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Sound and independent information
on the environment

Slovenia

Waste (Slovenia)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Waste Waste
more info
Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia
Organisation name
Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia
Reporting country
Slovenia
Organisation website
Organisation website
Contact link
Contact link
Last updated
03 Jan 2011
Content license
CC By 2.5
Content provider
Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia
Published: 04 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 03 Jan 2011 original
Key message

In Slovenia more than 7 million tonnes of waste are generated each year. Consumption of materials per capita is increasing - in 2007 amounting to 30 tonnes. Better management of municipal waste, of which more than 70 % is being landfilled, will be provided with changes of legislation and with new municipal waste management centres where mixed municipal waste will be treated. The quantities of recovered waste are increasing in last years but quantities of disposed waste are not declining.

Quantities of waste are growing in Slovenia, and on average slightly more than 7 million tonnes of waste are generated each year, of which more than 900,000 tonnes are municipal waste – about 450 kg per inhabitant. Recovery of waste from manufacturing and services has reached around 70 % in recent years, while the figure for municipal waste is only around 30 %. In previous years the majority of municipal waste was placed in landfill, but with changes to legislation, political instruments and the establishing of municipal waste management centres, we anticipate better separate collection and treatment of mixed municipal waste before disposal and consequently a greater percentage of recycled municipal waste.

Waste recovery is important particularly in terms of protecting natural resources. The direct input of substances amounted in 2007 to slightly more than 61 million tonnes, of which almost half was accounted for by construction raw materials obtained in Slovenia. There has also been considerable growth in the total mass of items imported. Consumption of materials per capita in the period 1992-2007 almost doubled, amounting to 30.3 tonnes in 2007.

The structure of waste management legislation is in line with EU law. The general acts are the national Environmental Protection Act (Official Gazette, No. 39/06, 70/08-ZVO-1B), the Decree on Waste Management (Official Gazette, No. 34/08), the Regulation (EC) No. 1013/2006 on shipments of waste and the Decree on the implementation of the Regulation (EC) No. 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Official Gazette, No. 71/07). Other legislative measures are organised in three clusters:

  • legislation concerning different sorts of waste (eg. packaging, batteries and accumulators, waste electrical and electronic equipment);
  • legislation on waste management (landfilling, incineration);
  • legislation on monitoring emissions from waste treatment.

 

The state and impacts

Published: 04 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 03 Jan 2011 original
Key message

The quantities of waste in Slovenia are increasing. Schemes for collecting and treatment of individual types of waste streams along with financing of activities that ensure proper management of such waste have been established. Through the establishment of "door to door" system of collecting individual fractions of municipal waste, the establishment of all municipal waste management centres and with better energy recovery from municipal waste, which is not appropriate for recycling, is expected to deviate municipal waste streams to recovery and priority recycling.

Figures

Figure 1: Quantity of all waste generated

Source: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009 (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, OD07) * Up until 2007 non-weighted data on total quantities of waste generated were captured and reported to Eurostat by the Slovenian Environment Agency. Owing to changes in the methodology, 2007 and 2008 show weighted data on total quantities of waste generated (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia), which are harmonised with the requirements of Slovenian legislation and the new European Union legislation (Waste Statistics Regulation).
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=237&lang_id=94
Figure 1: Quantity of all waste generated
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 2: Quantity of municipal waste and waste packaging per person in Slovenia

Source: Waste Management Collection, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009; SI-STAT, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009; Municipal waste generated, EUROSTAT, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, OD01 and OD13)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=190&lang_id=94
Figure 2: Quantity of municipal waste and waste packaging per person in Slovenia
Fullscreen image Original link

According to the EU legislation, several changes on waste management were introduced in recent years. Alongside introducing the responsibility of the producer, schemes have been established for collection and treatment of individual types of waste along with companies that ensure the proper management of such waste. Since June 2009, only treated waste may be landfilled, and landfill site operators are obliged to provide financial guarantees to the local authority. Waste incineration is conducted at three sites, two of which generate energy. A small plant for heat treatment of municipal waste is undergoing trial operation – and there are plans for two further facilities. Electronic reporting is being introduced, and this should allow easier tracing of waste.

Trends in waste generation

From 2002 to 2008 the quantity of all waste generated rose by 55 %. In 2008 a total of slightly more than 7 million tonnes of waste were generated. Of this, 919,805 tonnes were municipal waste, 5,960,453 tonnes were waste from production and service activities and 153,939 tonnes were hazardous waste. (OD07)

The quantity of municipal waste generated in Slovenia is growing, and in 2008 amounted to as much as 453 kg per person (OD01). The quantity of packaging waste is also growing; in 2007 there were 212,084 tonnes of waste packaging generated, or 105 kg of per person, 31 % more than in 2004. (OD13)

In 2006 2947 tonnes of waste electrical and electronic equipment were generated. The total from households was 1185 tonnes and from industry and the private sector 1762 tonnes. A total of 967 tonnes of this waste were processed in Slovenia, while the remainder was exported.

Key message

The quantities of waste in Slovenia are increasing. Schemes for collecting and treatment of individual types of waste streams along with financing of activities that ensure proper management of such waste have been established. Through the establishment of "door to door" system of collecting individual fractions of municipal waste, the establishment of all municipal waste management centres and with better energy recovery from municipal waste, which is not appropriate for recycling, is expected to deviate municipal waste streams to recovery and priority recycling.

Figures

Figure 4: Waste management map

Source: Environment in the palm of your hand: Slovenia, 2008.
Data source
http://eionet.arso.gov.si/publikacije
Figure 4: Waste management map
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3: Total quantities of recovered and disposed waste

Source: Waste Management Collection, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009 (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, OD07)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=237&lang_id=94
Figure 3: Total quantities of recovered and disposed waste
Fullscreen image Original link

State of the waste management system and progress towards better waste management

Since 2002 the recovery of waste has risen by 74 %. In 2008, a total of 68 % of all waste in Slovenia was recovered – 77 % of waste from manufacturing and services, 29 % of municipal waste and 47 % of hazardous waste. (OD07)

In previous years around 70 % of municipal waste was disposed of in municipal waste landfills. Through changes to legislation, the establishment of municipal waste management centres, taxes and financial guarantees for landfill operators, the quantities of waste placed in landfills should diminish.

Key message

The quantities of waste in Slovenia are increasing. Schemes for collecting and treatment of individual types of waste streams along with financing of activities that ensure proper management of such waste have been established. Through the establishment of "door to door" system of collecting individual fractions of municipal waste, the establishment of all municipal waste management centres and with better energy recovery from municipal waste, which is not appropriate for recycling, is expected to deviate municipal waste streams to recovery and priority recycling.

Figures

Figure 8: Quantity of used car tyres collected and supplied for recovery

Source: Report of concession-holders, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 2007 (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, OD15)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=227&lang_id=94
Figure 8: Quantity of used car tyres collected and supplied for recovery
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 7: Number of dismantled end-of-life motor vehicles

Source: Reports of concession-holders \u2013 SARA \u2013 web application for dismantling cars, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 2007 (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, OD16) * old burdens - end-of-life vehicles collected by local communities as abandoned vehicles whose last owner was not identifiable
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=228&lang_id=94
Figure 7: Number of dismantled end-of-life motor vehicles
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 6: Proportion of recycled waste packaging and target

Source: Analysis of annual reports on waste management for 2007; Waste Management Collection, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, OD13)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=233&lang_id=94
Figure 6: Proportion of recycled waste packaging and target
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 5: Proportion of recovered waste packaging and target

Source: Analysis of annual reports on waste management for 2007; Waste Management Collection, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, OD13)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=233&lang_id=94
Figure 5: Proportion of recovered waste packaging and target
Fullscreen image Original link

Progress towards prevention and recycling

Packaging waste

The first scheme for separate collection of packaging waste was set up in 2004. The proportions of recovered and recycled packaging waste have increased since.

In 2007 Slovenia succeeded in recovering 53 % of the total mass of packaging waste, exceeding the 2007 of 50 %. However, in 2007 Slovenia is still some way off the 2012 target, which requires the recovery of at least 60 % of packaging waste. (OD13)

In 2007 recycling of packaging waste reached 47 %, exceeding the 2007 target of 25-45 %. The target for 2012 envisages 55-80 % recycling, and for certain materials including plastic, paper, cardboard and wood, Slovenia achieved this in 2007. (OD13)

End-of-life-vehicles and used tyres

A system of breaking down end-of-life vehicles has been in place since 2004, and while there are fewer vehicles in the system than anticipated, the 80 % target levels of reuse and recycling of vehicles and 85 % reuse and recovery of tyres were met in 2006 and 2007 respectively. Helped by the introduction of a certification system, slightly fewer than 7000 cars were dismantled in 2008 at no cost to the final owner. (OD16)

The quantity of collected and recovery-destined used tyres increased significantly when this became the extended producer responsibility in 2006. Before then, a total of 2.5 kg per person of used tyres were collected annually, while in 2008 a total of 19,000 tonnes were collected – 8.4 kg per person. Tyres are subjected either to material or energy recovery, while smaller quantities are destined for reuse or renewal. In 2008 a total of 47 % of used tyres were destined for material recovery, and 50 % for energy recovery. (OD15)

Progress towards the closing of landfill sites not complying with environmental standards; progress towards full coverage of the population with waste collection system

Up to the end of 2007, there were 83 waste disposal sites – 60 public infrastructure sites and 23 for industrial waste – which are in operation or due for closure. In 2007 disposal was carried out at 44 public landfills and 17 industry-operated landfills. At the other landfills only closure operations were performed. (OD02)

According to official data, by 2003 a total of 93.7 % of the population were served by the public collection and removal of waste.

In 2007 a total of 841,700 tonnes of waste were disposed in publicly owned landfills, of which 85 % was municipal and similar waste. In 2007 around 252 000 tonnes of waste were disposed at industry-operated landfills: 29 % inert, 68 % non-hazardous and 3.4% hazardous. (OD02)

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 04 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 03 Jan 2011 original
Key message

Quantities of waste are increasing with the increase of gross domestic product, consumption and with the development of other socio-economic processes.

Figures

Figure 9: Comparison of individual variables in the period 2002\u20132008 (2007)

Source: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009, SI-STAT, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009 (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, OD06, OD07, PG02, PG03, PG06, PG08, TU01)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?lang_id=94
Figure 9: Comparison of individual variables in the period 2002\u20132008 (2007)
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 10: GHG emissions in the waste sector and projections

Source: GHG Archive, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009.
Data source
http://www.arso.gov.si/podnebne%2520spremembe/emisije%2520toplogrednih%2520plinov/
Figure 10: GHG emissions in the waste sector and projections
Fullscreen image Original link

The quantity of waste generated is closely linked to the development of socio-economic processes. Quantities of all waste generated are increasing with the growth of gross domestic product. In 2008, waste did not increase over the previous year, in contrast to economic growth, but only the coming years will show whether Slovenia can speak of decoupling. (OD07)

In 2007 Slovenia processed and imported a total of slightly more than 61 million tonnes of various materials, almost half, 46 %, being mineral materials obtained locally, primarily rock, gravel and sand used in building. From 1992 to 2007 the quantity of raw materials for construction obtained doubled, with the consumption of materials per person rising from 16.6 tonnes a year in 1992 to 30.3 tonnes a year in 2007. There was also a considerable rise in the total mass of imports, accounting for more than a third of the materials used each year. Renewable materials obtained in Slovenia in the form of biomass, such as agricultural products, kill and wood biomass, represent just an eighth of all mass. (OD06)

In 2007 around 12 million tonnes of various materials were exported, so the indicator domestic consumption of materials in Slovenia shows the value of 49.3 million tonnes or 24.4 tonnes per person. This is as much as 87 % more than domestic consumption of materials per person in 1992. (OD06)

With the growth in incomes, consumer spending is rising. The total average expenditure per household member amounted to €7 142 in 2007 – 66 % higher than in 2000. Highest spending per household member is transport and communications, 20 % and on food and non-alcoholic beverages, 14 %. Since 2000 there has been a drop in spending on food and drink, -4 %, and on clothing and footwear, -1.3 %, while spending has increased on housing, +0.8 %, communications, +1.6 %, and on recreation and culture, +0.4 %. (PG06) The number of households and residential units in Slovenia is growing faster than the population – from 1971 to 2002 the number of households increased by 45 %, and the number of residential units by 72 %, while the population rose by just under 25 %. By 2007 there were 745,000 households in Slovenia. The proportion of small households with one or two members is increasing while the proportion of households with more than three members is falling. Smaller households have higher costs per person and a greater impact on the environment. (PG02)

According to data from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at the end of 2008 there were 830,000 residential units, 97 % of which were new-builds. This was dominated by the construction of large residential units, and 43 % of completed units in 2008 had four rooms or more. The average surface area of residential units since 2004 has exceeded 30 m2 per person, and the average number of persons in a residential unit is 2.5. (PG03)

Ownership of private vehicles is rising rapidly – more than doubling over the past 20 years. In 2006 980,261 cars were registered, and the level of 488 cars per 1000 inhabitants exceeds the rate in many more economically advanced EU countries. As a result of car-friendly transport policies including increased investment in road infrastructure, increasingly uncompetitive public transport and suburbanisation based on accessibility by private vehicles, a rising proportion of the population is using private cars. (PR11)

The proportion of Slovenian households that possess a private vehicle rose to around 80 % by 2007 with around 30 % of households having two or more cars. In 2008 the proportion of public transport on the roads was almost half that of 2000. (PG08)

The development of tourism is also burdening the environment with greater quantities of waste. With the arrival of tourists there are more people at tourist destinations than permanently residents, and this increases the generation of waste. In tourist-intense areas – the coast, health resorts, mountain tourism locations – this problem is even more apparent, and waste represents a major pressure on the environment. The number of tourists increased by 27 % between 2002 and 2008. In 2008 Slovenia was visited by 1,771,237 tourists from abroad, representing 64 % of all tourists in Slovenia (TU01).

Total emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from the waste sector reached 684 Gg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent in 2007, a rise of 21 % over the base year 1986. In the period 1986-2007 GHG emissions from the disposal of solid waste in landfills increased by 52 %, while emissions generated in wastewater management fell by 14 %. In 2007 GHG emissions from the waste sector accounted for a little over 3 % of all GHG emissions.

Projections of GHG emissions from waste envisage a further reduction of 16 % up to 2020. This will be achieved primarily by reducing the quantities of biodegradable waste going to landfill, through more active separation of waste at source, heat treatment and capture of landfill gas.

The 2020 outlook

Published: 04 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 03 Jan 2011 original
Key message

Slovenia wants to join European recycling society with a high degree of resource use efficiency. Therefore the necessary infrastructure for waste management should be established, cooperation among stakeholders in waste management should improve and the management schemes for individual waste streams should be optimized.

Figures

Figure 11: Generation and collection of waste

Source: Environment in the palm of your hand: Slovenia, 2008.
Data source
http://eionet.arso.gov.si/publikacije
Figure 11: Generation and collection of waste
Fullscreen image Original link
Data sources
Source

For biodegradable waste, the Decree on the landfill of waste (Official Gazette, No. 32/06) lays down the permitted quantity of biodegradable components in municipal waste that may be landfilled within Slovenia.

Table 1: The quantity of biodegradable components in municipal waste that may be disposed annually at all landfills in Slovenia

PeriodReduced annual quantities of disposed biodegradable municipal waste, expressed through a reduction of the percentage of biodegradable waste in municipal waste generated in 1995Annual quantity of disposed biodegradable substances in municipal waste, expressed as a percentage of the mass of municipal waste generated in 1995Annual quantity of biodegradable components in disposed municipal waste
 (%)(%)(.000 t)
Base year 1995 63445
2000063445
2001560423
2002557401
2003554378
2004550356
2005547334
2006544312
20071038267
20081032223
by the end of 2012528200
by the end of 2016525178
by the end of 2019522156

Source: Decree on the landfill of waste (Official Gazette, No 32/06 and 98/07)

In order to achieve these targets, Slovenia adopted the Decree on the management of organic kitchen waste and garden waste (Official Gazette, No. 39/10), which replaced the 2008 regulation, Decree on the treatment of biodegradable waste (Official Gazette, No. 62/08) and the Decree on handling waste edible oils and fats (Official Gazette, No. 70/08). The quantities of collected and recovered organic cooking waste and edible oils and fats have, as a result, increased.

Environmental targets for waste management are in harmony with the EU targets. Besides the new targets that are set by the Directive 2008/98/EC on waste and the target of reducing the amount of biodegradable compounds in municipal waste landfilled there are objectives set also for collecting and/or recovery of individual waste streams. By accession negotiations Slovenia got a lag time for achieving recovery targets for packaging waste. The targets applicable to the countries of EU-15 for 2001 had to be met by Slovenia by 2007, and the 2008 targets for EU-15 will have to be met by 2012. A new directive on waste determines an establishment of a system for separate collection by 2015 for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass. Slovenia already has such a system in place, but the results of separate collection are still far from those desired. In order to come close to those parts of Europe that are recycling resources efficiently, Slovenia needs to adopt measures designed to achieve the following goals from this directive:

  • by 2020 the preparations for reuse and recycling of waste material – at least paper, metal, plastic and glass from households and where possible from other sources, if such waste streams are similar to household waste – must rise to at least 50 % of the total weight;
  • by 2020 the preparations for reuse, recycling and material recovery – including infilling with waste generated by replacement materials, non-hazardous construction waste and demolition waste, with the exception of naturally present materials defined in category 17 05 04 in the list of waste – must rise to at least 70 % of the total weight.

Existing and planned responses

Published: 04 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 03 Jan 2011 original
Key message

For some waste streams prohibitions on certain hazardous substances were adopted and the polluter pays principle introduced, additionally to extended producer responsibility and certain environmental taxes. To reduce the quantity of landfilled waste not only environmental taxes for pollution caused by waste disposal were introduced but also a financial guarantee provided by landfill operators. Slovenia is one of the first countries which has, besides the prohibition of disposal of biodegradable waste over a certain amount, prescribed compulsory steps in the biodegradable waste treatment and set the conditions for usage and trade with treated biodegradable wastes.

Concerning the prevention of waste the Decree on waste management (Official Gazette, No. 34/08) lays down that in the drafting of operational environmental protection programmes for waste management, the following order of priority measures should be observed: preventing waste generation; preparing waste for reuse; recycling, other recovery processes; waste removal. In accordance with EU legislation, there are prohibitions on use of certain hazardous substances in batteries, electrical and electronic equipment, cars and packaging. Instruments have been developed to introduce ecological design/ecodesign for these waste streams – for example, an environmental tax for pollution has been introduced for packaging waste, waste electrical and electronic equipment, end-of-life car tyres and waste oils.

From the aspect of protecting natural resources, increasing the proportion of recycled and recovered waste and reducing the negative environmental impact from landfilling, Slovenia adopted an operational programme for waste removal with the aim of reducing quantities of biodegradable waste and an operational programme for developing environmental and transport infrastructure in 2007. The latter envisages the establishment of a complete network of facilities and plants for waste management. In line with population numbers and geographical distribution, the plan is for 13-15 waste management centres. The general concept of waste management envisages activities on three levels – local, regional and supra-regional. By the end of 2010 the revision of the Operational programme is expected, which should reduce the number of municipal waste management centres.

An environmental tax for pollution caused by landfilling was introduced for waste disposal and also a financial guarantee for landfill operators as part of the acquisition of an environmental permit for operating a landfill, which enables the authority, issuing a permit, to cash it in the event of irregularities in the closure and after closure of the landfill.

In order to reduce the quantities of biodegradable waste, at the same time as introducing a limit on volume of biodegradable waste, three more regulations have been adopted, Decree on the management of organic kitchen waste and garden waste (Official Gazette, No. 39/10), Decree on the treatment of biodegradable waste (Official Gazette, No. 62/08) and Decree on the management of waste edible oils and fats (Official Gazette, No. 70/08). Slovenia is one of the first countries to have introduced compulsory operations in the treatment of biodegradable waste and conditions for use, as well as in placing treated biodegradable waste on the market (Decree on treatment of biodegradable waste (Official Gazette, No. 62/08)).

Amendments were also made to individual regulations in 2006 and 2007, which bring in the polluter pays principle and extended producer responsibility for the following waste streams: waste packaging; waste plant protection agents containing hazardous substances and waste electrical and electronic equipment. In 2008 regulations also introduced what is termed extended producer responsibility for waste batteries and accumulators, graveside candles and waste medicines, and from 2009 for end-of-life car tyres. After the expiry of existing concession contracts, introduction of extended producer responsibility for used motor vehicles is expected.

Environmental taxes were also introduced for environmental pollution caused by: the use of lubricating oils, generation of end-of-life motor vehicles, generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (in the context of this also the generation of waste batteries and accumulators), generation of packaging waste (in the context of this also the generation of graveside candle waste), generation of end-of-life tyres and by waste disposal.

Slovenia will have to start implementing the provisions of the new European Union Framework Directive 2008/98/EC on waste management, which entered into force in December 2008, within two years of its adoption, so by the end of 2010 amendments to the existing Decree on waste management (Official Gazette, No. 34/08) are anticipated.

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The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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