Air pollution - Drivers and pressures (Sweden)
- Air pollution
Important sources of air pollution are road traffic, energy production, industry and shipping. To a large extent, long-distance transport impacts ozone concentrations.
c) What are the related key drivers (D) and pressures (P) at national level?
Important sources of air pollution are road traffic, energy production, industry and shipping. With respect to PM10, the main cause of high concentrations is road-wear particles generated by the use of studded tyres. Shipping has a major impact on both the concentration and deposition of nitrogen and sulphur and thereby affects water, air and land environments. Twenty-five percent of the atmospheric fallout of nitrogen over the Baltic Sea comes from international shipping. To a large extent, long-distance transport impacts ozone concentrations.
Sources outside Sweden are important
The concentrations of particulates (PM2.5) are affected by exhaust emissions and long-range transboundary pollution. In South Sweden more than 50 % of the anthropogenic PM2.5 present in ambient air monitored in regional background originates from sources outside Sweden. Despite the low concentrations, it is important that measures be implemented, both nationally and internationally, so that the population’s exposure to PM2.5 diminishes to improve citizens’ health. It has not been possible to establish a threshold under which no health effects arise.
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