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You are here: Home / The European environment – state and outlook 2010 / Country assessments / Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Waste (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Waste Waste
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

Waste management is one of the most serious environmental issues in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, taking into account the fact that waste quantities continue to grow.

Most of the waste is disposed of in landfills, both legal and illegal. Waste recycling is very limited. The impacts of landfills on the environment and thus on human health are huge due to emissions methane, a greenhouse gas; organic micro-pollutants, dioxins and furans; emissions of volatile heavy metals into the air and leakages that may contain toxic substances discharged to the soil and groundwaters.

There are significant initiatives to reduce waste quantities, encourage recycling and implement safe standards for waste landfilling (Strategy for Waste Management of the Republic of Macedonia (2008-2020), 2008)

The primary goal of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is to decouple the waste generation and the use of natural resources from economic activity in order to minimise the environmental burden.

According to the waste legislation, the priorities in waste management in the Republic are:

  • avoidance of waste generation and reduction of harmful impacts of waste on the environment and human life and health;
  • improvement of production technologies to reduce waste generation, and use of ecological products and less packaging;
  • waste recycling and reuse either in another process for raw materials extraction or through energy recovery.

 

The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011

Figures

Figure 1 Estimated quantities of different waste types generated in 2008

Data on municipal waste provided by the State Statistical Office as Notification [June 2009]
Data source
http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-draft/countries/mk/waste-state-and-impacts-macedonia/figure-1-estimated-quantities-of-1/view
Figure 1 Estimated quantities of different waste types generated in 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 2 Proportional share of different waste types generated in 2008, based on estimates

Data on municipal waste has been provided by the State Statistical Office as Notification [June 2009]
Data source
http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-draft/countries/mk/waste-state-and-impacts-macedonia/figure-2-proportional-share-of-1/view
Figure 2 Proportional share of different waste types generated in 2008, based on estimates
Fullscreen image Original link

Map 2 Overview of industrial contaminated sites, mainly landfills with industrial waste

Data source
http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-draft/countries/mk/waste-state-and-impacts-macedonia/map-2-overview-of-industrial-1/view
Map 2 Overview of industrial contaminated sites, mainly landfills with industrial waste
Fullscreen image Original link

Generation and management of different waste types

Municipal solid waste is one of the main waste streams generated. The quantity of municipal waste was 349 kg/inhabitant or 0.9 kg/inhabitant per day in 2008. Around 77 % of the population is covered by the public municipal waste collection system operated by public enterprises. There are 58 municipal landfills for municipal and other non-hazardous waste (Notification on the annual quantity of municipal waste generated in 2008, June 2009). Collection of non-separated municipal and non-hazardous waste, as well as non-separated non-hazardous and hazardous waste fractions is a general practice. Active landfills for municipal waste have been categorised by their environmental risk assessment (Special Study C, Closure/Reclamation of non-Compliant Municipal Landfills, 2005).

Activities of municipal waste recovery and recycling are very limited and unorganised. Recovery of many types/grades of materials with recycling potential is financially unviable under current conditions. Composting and anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste are not practiced in the country and there is, no formal system yet for collection and recycling packaging waste. There are no organised systems for the collection of construction and demolition waste or for the collection and treatment of agricultural and livestock waste. At present, there is no organised system for collection of waste batteries and accumulators, and waste electric and electronic equipment. Waste legislation on the waste from end-of-life vehicles will enter into force in 2011 and is aimed at preventing it. Around 35 % of hazardous medical waste is collected separately, transported to and burnt at the Drisla landfill. The majority of hazardous waste is disposed of at industrial landfills. There are no official authorised hazardous waste collectors and transporters. Local hazardous waste deposits are considered as hot-spots due to their environmental impact (National Waste Management Plan (2009-2015) of the Republic of Macedonia, 2009).

Certain combustible hazardous wastes are burnt as fuels. Identification of locations with PCB-containing transformers is underway and incineration is carried out abroad.

Table 1 Overview of identified and removed PCB-containing equipment


Identified PCB equipment

pieces

weight (t) total

weight (t) oil

Disposed PCB equipment

pieces

weight (t) total

weight (т) oil

transformers

110

360

90

 

 

 

 

capacitors

1420

60

6

capacitors

800

30

3

waste oil

57

16

16

 

 

 

 

Total:

 

406

109

 

 

 

 

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011

Figures

Figure 3 Percentage growths for the period 2004 to 2008 of municipal waste, population, GDP, as well as annual personal

Data source
http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-draft/countries/mk/waste-drivers-and-pressures-macedonia/figure-3-percentage-growths-for-1/view
Figure 3 Percentage growths for the period 2004 to 2008 of municipal waste, population, GDP, as well as annual personal
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 4 Overview of total generated waste and total generated municipal waste per person in 2008

Data source
http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-draft/countries/mk/waste-drivers-and-pressures-macedonia/figure-4-overview-of-total-1/view
Figure 4 Overview of total generated waste and total generated municipal waste per person in 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

The overall generation of municipal waste has been growing in line with the growth of gross domestic product (GDP) per person, as well as with the growth of personal consumption, but is not significantly higher than the growth of population. Urbanisation has grown at a faster rate than planned, so most cities have poor urban infrastructure, especially in terms of solid waste management – 87 % of the population is concentrated in the major cities. (Second National Environmental Action Plan, 2006).

The capacity of municipal solid waste management systems will be strongly influenced by the future economic development of the country. 

According to the data of the State Statistical Office, the country’s trade deficit is 35.5% in  USD. Imports include mostly crude oil, electricity and motor vehicles, while exports are dominated by ferrous nickel, iron and steel products and clothes.

According to the greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, the contribution of the waste sector to total GHG emissions ranges between 5.5 % and 7.0 %.

Figure 5 shows that GHG emissions expressed as carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent are similar to those originating from industry and much lower than those from the energy sector (Second National Communication on Climate Change, 2008).

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 08 Apr 2011

Figures

Figure 6 The effectiveness of three scenarios expressed as relative increases of 2025 emissions over 2008 emissions

Data source
http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-draft/countries/mk/waste-outlook-2020-macedonia-the/figure-6-the-effectiveness-of-1/view
Figure 6 The effectiveness of three scenarios expressed as relative increases of 2025 emissions over 2008 emissions
Fullscreen image Original link

Implementation of integrated, financially sustainable and environmentally acceptable waste management is based on several strategic principles:

  • the principle of solving the waste problem at the source of its generation;

  • separation of hazardous from non-hazardous waste streams at source;

  • reuse of valuable ingredients of the waste;

  • establishment of a rational network of waste treatment and disposal facilities;

  • rremediation of contaminated sites – hot-spots, mainly industrial contaminated sites and non-compliant municipal and industrial landfills;   

  • waste, as a substitute for non-renewable natural resources, should contribute to GHG emission reductions.

 

Existing and planned responses

Topic
Waste Waste
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

Transposition of the EU acquis for waste management into national legislation is one of the main tasks and goals in the context of the establishment of an integrated and sustainable waste management system. In general, the legislation of relevance for waste management aimed at overcoming the current state and establishing integrated and self-sustainable waste management system is formulated in:

  • the Law on Environment (Official Gazette no. 53/05, 81/05, 24/07), regulating the basic issues such as environmental permits, environmental impact assessment procedure, GHG emissions, etc.;
  • the Law on Waste Management (Official Gazette no. 68/04, 71/04, 107/07, 102/08, 134/08);
  • the National Environmental Action Plans (NEAP 1996/2006);
  • the Strategy for Waste Management (2008-2020);
  • the National Waste Management Plan (2009-2015);
  • detailed procedures concerning different waste types specified in bylaws.

 

The Law on Waste Management, as the basic legal act, stipulates the overall rules. However, it does not regulate the management of waste originating from mining, which is subject to regulation by the Law on Mineral Resources (Official Gazette no. 24/07), and only partially regulates waste from veterinary activities. It does not include obligations posed by the Framework Waste Directive (2006/12/ЕC) and Hazardous Waste Directive (91/689/ЕЕC) (National Waste Management Plan [2009-2015], 2009).

The Law on Waste Management establishes the legal basis for adoption of secondary legislation to regulate specific issues in the practice of waste management at all levels.

Cross-border movement of hazardous waste is regulated by the Law on Ratification of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Storage (Official Gazette no. 49/97).

Apart from the common legislation on waste streams and management operations, two regulations that are not part of the transposition process will be adopted: Regulation on waste transport (1013/2006) and Regulation (EC1774/2002) specifying health regulations for animal by-products not intended for human consumption.

The early transposition of the Directive on environmental liability (2004/35/EC) and adoption of national regulations on soil quality and contamination will provide the legal basis necessary to initiate negotiations related to activities aimed at hot-spot remediation (National Waste Management Plan (2009-2015) of the Republic of Macedonia, 2009).

Disclaimer

The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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