Climate change mitigation - National Responses (Poland)
- Climate change
The main measures supporting efforts aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions include, first of all, increasing the energy efficiency of the economy, promoting and implementing technologies using renewable energy sources and absorbing carbon dioxide, taking steps aimed at reducing emissions from transport, as well as promoting sustainable forms of waste management, agriculture and forestry.
Poland ratified the Climate Convention in 1994 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, undertaking to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) during the period from 2008 to 2012 by 6 % by reference to the emissions in the baseline year 1988. For fluoridated industrial gases, Poland adopted 1995 as the baseline year.
The government document formulating the state environmental policy, including also as regards climate protection, is the National Environmental Policy for 2009-2012 and Its 2016 Otlook, adopted by the Sejm on 22 May 2009. The document sets out the objectives, priorities, challenges and directions and the main priorities of Poland’s ecological policy over the next four to eight years, including the national reduction target arising from the Kyoto Protocol.
A decisive factor of the energy policy in limiting any increase in emissions is the introduction of high-efficiency energy generation and transmission technologies, including the modernisation of existing technologies. A very important element of the strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to stimulate increased use of renewable energy sources in the energy sector. Another important element of energy policy is to increase the energy efficiency of the economy by, among other things, implementing Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC (Text with EEA relevance), as well as the diversification of the power generation system over a longer perspective by introducing nuclear energy.
Other policies and measures implemented in Poland in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions include, among other things:
- in transport, promotion and use of biofuels and promotion of environmentally neutral vehicles,
- in the construction industry, expansion and modification of technical and building regulations relating to heat insulation of buildings as regards the heat escape ratio through external walls, efficiency of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems and domestic hot water systems,
- in agriculture, improved use of fertilisers, including nitrogen-based fertilisers (a fertiliser advice system has been introduced, helping to determine doses of fertilisers precisely), rationalisation of energy management, including generation of energy from biomass waste or manure; and popularisation of small widespread power generation sources,
- in waste management, the National Waste Management Plan until 2010 promotes measures aimed at preventing and minimising the generation of waste, waste recycling, neutralisation and waste disposal that is safe to human life and to the environment.
Sources of information:
Fifth Government Report for the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change http://www.mos.gov.pl/g2/big/2010_03/c0a7a12f566785012e1282bb3f3d3154.pdf
National Database on Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Other Substances https://krajowabaza.kobize.pl/person/login
National Register of Emission Allowances https://rejestr.kashue.pl/
National Environmental Policy for 2009-2012 and Its 2016 outlook, adopted by the Council of Ministers in December 2008 http://mos.gov.pl/g2/big/2009_07/2826c539c3015384e50adac8fe920b0b.pdf
Poland’s energy policy until 2030 http://www.mg.gov.pl/Gospodarka/Energetyka/Polityka+energetyczna