Air pollution - Drivers and pressures (Netherlands)
- Air pollution
Domestic energy consumption
In 2008, total domestic energy consumption declined by 0.8 % compared to 2007. The decrease was largest in the industry (-6.5 % in 2008), because of the economic recession. Primary energy consumption and electricity production by the power sector fell by 4 %. In contrast, energy consumption by households increased by 6 % compared to 2007 (which had a mild winter), and electricity use by households increased by 2.3 % compared to 2007. In addition, energy use by traffic increased by 2.5 %. More information can be found at:
- Brandstofverbruik door de industrie, 1990-2007
- Energieverbruik door huishoudens, 1990-2007
Road transport: volume developments and emissions
Road transport volumes have grown further, while air pollution by traffic (NOx and PM10) continued to decline (Figure 5). Recently, it has become clear that NOx- emissions from diesel cars have decreased much less than anticipated by the subsequent EU standards. This has not been fully accounted for in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Emissions of NOx and PM10 from road traffic have decreased despite growing traffic volume. Source: http://www.milieuennatuurcompendium.nl/indicatoren/nl0082-Emissies-naar-lucht-per-doelgroep%2C-volgens-IPCC-en-NEC.html?i=14-70
Emissions of air pollutants per sector
About 90 % of the NH3 emissions and 60 % of the CH4 emissions are caused by agriculture (Figure 6). About 90 % of the SO2 emissions are caused by industry, energy and refineries. About 60 % of the NOx and CO emissions are caused by transport. Many sectors contribute substantially to the national emissions of PM10 and NMVOC.
Figure 6: Contributions of different sectors to emissions of air pollutants and their precursors.
This document is part of the SOER 2015 product.