Freshwater - Drivers and pressures (Sweden)
Agriculture and forestry have their greatest impact on lakes and watercourses through increased concentrations of eutrophication substances and organic carbon (humus material).
c) What are the related key drivers (D) and pressures (P) at national level?
Agriculture and forestry have their greatest impact on lakes and watercourses through increased concentrations of eutrophication substances and organic carbon (humus material). In population centres and along major highways, sewage treatment plants, large industries and car traffic are the main sources of pollution.
Read more in the report Wastewater treatment in Sweden, http://www.naturvardsverket.se/sv/Nedre-meny/Webbokhandeln/ISBN/8400/978-91-620-8416-5/.
See web page with tables on nitrogen and phosphorus loads to inland water and seas,
Groundwater is abundant
Groundwater is comparatively clean and abundant in Sweden. In large areas of Sweden, groundwater monitoring has been poorly developed since there have never been any problems with groundwater quality or levels. But in certain coastal areas there are strong pressures from recreational housing, which can lead to problems with saltwater intrusion in drinking water supplies. The importance of groundwater monitoring is now being established as a fact by the county administrative boards and is a field that is rapidly increasing.
See web page on water withdrawal and water use in Sweden 2005 and 2000, http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____13063.aspx.
Hydropower has always been an important source of energy in Sweden. There is a large number of old and often unused dams in small and medium-sized rivers all over the country. These constructions change the hydromorphology of the rivers and prevent fish from moving upstream, while at the same time being cherished as places of beauty and historical importance. A challenge for water management is to negotiate between these seemingly contradictory views: the cultural and the ecological values.