.

73. EC, 2006. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment COM(2005) 718 final (SEC(2006) 16). http://air-climate.eionet.europa.eu/docs/ETCACC_TP_2009_1_European_PM2.5_HIA.pdf.

74. EEA, 2009. Ensuring quality of life in Europe’s cities and towns — tackling the environmental challenges driven by European and global change. EEA Report No5/2009.

75. SDRC, 2009. Children in the Outdoors, A literature review. Muñoz SA.

76. Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.; de Vries, S.; Spreeuwenberg, P., 2006. ‘Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation?’ Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health60: 587–592.

77. Greenspace Scotland, 2007. The links between greenspace and health: a critical literature review. Greenspace Scotland research report. Croucher, K.; Myers, L.; Bretherton, J. (Eds.).

78. Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A.; Öhrström, E., 2007. ‘Noise and well-being in urban residential environments: The potential role of perceived availability to nearby green areas.’ Landscape and Urban Planning83: 115–126.

79. EEA, 2001. Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle
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80. EC, 2010. Report on the European Commission’s Public Online Consultation. Towards a Strategic Nanotechnology Action plan (SNAP) 2010-2015. Open: 18.12.2009 to 19.02.2010 http://ec.europa.eu/research/consultations/snap/report_en.pdf.

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Figure 5.1

a. Barton, H.; Grant, M., 2006. A health map for the local human habitat. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 126(6), pp.252–253.

Figure 5.2

b. EC, 2010. European Community Health Indicators. http://ec.europa.eu/health/indicators/echi/list/index_en.htm.

Box 5.1

c. Smith, K.R.; Corvalàn, F.C.; Kjellström, T., 1999. ‘How much ill health is attributable to environmental factors?’ Epidemiology, 10: 573–584.

d. Landrigan, P.J.; Schechter C.B.; Lipton J.M.; Fahs M.C.; Schwartz J., 2002. ‘Environmental Pollutants and Disease in American Children: Estimates of Morbidity, Mortality, and Costs for Lead Poisoning, Asthma, Cancer, and Developmental Disabilities.’ Environ Health Perspect 110: 721–728.

e. Saracci, R.; Vineis, P., 2007. ‘Disease proportions attributable to environment.’ Environmental Health 6: 38.

f. Knol, A.B.; Petersen, A.C.; van der Sluijs, J.P.; Lebret, E., 2009. ‘Dealing with uncertainties in environmental burden of disease assessment.’ Environmental Health 2009, 8: 21.

g. Briggs, D.; Abellan, J.J.; Fecht, D., 2008. ‘Environmental inequity in England: Small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.’ Social Science and Medicine 67: 1612–1629.

Box 5.2

h. EnVIE, 2009. Co-ordination Action on Indoor Air Quality and Health Effects Final activity report.

i. WHO, 2009. Guidelines on indoor air quality: dampness and mould. WHORegional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

Map 5.1

j. ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2009/1. http://air-climate.eionet.europa.eu/docs/ETCACC_TP_2009_1_European_PM2.5_HIA.pdf.

Figure 5.4

k. Noise Observation and Information Service for Europe. http://noise.eionet.europa.eu/.

Figure 5.6

l. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: health synthesis: a report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. WHO, Corvalan, C.; Hales, S.; McMichael, A. (core writing team).

Chapter 6

1. EEA, 2007. Estimating the environmentally compatible bioenergy potential from agriculture. EEA Technical report No 12/2007. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

2. EEA, 2008. Maximising the environmental benefits of Europe’s bioenergy potential. EEA Technical report No 10/2008. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

3. Farrell, A.E.; Plevin, R.J.; Turner, B.T.; Jones, A.D.; O’Hare, M.; Kammen, D.M., 2006. ‘Ethanol can contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals.’ Science Vol. 311: 506–508.

4. Von Blottnitz, H.; Curran, M.A., 2007. ‘A review of assessments conducted on bio-ethanol as a transportation fuel from a net energy, greenhouse gas, and environmental life-cycle perspective.’ Journal of Cleaner Production Vol. 15: 607–619.

5. Zah, R.; Böni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Wäger, P., 2007. Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Products: Environmental Assessment of Biofuels —Executive Summary. EMPA. Materials Science & Technology, Federal Office for Energy (BFE), Bern.

6. Fargione, F.; Hill, J.; Tilman, D.; Polasky, S.; Hawthorne, P., 2008. Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Sciencexpress, published online 7 February 2008; 10.1126/science.1152747.

7. Searchinger, T.; Heimlich, R.; Houghton, R.A.; Dong, F.; Elobeid, A.; Fabiosa, J.; Tokgoz, S.; Hayes, D.; Yu, T., 2008. Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land use change. ScienceVol. 319: 1238–1240.

8. de Fraiture, C.; Berndesb, G., 2008. Biofuels and Water; in R.W. Howarth and S. Bringezu (eds), Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use. Proceedings of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) International Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment, 22–25September 2008, Gummersbach Germany. Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA. http://cip.cornell.edu/biofuels/.

9. German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU), 2008. World in Transition — Future Bioenergy and Sustainable Land Use, Berlin. www.wbgu.de/wbgu_jg2008_kurz_engl.html.

10. UNEP, 2009. Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources: assessing biofuels. A report produced by the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme. www.unep.fr/scp/rpanel/Biofuels.htm.

11. EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy.

12. WWF, Zoological Society of London (ZSL), Global Footprint Network (GFN), 2008. Living Planet Report 2008.

13. Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency (PBL), The Stockholm Resilience Centre, 2009. Getting into the right lane. PBL publication number 500150001. Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Box 6.2

a. EEA, 2002. Assessment and Reporting on Soil Erosion. EEA Technical report No94. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

Figure 6.1

b. EEA, 2007. Europe’s environment — the fourth assessment (Belgrade report). European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

c. Global Footprint Network, 2009. National Footprint Accounts 2009 Edition.

Chapter 7

1. NIC, 2008. Global Trends 2025. ATransformed World. National Intelligence Council, Washington, D.C.

2. DCDC, 2010. Strategic Trends Programme. Global Strategic Trends — Out to 2040. Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre of the UK’s Ministry of the Defence, Wiltshire, the United Kingdom.

3. Maplecroft, 2010. Climate Change Vulnerability Map. http://maplecroft.com/portfolio/doc/climate_change/Climate_Change_Poster_A3_2010_Web_V01.pdf [accessed 01.06.2010].

4. IPCC, 2007. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

5. Pettengell, C., 2010. Climate change adaptation. Enabling people living in poverty to adapt. Oxfam Research Report. April 2010. www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/climate-change-adaptation-apr2010.pdf [accessed 01.06.2010].

6. Maas, A.; Dennis, T., 2009. Regional Security Implications of Climate Change. ASynopsis. Adelphi Report No 01/09. Adelphi Consult, Berlin.

7. EC, 2008. Climate change and international security. A joint paper from the High Representative and the European Commission to the European Council. 14.03.2008.

8. German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU), 2007. World in Transition — Climate Change as Security Risk. Earthscan, London.

9. CBD, 2010. Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montréal.

10. Stuart, H.; Butchart, M.; Walpole, M.; Collen, B.; van Strien, A.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Almond, R.E.A.; Baillie, J.E.M.; Bomhard, B.; Brown, C.; Bruno, J.; Carpenter, K.E.; Carr, G.M.; Chanson, J.; Chenery, A.M.; Csirke, J.; Davidson, N.C.; Dentener, F.; Foster, M.; Galli, A.; Galloway, J.N.; Genovesi, P.; Gregory, R.D.; Hockings, M.; Kapos, V.; Lamarque, J-F.; Leverington, F.; Loh, J.; McGeoch, M.A.; McRae, L.; Minasyan, A.; Morcillo, M.H.; Oldfield, T.E.E.; Pauly, D.; Quader, S.; Revenga, C.; Sauer, J.R.; Skolnik, B.; Spear, D.; Stanwell-Smith, D.; Stuart, S.N.; Symes, A.; Tierney, M.; Tyrrell, T.D.; Vié, J-C.; Watson, R., 2010. ‘Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines’, Science328 (5982): 1164–1168.

11. IUCN, 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. www.iucnredlist.org [accessed 01.06.2010].

12. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. Synthesis Report. Island Press. New York.

13. Haberl, H. K.; Erb, K.H.; Krausmann, F.; Gaube, V.; Bondeau, A.; Plutzar, C.; Gingrich, S.; Lucht, W.; Fischer-Kowalski, M. 2007. ‘Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth’s terrestrial ecosystems.’ PNAS, 104 (31): 12942–12947.

14. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), 2009. TEEB for Policy Makers — Summary: Responding to the Value of Nature 2009.

15. CBD, 2010. Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montréal.

16. Sustainable Europe Research Institute (SERI), Global 2000, Friends of the Earth Europe, 2009. Overconsumption? Our use of the world’s natural resources. http://old.seri.at/documentupload/SERI%20PR/overconsumption--2009.pdf [accessed 01.06.2010].

17. FAO, 2009. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Economic Crises: Impacts and Lessons Learnt. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

18. IEA, 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. International Energy Agency, Paris.

19. World Bank, 2009. Global Economic Prospects. Commodities at the Cross-roads. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

20. EC, 2010. Critical Raw Materials for the EU. Report of the Ad-Hoc Working Group on defining Critical Raw Materials. DG Enterprise, Brussels. http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/raw-materials/files/docs/report_en.pdf [accessed 26.07.2010].

21. WHO, 2009. Global Health Risks. Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. World Health Organization, Geneva.

22. WHO, 2010. Global Forum of the Noncommunicable Disease Network (NCDnet) — Global forum addresses solutions to prevent premature deaths. Note for the media. World Health Organization.

23. ECDC, 2010. Climate Change and communicable diseases in the EUMember Countries. Handbook for national vulnerability, impact and adaptation assessments. ECDC Technical Technical Document. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm.

24. Patz, J.A.; Olson, S.H.; Uejio, C.K.; Gibbs, H.K., 2008. ‘Disease Emergence from Global Climate Change and Land Use Change.’ Med Clin N Am 92:
1473–1491.

25. Jones, K.E.; Patel, N.G.; Levy, M.A.; Storeygard, A.; Balk, D.; Gittleman, J.L.; Daszak, P., 2008. ‘Global Trends in Emerging Infectious Diseases.’ Nature 451: 990–993.

26. Arctic Council — www.arctic-council.org.

27. EEA, 2007. Europe’s environment — The fourth assessment (Belgrade report). European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

28. UNEP/MAP-Plan Bleu, 2009. State of the Environment and Development in the Mediterranean. UNEP/MAP-Plan Bleu, Athens.

29. EC, 2010. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: Taking stock of the European Neighbourhood Policy. COM(2010) 207.

30. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 revision. United Nations, New York.

31. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2010. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 revision — Highlights. United Nations, New York.

32. Maddison, A., 2001. The World Economy. A millennial perspective. OECD, Paris.

33. WTO, 2007. World Trade Report 2007. Six decades of multi-lateral trade cooperation: What have we learnt? World Trade Union, Geneva.

34. World Bank, 2010. Outlook for Remittance Flows 2010–2011. Migration and Development Brief 12. Migration and Remittances Team, Development Prospects Group, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

35. UN, 2009. UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2009. United Nations, Geneva.

36. Kharas, H., 2010. The Emerging Middle Class in Developing Countries, p. 29, OECD Development Centre, Working Paper No 285. OECD, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmmp8lncrns-en.

37. World Bank, 2009. Global Economic Prospects. Commodities at the Cross-roads. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

38. Goldman Sachs, 2009. ‘The BRICs as Drivers of Global Consumption.’ BRICsMonthly, No 09/07, 6 August 2009.

39. Kharas, H., 2010. The emerging middle-class in developing countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No 285. OECD, Paris.

40. Wilson, D. and Dragusanu, R., 2008. The expanding middle: the exploding world middle class and falling global inequality. Global Economics Paper No 170. Goldman Sachs Economic Research, New York.

41. NIC, 2008. Global Trends 2025. A Transformed World. National Intelligence Council, Washington, D.C.

42. Davies, J.C., 2009. Oversight of next generation nano-technology. PEN 18. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington D.C.

43. Silberglitt, R.; Anton, P.S.; Howell, D.R.; Wong, A. with Bohandy, S. R.; Gassman, N.; Jackson, B.A.; Landree, E.; Pfleeger, S.L.; Newton, E.M.; Wu, F., 2006. The Global Technology Revolution. Bio/Nano/Materials/Information Trends, Drivers, Barriers, and Social Implications. Executive Summary. Prepared for the US National Intelligence Council. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, USA.

44. Roco, M.C.; Bainbridge, W.S. (eds.), 2003. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science. Dordrecht, Boston; Kluwer Academic Press, London.

45. OECD, 2010. Risk and Regulatory Policy. Improving the Governance of Risk. OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.

46. Andler, D.; Barthelmé, S.; Beckert, B.; Blümel, C.; Coenen, C.; Fleischer, T.; Friedewald, M.; Quendt, C.; Rader, M.; Simakova, E.; Woolgar, S., 2008. Converging Technologies and their impact on the Social Sciences and Humanities (CONTECS): An analysis of critical issues and a suggestion for a future research agenda. Final Research Report. Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovations Research. www.contecs.fraunhofer.de/images/files/contecs_report_complete.pdf [accessed 26.03.2010].

47. Bringezu, S.; Bleischwitz, R., 2009. Sustainable Resource Management: Global Trends, Visions and Policies. Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, the United Kingdom.

48. United States Joint Forces Command, 2010. The Joint Operating Environment 2010. Ready for Today. Preparing for Tomorrow. Suffolk, VA: United States Joint Forces Command Joint Futures Group.

49. Dadush, U.; Bennett, S., 2010. The World Order in 2050. Policy Outlook, April 2010. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. http://carnegieendowment.org/files/World_Order_in_2050.pdf [accessed 06.06.2010].

50. NIC, 2008. Global Trends 2025. A Transformed World. National Intelligence Council, Washington, D.C.

51. FAO, 2009. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Economic Crises — Impacts and Lessons Learnt. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

52. FAO, 2009. How to feed the world in 2050. Issue brief for the High-level Expert Forum, Rome, 12–13 October 2009. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. www.fao.org/wsfs/forum2050/wsfs-background-documents/hlef-issues-briefs/en/ [accessed 20.05.2010].

53. IEA, 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. International Energy Agency, Paris.

54. ECF, 2010. Roadmap 2050. A practical guide to a prosperous, low-carbon Europe in 2050. Volume 1: Technical and Economic Analysis. European Climate Foundation. www.roadmap2050.eu/downloads [accessed 26.07.2010].

55. The 2030 Water Resource Group, 2009. Charting our water future. 2009. Economic Frameworks to Inform Decision-making. www.mckinsey.com/App_Media/Reports/Water/Charting_Our_Water_Future_Full_Report_001.pdf [accessed 03.06.2010].

56. CBD, 2010. In-depth review of the programme of work on the biodiversity of inland water ecosystems. Paper for the 14th meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Nairobi, 10–21 May 2010.

57. Cheterian, V., 2009. Environment and Security Issues in the Southern Mediterranean. Report from the MEDSEC Partnership. Geneva: Grid-Arendal/OSCE/UNEP/ZOI Environment Network.

58. World Economic Forum (WEF), 2009. The Bubble is close to bursting. AForecast of the Main Economic and Geopolitical Water Issues Likely to Arise in the World during the Next Two Decades. Draft for Discussion at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2009. World Economic Forum. www.weforum.org/documents/gov/gov09/envir/Water_Initiative_Future_Water_Needs.pdf [accessed 07.06.2010].

59. IOM, 2009. Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: Addressing Vulnerabilities and Harnessing Opportunities. International Organisation for Migration, Geneva.

60. World Economic Forum (WEF), 2010. Global Risks Report 2010. World Economic Forum, Geneva.

61. Goldin, I.; Vogel, T., 2010. ‘Global Governance and Systemic Risk in the 21st Century/ Lessons from the Financial Crisis.’ Global Policy 1 (1):4–15.

62. IPCC, 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report (Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

63. Lenton, T.M.; Held, H.; Kriegler, E.; Hall, J.W.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Schellnhuber, H.-J., 2008. ‘Tipping elements in the Earth’s Climate System.’ PNAS 105 (6): 1786–1793.

Box 7.1

a. IPCC, 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report (Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

b. Rahmstorf, S., 2007. ‘A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise.’ Science 315: 368–370.

c. Allison, I.; Bindoff, N.L.; Bindschadler, R.A.; Cox, P.M.; de Noblet, N.; England, M.H.; Francis, J.E.; Gruber, N.; Haywood, A.M.; Karoly, D.J.; Kaser, G.; Le Quéré, C.; Lenton, T.M.; Mann, M.E.; McNeil, B.I.; Pitman, A.J.; Rahmstorf, S.; Rignot, E.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Schneider, S.H.; Sherwood, S.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Steffen, K.; Steig, E.J.; Visbeck, M.; Weaver, A.J., 2009. The Copenhagen Diagnosis: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science. The University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney, Australia, 60 pp.

d. Rahmstorf, S., 2010. A new view on sea level rise. Has the IPCC underestimated the risk of sea level rise? Nature Reports Climate Change, Commentary, Vol.4, April 2010, doi:10.1038/climate.2010.29.

e. CBD, 2009. Scientific Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biodiversity. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Technical Series No 46, 61 pages.

f. University of Copenhagen, 2009. International Scientific Congress Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions — Synthesis Report, IARU (International Alliance of Research Universities), Copenhagen,
10–12March 2009.

Map 7.1

g. Haberl, H.; Erb, K-H.; Krausmann, F.; Gaube, V.; Bondeau, A.; Plutzar, C.; Gingrich, S.; Lucht, W.; Fischer-Kowalski, M., 2007. ‘Quantifying and mapping the global human appropriation of net primary production in Earth’s terrestrial ecosystem.’ PNAS 104(31): 12942–12947. www.uni-klu.ac.at/socec/inhalt/1191.htm.

Figure 7.1

h. Sustainable Europe Research Institute (SERI), Global 2000, Friends of the Earth Europe, 2009. Overconsumption? Our use of the world’s natural resources. http://old.seri.at/documentupload/SERI%20PR/overconsumption--2009.pdf [accessed 01.06.2010].

i. SERI Global Material Flow Database, 2010 edition. www.materialflows.net.

Table 7.1

j. WHO, 2009. Global Health Risks. Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Box 7.2

k. EC, 2006. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament — Establishing an Environment Strategy for the Mediterranean. COM(2006) 0475 final.

Table 7.2

l. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2010. World Urbanization Prospects, the 2009 Revision: Highlights. United Nations, New York.

Figure 7.3

m. IMF. World Economic Outlook Database: October 2008 Edition. International Monetary Fund, New York.

Figure 7.4

n. Kharas, H., 2010. The emerging middle-class in developing countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No 285. OECD, Paris.

Figure 7.5

o. FAO, 2009. State of food Security in the World 2009. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Box 7.3

p. Rockstroem, J.; Steffen, W.; Noone, K.; Persson, Å.; Chapin III, F.S.; Lambin, E.F.; Lenton, T.M.; Scheffer, M.; Folke, C.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Nykvist, B.; de Wit, C.A.; Hughes, T.; van der Leeuw, S.; Rodhe, H.; Sörlin, S.; Snyder, P.K.; Costanza, R.; Svedin, U.; Falkenmark, M.; Karlberg, L.; Corell, R.W.; Fabry, V.J.; Hansen, J.; Walker, B.; Liverman, D.; Richardson, K.; Crutzen P.; Foley, J.A., 2009. ‘A Safe Operating Space for Humanity.’ Nature 461: 472–475 (24.09.2009).

q. Molden, D., 2009. Planetary boundaries: The devil is in the detail. Commentary. Nature Reports ‘Climate Change. The news behind the science. The science behind the news’. October 2009: 116–117.

r. Brewer, P., 2009. Planetary boundaries: Consider all consequences. Commentary. Nature Reports ‘Climate Change. The news behind the science. The science behind the news’. October 2009: 117–118.

s. Samper, C., 2009. Planetary boundaries: Rethinking biodiversity. Commentary. Nature Reports ‘Climate Change. The news behind the science. The science behind the news’. October 2009: 118–119.

t. Schlesinger, W.H., 2009. Thresholds risk prolonged degradation. Commentary. Nature Reports ‘Climate Change. The news behind the science. The science behind the news’. October 2009: 112–113.

u. Allen, M., 2009. Planetary boundaries: Tangible targets are critical. Commentary. Nature Reports ‘Climate Change. The news behind the science. The science behind the news’. October 2009: 114–115.

Box 7.4

v. Allison, I.; Bindoff, N.L.; Bindschadler, R.A.; Cox, P.M.; de Noblet, N.; England, M.H.; Francis, J.E.; Gruber, N.; Haywood, A.M.; Karoly, D.J.; Kaser, G.; Le Quéré, C.; Lenton, T.M.; Mann, M.E.; McNeil, B.I.; Pitman, A.J.; Rahmstorf, S.; Rignot, E.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Schneider, S.H.; Sherwood, S.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Steffen, K.; Steig, E.J.; Visbeck, M.; Weaver, A.J., 2009. The Copenhagen Diagnosis: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science. The University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney, Australia, 60 pp.

w. UNEP, 2009. Climate change science compendium. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi.

Map 7.2

x. Schellnhuber, H.-J., 2009. ‘Tipping elements in the climatic system.’ PNAS106(49): 20561–20563.

Figure 7.6

y. Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency (PBL), 2009. News in Climate Science and Exploring Boundaries. PBL publication number 500114013. Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

z. Lenton, T.; Held, H.; Kriegler, E.; Hall, J.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Schellnhuber, H-J., 2008. ‘Tipping elements in the Earth’s Climate System.’ PNAS 105 (6): 1786–1793.

Chapter 8

1. EEA, 1999. Environment in the European Union at the turn of the century. Environmental assessment report No 2. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

2. EEA, 2005. The European environment — State and outlook 2005. State of the environment report. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

3. Goldin, I.; Vogel, T., 2010. ‘Global Governance and Systemic Risk in the 21st Century/ Lessons from the Financial Crisis.’ Global Policy 1 (1):4–15.

4. WEF, 2010. Global Risks 2010 — A Global Risk Network Report. AWorld Economic Forum Report in collaboration with Citi, Marsh & McLennan Companies (MMC), Swiss Re, Wharton School Risk Center, Zurich Financial Services.

5. FEASTA, 2010. Tipping Point: Near-Term Systemic Implications of a Peak in Global Oil Production — An Outline Review. The Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability, Ireland.

6. Pettifor, A., 2003. The Real World Economic Outlook: The Legacy of Globalization — Debt and Deflation. New Economics Foundation. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.

7. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), 2009. TEEB for Policy Makers — Summary: Responding to the Value of Nature 2009.

8. GHK, CE and IEEP, 2007. Links between the environment, economy and jobs. A report to DGENV of the European Commission. GHK, Cambridge Econometrics and Institute of European Environmental Policy.

9. EC, 2009. Sustainable development in the European Union. 2009 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy. Eurostat, Luxembourg.

10. OECD, 2010. Interim Report of the Green Growth Strategy: Implementing our commitment for a sustainable future. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level 27–28 May 2010. Document C/MIN(2010)5. www.oecd.org/document/3/0,3343,en_2649_37465_45196035_1_1_1_1,00.html.

11. EEA, 2006. Air quality and ancillary benefits of climate change policies. EEATechnical report No 4/2006.

12. EC, 2006. Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC.

13. EC, 2003. Directive 2003/108/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 December 2003 amending Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

14. EC, 2002. Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment.

15. EC, 2010. Communication from the Commission. EUROPE 2020 — AEuropean strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. COM(2010) 2020.

16. EEA, 2001. Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle
1896–2000. Environmental issue report No 22. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

17. Stern, N., 2006. Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change. HMTreasury, London.

18. IPCC, 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report (Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

19. Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency (PBL), The Stockholm Resilience Centre, 2009. Getting into the right lane. PBL publication number 500150001. Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

20. EEA, 1999. Environment in the European Union at the turn of the century. Environmental assessment report No 2. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

21. London Group on Environmental Accounting — http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/londongroup.

22. UN Committee of Experts on Environmental Economic Accounting —
http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/ceea/default.asp.

23. European Strategy for Environmental Accounting — http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/environmental_accounts/introduction.

24. EC, 1998. Communication from the Commission to the European Council, Partnership for integration, A strategy for Integrating Environment into EUPolicies, Cardiff, June 1998. COM(98) 0333 final.

25. OECD, 2010. Interim report of the green growth strategy: implementing our commitment for a sustainable future. Note by the Secretary General. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.

26. EEA, 2001. Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle
1896–2000. Environmental issue report No 22. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

27. EC, 2004. Directive 2004/35/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage.

28. Andersen, M.S.; Barker, T.; Christie, E.; Ekins, P.; Gerald, J.F.; Jilkova, J.; Junankar, S.; Landesmann, M.; Pollitt, H.; Salmons, R.; Scott, S.; Speck, S. (eds.), 2007. Competitiveness Effects of Environmental Tax Reforms (COMETR). Final report to the European Commission. National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus. 543 pp. www.dmu.dk/Pub/COMETR_Final_Report.pdf.

29. Bassi, S.; ten Brink, P.; Pallemaerts, M.; von Homeyer, I., 2009. Feasibility of Implementing a Radical ETR and its Acceptance. Final Report (Task C) of the ‘Study on tax reform in Europe over the next decades: implementation for the environment, for eco-innovation and for household distribution.

30. Blobel, D.; Pollitt, H.; Drosdowski, T.; Lutz, C.; Wolter, I., 2009. Distributional Implications: Literature review, Modelling results of ETR — EU-27 and Modelling results of ETR — Germany. Final Report (TaskB) of the ‘Study on tax reform in Europe over the next decades: implementation for the environment, for eco-innovation and for household distribution.’

31. GFC, 2009. The Case for Green Fiscal Reform. Final Report of the UK Green Fiscal Commission, London.

32. Gehr, U.; Lutz, C.; Salmons, R., 2009. Eco-Innovation: Literature review on eco-innovation and ETR and Modelling of ETR with GINFORS. Final Report (Task A) of the ‘Study on tax reform in Europe over the next decades: implementation for the environment, for eco-innovation and for household distribution.’

33. Ekins, P.; Speck, S. (eds) (in press). Environmental Tax Reform: A Policy for Green Growth. Oxford University Press.

34. Eurostat, 2010. Taxation trends in the European Union— Data for the EU Member States, Iceland and Norway (2010 Edition).

35. Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES).
www.cices.eu.

36. EEA, 2010. Eye on Earth . www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/explore-interactive-maps/eye-on-earth. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

37. EEA, 2010. Bend the trend — www.eea.europa.eu/cop15/bend-the-trend/movement. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

38. EEA, 2010. Environmental Atlas: www.eea.europa.eu/cop15/bend-the-trend/environmental-atlas-of-europe-movie. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

39. Ecorys SCS, 2009. Study of the competitiveness of the EU eco-industry for DGENTR of the European Commission.

40. Elkington, J.; Litovsky A.; 2010. The Biosphere Economy: Natural limits can spur creativity, innovation and growth. London: Volans Ventures Ltd. www.volans.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/The-Biosphere-Economy1.pdf.

41. EEA, 2009. Looking back on looking forward: a review of evaluative scenario literature. EEA Technical report No 3/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

Box 8.1

a. Shiva, V., 2008. Soil Not Oil: Climate Change, Peak Oil and Food Insecurity. ZedBooks Ltd, London, the United Kingdom.

b. Cooper, T.; Hart, K.; Baldock, D., 2009. The provision of public goods through agriculture in the European Union. Report prepared for DG Agriculture and Rural Development, Contract no.30-CE-0233091/00-28. Institute for European Environmental Policy, London.

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