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Slovakia

Land use (Slovakia)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Land Land
more info
SAZP
Organisation name
SAZP
Reporting country
Slovakia
Organisation website
Organisation website
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Last updated
23 Nov 2010
Content license
CC By 2.5
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SAZP
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

In Slovakia, economic activities such as agriculture, forestry, transport, manufacturing and housing use land and alter its natural state and functions. Land use has impacts on climate change, biodiversity loss, degradation and pollution of water, soils and air.

The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original


Figures

Figure 1 - Changes in land structure according to the statistical data in Slovakia

Changes in land structure according to the statistical data in Slovakia\n# Source: GCCA SR
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Land_final.xls
Figure 1 - Changes in land structure according to the statistical data in Slovakia
Fullscreen image Original link

According to statistical data, in 2009, the total size of the Slovak Republic was 4 903 717 ha. The share of agricultural land was 49.31 % of total land size while the share of forest land was 40.97 % and the share of building areas was 4.69 %. During a longer time period, a trend in the uptake of productive agricultural land was recorded. Together with the changes in land utilisation, areas of individual land categories varied. In the period 2000–2009, the size of agricultural land decreased by about 22 734 ha. On the other hand, the size of forest land increased by about 7 590 ha and built-up areas by about 10 603 ha. (see Figure 1)

Statistical data from the Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre Authority of the Slovak Republic, does not indicate all land changes, e.g. abandoned agricultural land, spatial land distribution. For such purposes, spatial data is needed.

Link to Enviroportal - Environmental Indicators (in Slovak):

http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?kategoria=2&id_indikator=493#

Figures

Figure 2a - Spatial distribution - AGRO land - 2000\u20131990

Spatial distribution of land cover changes in Slovakia\n# Source: SEA
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/corine
Figure 2a - Spatial distribution - AGRO land - 2000\u20131990
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 6 - increases and reductions for period 2006\u201300 in SR

Land cover changes as increases and reductions for period 2006\u201300 in Slovakia # Source: SEA\n# Legend: 111 Continuous urban fabric; 112 Discontinuous urban fabric; 121 Industrial or commercial units; 122 Road and rail networks and associated land; 123 Port areas; 124 Airports; 131 Mineral extraction sites; 132 Dumpsites; 133 Construction sites; 141 Green urban areas; 142 Sport and leisure facilities; 211 Non-irrigated arable land; 221 Vineyards; 222 Fruit trees and berry plantations; 231 Pastures; 242 Complex cultivation patterns; 243 Land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation; 311 Broad-leaved forest; 312 Coniferous forest; 313 Mixed forest; 321 Natural grassland; 322 Moors and heathland; 324 Transitional woodland shrub; 331 Beaches, dunes and sand plains; 332 Bare rocks; 333 Sparsely vegetated areas; 334 Burnt areas; 411 Inland marshes; 412 Peat bogs; 511 Watercourses; 512 Water bodies.
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/corine
Figure 6 - increases and reductions for period 2006\u201300 in SR
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 5 - land cover changes for 2006\u201300 in SR

Spatial distribution of all land cover changes for 2006\u201300 in Slovakia\n# Source: SEA
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/corine
Figure 5 - land cover changes for 2006\u201300 in SR
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 4b - Spatial distribution - URBAN land - 2006\u201300

Spatial distribution of land cover changes in Slovakia\n# Source: SEA\n
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/corine
Figure 4b - Spatial distribution - URBAN land - 2006\u201300
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 4a - Spatial distribution - URBAN land - 2000\u20131990

Spatial distribution of land cover changes in Slovakia\n# Source: SEA
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/corine
Figure 4a - Spatial distribution - URBAN land - 2000\u20131990
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3a - Spatial distribution - FOREST land - 2000\u20131990

Spatial distribution of land cover changes in Slovakia\n# Source: SEA
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/corine
Figure 3a - Spatial distribution - FOREST land - 2000\u20131990
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3b - Spatial distribution - FOREST land - 2006\u201300

Spatial distribution of land cover changes in Slovakia\n# Source: SEA
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/corine
Figure 3b - Spatial distribution - FOREST land - 2006\u201300
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 2b - Spatial distribution - AGRO land - 2006\u201300

Spatial distribution of land cover changes in Slovakia\n# Source: SEA
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/corine
Figure 2b - Spatial distribution - AGRO land - 2006\u201300
Fullscreen image Original link

Spatial changes of land cover were mapped by satellite multispectral images in three time horizons: 1990, 2000, and 2006 (Figures 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). This mapping and GIS processing was done by Slovakia, coordinated by the EEA in projects CORINE1990, I&CLC2000 and GMES-Land2006.

Figures 2-4:

see Figures
above

2000–1990

2006–2000

AGRO land

Figure 2a
Figure 2b

FOREST land

Figure 3a
Figure 3b

URBAN land

Figure 4a
Figure 4b

Changes in land structure connected with agricultural land uptake or soil sealing have considerable negative environmental impacts; such changes cause losses of soil as a non-renewable and food source, biodiversity decreases and a reduction of carbon sinks.

Figure 5 and Figure 6 present spatial changes of land cover in Slovakia over 2000–1990 and 2006–00 periods.

Link to SEA: http://www.sazp.sk/corine

Link to EEA CSI:

http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/ISpecs/ISpecification20041007131735/IAssessment1116504972257/view_content

Link to Enviroportal - Environmental Indicators (in Slovak):

http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?kategoria=124&id_indikator=104

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

 Economic sectors such as agriculture, industry, transport and a high level of urbanisation are the main driving forces which generate pressure on land use in Slovakia as the abandonment of farmland and pastures, an increment of new forests and increase of built-up areas.

In agricultural areas, land abandonment was mainly caused by changes in the agricultural sector and, more generally, by changes in the country’s economy. Widespread changes in land ownership occurred after 1989: land managed by cooperatives and enterprises returned to private owners, while only a small proportion of them were interested in farming. In the 1990s, socioeconomic changes led to a significant decrease in support and subsidies to agriculture. As a result, some agricultural enterprises (cooperatives) collapsed while others had problems surviving or problems in selling their products. This resulted in the cessation of cultivation in some areas, with the parallel creation of new forests as a natural consequence.

Urban sprawl took place in the surroundings of large cities, due to the development of new housing as well as commercial sites and industrial parks but at the expense of arable land. There was also a recorded land uptake due to the development of the transport network in Slovakia.

Main spatial land cover changes presented in Figures 2 and 3 are linked to:

  • restitution of land ownership changed after 1989, the majority of changes are visible over the 1990–2000 period in north-west Slovakia,

  • natural disasters (wind storms and forest fires), the crucial damage was caused by the wind storm over the High Tatras territory in 2004,

  • urban and transport development, mostly linked to the construction of highways and so-called industrial parks in the period 1990–2009,

  • activities related to flood prevention and energy production (river barrage systems), the Gabcikovo barrage system and power plant were completed 1992–1996.

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Although the status of soil and land is secured in various policy documents in Slovakia, there is a prospect of further but more moderate development of the transport network, housing, commercial and industrial sites at the expense of arable land.

Using agricultural biomass for energy purposes can contribute to halting the degradation of abandoned areas and use them for agricultural purposes again.

Existing and planned responses

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

 Land protection has been secured in various policy documents, concepts, strategies and legislative measures in Slovakia. In 2001, the Decree No 1141/2001 on Rules of the State Soil Policy was adopted. The policy appoints the soil as common wealth and heritage for future generations.

The Rural Development Programme of the Slovak Republic 2007–13 includes Axis No 2, Improving the environment and the countryside. The objective of the Axis, Priority No 3 is to maintain and to improve quality of agricultural and forest soil.

The Act No 220/2004 Coll. on protection and use of farmland was adopted in 2004. The Act is aimed on protection of environmental and productive soil functions, sustainable soil management and use. Land-use changes are also affected by nature conservation, spatial planning and EIA legislation. The protection of Natura 2000 sites also secures land protection.

Disclaimer

The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

European Environment Agency (EEA)
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