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Slovakia

Nature protection and biodiversity (Slovakia)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Nature and biodiversity Nature and biodiversity
more info
SAZP
Organisation name
SAZP
Reporting country
Slovakia
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Organisation website
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Last updated
23 Nov 2010
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CC By 2.5
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SAZP
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

The geographical position of Slovakia in the middle of Europe, between the Carpathians and the Pannonian Lowland, determines the abundance of flora and fauna. Plant communities occur in diverse forms from thermophilic and xerothermic to hydrophilic, and from lowland to alpine examples. In Slovakia, there are 11 323 known plant species and 25 351 known animal species; among them, 1 432 plant and 722 animal species are protected in Slovakia. The Red List includes 2 860 plants and 1 935 animals. In Slovakia, nature and biodiversity protection with respect to the conservation of European natural values is of key importance.

Nature conservation and the protection of biological and landscape diversity are two of the basic national priorities included in the Action Plan for the Sustainable Development of Slovakia 2005–10 - main task No 10, the protection and reasonable use of nature and landscape

(http://www.tur.vlada.gov.sk/758/10-ochrana-a-racionalne-vyuzivanie-prirody-a-krajiny.php)

and the Programme Declaration of the Government of the Slovak Republic

(http://www.vlada.gov.sk/22872/2-5-zivotne-prostredie.php).

The significance of biodiversity protection in Slovakia is illustrated by the National Biological Strategy of Slovakia, which is implemented through the Updated Action Plan for Implementation of the National Biological Strategy of Slovakia for period 2003–10

(http://www.enviro.gov.sk/servlets/page/868?c_id=5450).

These documents have cross-sectoral character.

The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Figures

Figure 2: Area in Protected Sites, Nature Reserves, Nature Monuments in the Slovak Republic (hectares)

Source: State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic\n
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Nature_final.xls
Figure 2: Area in Protected Sites, Nature Reserves, Nature Monuments in the Slovak Republic (hectares)
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 5: Overall assessment of conservation status of selected species and habitat types in the Slovak Republic

Source: State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Nature_final.xls
Figure 5: Overall assessment of conservation status of selected species and habitat types in the Slovak Republic
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 1: Area in National Parks and Protected Lanscape Areas in the Slovak Republic (hectares)

Source: State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Nature_final.xls
Figure 1: Area in National Parks and Protected Lanscape Areas in the Slovak Republic (hectares)
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3: Assessment of conservation status by habitat category (%) \u2014 reporting Article 17 HD

Source: State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Nature_final.xls
Figure 3:  Assessment of conservation status by habitat category (%) \u2014 reporting Article 17 HD
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 4: Assessment of conservation status by species group (%) \u2014 reporting Article 17 HD

Source: State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Nature_final.xls
Figure 4: Assessment of conservation status by species group (%) \u2014 reporting Article 17 HD
Fullscreen image Original link

While the share of protected areas in Slovakia was only 23 % in 1995, in 2009, protected areas cover 36 % of the territory, the increase due mainly to the implementation of Natura 2000. The protection of rare plants, animals and habitats, minerals and fossils is also secured outside those areas, i.e. in the whole country. Despite a significant growth in the area of protected sites during the last 20 years, the state of nature and biodiversity is not adequate for surface protection against increasing extreme climate events (drought, floods, wind), global warming, abandonment of traditional management of meadows and pastures, expansion of invasive plants, fragmentation of habitats, etc. In the past, nature conservation was characterised by a passive approach, sometimes having a negative impact on some species and habitats which require active management. Even if there is generally a positive approach of the general public to nature conservation in Slovakia, the involvement of land owners, land-users, inhabitants of a region and other stakeholders (e.g. hunters, foresters, farmers) in the active protection of the natural values in the region, it is still insufficient.

(see Figure 1): Area in National Parks and Protected Lanscape Areas in the Slovak Republic (hectares)

(see Figure 2): Area in Protected Sites, Nature Reserves, Nature Monuments in the Slovak Republic (hectares)

Partial monitoring of selected plant and animal species show that most species suffer from a decrease in population size and area of distribution. The trend in deterioration of the status of populations was recorded particularly in aquatic and wetland species (e.g. fish, amphibians, reptiles) and habitats which depend on regular mowing and grazing (e.g. Spermophylus citellus, order Maculinea and some plant species) proving the endangerment of these habitats as well. The most endangered are halophyte habitats, caused by the fall of groundwater level, abandonment of traditional management and by secondary succession. On the other hand, the most favourable status falls on rocky habitats because of their inaccessibility, and forest habitats because of the relatively sensitive forest management on such sites.

(see Figure 3): Assessment of conservation status by habitat category (%) — reporting Article 17 HD

(see Figure 4): Assessment of conservation status by species group (%) — reporting Article 17 HD

(see Figure 5): Overall assessment of conservation status of selected species and habitat types in the Slovak Republic

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

 The main impacts are caused by tourism development resulting in the fragmentation and urbanisation of natural habitats and industrial development resulting in the deterioration of the quality of air, water and soil. Despite the fact that emissions of pollutants have shown a slightly decreasing trend since the latter half of the 1990s in Slovakia, their influence still remains significant owing to the neighbouring states (up to 75 % of the air pollution has a cross-border origin).

Agriculture and forestry have not significantly influenced nature ecosystems during recent years.

Forest ecosystems create a dominant and extraordinarily valuable part of the nature of Slovakia. With respect to biological diversity and ecological stability, the preservation of the natural structure of forest, i.e. natural status, is important. Around 85 % of the area of forests in Slovakia is represented by natural, or predominantly natural forests, and 15 % by modified or changed forests. The health condition of the forests in Slovakia, indicated by defoliation and damage rate, has been stabilised recently. Variations recorded in some years were caused mainly by weather and climate factors. The spruce ecosystems have been influenced by the bark beetle expansion as well as fires caused by extremely hot and dry summers. Temperature oscillations within the year also negatively influence the aquatic and wetland natural habitats and river ecosystems. The impact of the construction of hydroelectricity power plants on the river continuum is also significant.

Linkage on the Green Report:

http://www.land.gov.sk/sk/index.php?navID=123

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Assuming that global warming, extreme weather conditions and the penetration of invasive species will continue, we assume that in the next decade, the population of certain invertebrate species (e.g. butterflies) and fish species might be significantly endangered (or extinct) in Slovakia. Increased endangerment of alpine ecosystems (e.g. spruce forests) and species dependent on them is anticipated. An acute endangerment in the balance of wetland ecosystems is anticipated as well. An apparent increase in biodiversity caused by the penetration of new species to central Europe from the south will last only until this new phenomena starts to manifest itself.

Existing and planned responses

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

 EU Directives were transposed into the Act No 543/2002 Coll. on nature and landscape protection. At present, the designation of Natura 2000 sites continues and the monitoring and elaboration of management plans for these sites has started. The rural development programme is running which provides support to users of agricultural and forest land for the proper management of protected areas and biodiversity. Slovakia also has a significant share of protected areas designated under UNESCO.

Adequate nature and biodiversity protection has been secured in the corresponding policy documents, e.g. strategies, action plans, principles and priorities of the state environmental policy. 

http://www.enviro.gov.sk/servlets/page/868?c_id=5126

 

 

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