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Sound and independent information
on the environment

Bulgaria

Air pollution (Bulgaria)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Air pollution Air pollution
more info
Executive Environment Agency
Organisation name
Executive Environment Agency
Reporting country
Bulgaria
Organisation website
Organisation website
Contact link
Contact link
Last updated
15 Jul 2011
Content license
CC By 2.5
Content provider
Executive Environment Agency
Published: 18 Sep 2010 Modified: 05 Jul 2011 Feed synced: 15 Jul 2011 original
Key message

Pregnant women are particularly sensitive to the influence of harmful air pollutants and airborne toxins can even harm unborn children − hence the need to monitor and control air quality.

The issue of environmental protection evokes great concern, particularly since it is linked to rapid economic and social development on a global scale. Indeed, human survival may well depend on solutions being found to address the issue. Air pollution is detrimental to human and animal health and can cause breathing difficulties, health problems, disease or even death. Pregnant women are particularly sensitive to the influence of harmful air pollutants and airborne toxins can even harm unborn children − hence the need to monitor and control air quality.

The state and impacts

Published: 17 Sep 2010 Modified: 05 Jul 2011 Feed synced: 15 Jul 2011 original
Key message

Air quality data is compiled and analyses made for each area taking into account the specific nature of local communities.

Figures

Figure 10

Number of exceedances of the daily average rate (ADN) of PM10 in points in 2007
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/ROUKAV/index.html
Figure 10
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 5

List of zones in relation to limit value exceedences for NO2/NOx
Data source
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/bg/eu/annualair/envsnpgdw/BG_Questionnaire_2007_EC_2004_461.xls
Figure 5
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 7

Number exceedances srednochasovato rate of nitrogen dioxide in points in 2007
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/ROUKAV/index.html
Figure 7
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 9

Registered exceedances of PM10 mean daily norms
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/index.html
Figure 9
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 11

List of ROUKAVs where levels exceed or do not exceed target values or long-term objectives for ozone (2002/3/EC, Annex I)
Data source
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/bg/eu/annualair/envsnpgdw/BG_Questionnaire_2007_EC_2004_461.xls
Figure 11
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 1

Locations of air quality of Bulgaria, broken down by districts for assessment and management of air quality (RUKAV)
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/ROUKAV/index.html
Figure 1
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3

Incidence of exceedances of sulphur dioxide standards (hourly and daily)
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/index.html
Figure 3
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 2

List of zones in relation to limit value exceedences for SO2
Data source
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/bg/eu/annualair/envsrm2sw/BG_Questionnaire_2008_EC_2004_461.xls
Figure 2
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 4

Levels of sulphur dioxide pollution measured by ROUKAV
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/ROUKAV/index.html
Figure 4
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 6

Breaches of nitrous oxide norms registered at the "Orlov Most" in Sofia from 2003-2007
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/index.html
Figure 6
Fullscreen image Original link

Under national and European legislation (Directive 96/62/ЕС) Bulgaria is divided into six air quality assessment and management areas (ROUKAVs).

Air quality data is compiled and analyses made for each area taking into account the specific nature of local communities.

 

Figure 1. Locations of air quality of Bulgaria, broken down by districts for assessment and management of air quality (RUKAV)

Sulphur dioxide

During the year, two ROUKAVs (the South-western and Southern/Thracian) registered exceedances of the mean hourly norm (MHN) and mean daily norm (MDN) for sulphur dioxide content in the air.

 

Figure 2. List of zones in relation to limit value exceedences for SO2

Figure 3. Incidence of exceedances of sulphur dioxide standards (hourly and daily)

Figure 4 Levels of sulphur dioxide pollution measured by ROUKAV

 

The main sources of sulphur dioxide emissions in the Southern ROUKAV were the three coal-fired power stations making up the Maritsa Iztok complex and also the Maritsa 3 coal-fired power station in Dimitrovgrad. Major sources in the South-western ROUKAV were the lead and zinc factory at Kardzhali and the Republika coal-fired power station. Emissions from fossil fuel burnt for home heating also contributed to the pollution.

Nitrous dioxide

During the year, the only exceedance of nitrous dioxide MHN and MDN was registered by the Sofia ROUKAV, the main source being vehicle exhausts. Other ROUKAVs did not register exceedances in 2007: threshold breaches were within limit values or did not occur.

 

Figure 5. List of zones in relation to limit value exceedences for NO2/NOx

Figure 6. Breaches of nitrous oxide norms registered at the "Orlov Most" in Sofia from 2003-2007

Figure 7. Number exceedances srednochasovato rate of nitrogen dioxide in points in 2007

 

Fine dust particulates (PM10)

PM10 pollution continues to be a major air quality issue for all ROUKAVs. Each of the ROUKAVs registered MHN and MDN exceedances of PM10 during the year.

 

Figure 8. List of ROUKAVs registering limit value exceedances for PM10

Figure 9. Registered exceedances of PM10 mean daily norms

Figure 10. Number of exceedances of the daily average rate (ADN) of PM10 in points in 2007

 

The sources of excessive PM10 pollution were industry, households and transportation, and also polluted and badly-maintained road surfaces. A typical summer problem is the prolonged dry period, causing soil weathering, which in turn contributes to air pollution.

Ozone 

Only the Southern/Thracian ROUKAV registered an exceedance of the ozone target of 120 μg/m3 (maximum eight-hour value within a day which must not be breached on more than 25 days in a year over a three-year period).

 

Figure 11. List of ROUKAVs where levels exceed or do not exceed target values or long-term objectives for ozone (2002/3/EC, Annex I)

 

Environmental impact

Sulphur, nitrogen, fine dust particulates and ozone are basic air quality factors. For this reason, the EU and EEA place particular emphasis on the proportion of Member State populations exposed to excessive levels of these pollutants. In this connection, 2007 air quality monitoring data were compared to the populations in each ROUKAV and nationwide to determine the proportion of people exposed to excessive pollutants. The results are shown below.

 

Percentage of people affected by SO2, NO2, PM10 and ozone pollution in each ROUKAV

ROUKAV SO2 NO2 PM10 Ozone
BG0001 Metropolitan 0 100 100 0
BG0002 Plovdiv 0 0 100 0
BG0003 Varna 0 0 100 0
BG0004 Northern/Danubian 0 0 36 0
BG0005 Southwest 15 0 27 0
BG0006 Southern/Thracian 12 0 52 14
Nationwide 5.4 16 55.4 3.6

  

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 20 Sep 2010 Modified: 05 Jul 2011 Feed synced: 15 Jul 2011 original
Key message

During the period 1990-2006, harmful substance emissions expressed in oxide equivalent fell from 79.1 ktonnes to 36 ktonnes − a reduction of some 55 %.

Figures

Figure 14

PM10 precursor emissions and change index, Bulgaria
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/eea/bg/publicat/2004-R/index.htm
Figure 14
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 12

Oxidant emissions in oxide equivalent and index of change, Bulgaria
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/eea/bg/publicat/2004-R/index.htm
Figure 12
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 13

Changes in ozone precursor emissions shown as NMVOC equivalent between 1998 and 2007.
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/eea/bg/publicat/2004-R/index.htm
Figure 13
Fullscreen image Original link

Harmful substance emissions

Oxidant emissions

 

Figure 12. Oxidant emissions in oxide equivalent and index of change, Bulgaria.

 

During the period 1990-2006, harmful substance emissions expressed in oxide equivalent fell from 79.1 ktonnes to 36 ktonnes − a reduction of some 55 %.

Ozone precursor emissions

 

Figure 13. Changes in ozone precursor emissions shown as NMVOC equivalent between 1998 and 2007.

 

After a rise in ozone precursor emissions between 2001 and 2006, there was a significant drop in 2007.

This sharp fall in emissions was largely due to the implementation of a uniform methodology for creating an inventory of harmful substances in the air, as set out in the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The new methodology was approved in Order No. RD 40/22.01.2008 issued by the Ministry of the Environment and Waters. The new emission factors are in line with the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook.

After any change in emission monitoring methodologies the EU obliges Member States to recalculate and resubmit data on harmful emissions from their benchmark years to the reporting year. To this effect, a public tendering procedure was set in motion in 2009 to recalculate harmful substance emissions into the air for the period 1980-2008 in relation to the new methodology. Recalculated data will be reported under relevant national obligations during 2011.

PM10 precursor emissions

 

Figure 14. PM10 precursor emissions and change index, Bulgaria.

 

PM10 precursor emissions have fallen from 1 494 ktonnes in 1990 to 725 ktonnes in 2006, a reduction of approximately 52 %. The overall reduction relates to all three precursors.

Existing and planned responses

Published: 20 Sep 2010 Modified: 05 Jul 2011 Feed synced: 15 Jul 2011 original
Key message

In 2007, Bulgaria’s Council of Ministers adopted the National Programme for Restricting Overall Annual National Emissions of Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Volatile Organic Compounds and Ammonia, which advocates even lower levels for the emission of these substances.

Figures

Figure 15

Annual trends in harmful substance emissions and accession negotiation commitments (ktonnes)
Data source
http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/index.html
Figure 15
Fullscreen image Original link

Bulgaria's international commitments on cutting harmful substance emissions

Directive 2001/81/ЕС requires each Member State to maintain set national ceilings for emissions of four major pollutants: sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and ammonia (NH3) by 2010, with 1990 as the benchmark year. In 2007, Bulgaria’s Council of Ministers adopted the National Programme for Restricting Overall Annual National Emissions of Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Volatile Organic Compounds and Ammonia, which advocates even lower levels for the emission of these substances. These levels are to be met by bringing large thermal installations in line with statutory requirements. Programme commitments were included in the treaty for Bulgarian accession to the European Union.

 

Atmospheric pollutants 2007 emissions

Commitments under Directive 2001/81/ЕC

Commitments under the NP set out in Bulgarian CMR No. 261

Commitments under the NP set out in Bulgarian CMR No. 261

Commitments under the NP set out in Bulgarian CMR No. 261

   

2010

2010

2015

2020

SOx (as SO2) 854 836 380 300 250
NOx (as NO2) 188 247 247 247 247
NMVOC 120 175 175 175 175
NH3 58 108 108 108 108

 

 

Figure 15. Annual trends in harmful substance emissions and accession negotiation commitments (ktonnes).

 

Over the next decade, emission reductions will continue to progress with the implementation of the best available technology, use of cleaner fuels and more sustainable resources and the installation of sulphur filters at coal-fired power stations.

 

Measures to improve air quality

Complete harmonisation of European and Bulgarian air quality legislation was achieved by late 2007. The new CAFE Directive 2008/50/ЕС will be transposed into Bulgarian law by mid-2010.

European legislation National legislation
The Framework Directive 96/62ЕС on air quality assessment and management

The Atmospheric Air Cleanliness Act (published in the Darzhaven Vestnik Official Gazette, Issue No. 45 dated 28 May 1996 and last amended in the Darzhaven Vestnik Issue No. 112 dated 23 December 2003)

Order No. 7/99 on Air Quality Assessment and Management

Directive 99/30/ЕС on sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide, fine particulate matter and lead in ambient air Order No. 9/99 on sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide, fine dust particulates and lead in atmospheric air, amended and extended in 2006
Directive 2002/3/ЕС on ozone and alarm thresholds for ozone levels in ambient air Order No. 4/2004 on norms for ozone and alarm thresholds for ozone levels in atmospheric air
Directive 2000/69ЕС on benzene and carbon dioxide in ambient air Order No. 1/2004 on norms for benzene and carbon dioxide in atmospheric air
Directive 2004/107/ЕС on heavy metals, arsenic and polyaromatic carbon nitrogens in ambient air Order No. 11/2007 on norms for arsenic, cadmium, nickel and polycyclic aromatic carbon nitrogens in atmospheric air
Directive 2008/50/ЕC on ambient air quality and on cleaner air in Europe To be transposed into Bulgarian law

The Bulgarian municipalities play an important role in air quality improvement. For example, to implement Directive 96/62/ЕС (Order No. 7/99) in communities with air quality problems, municipalities developed programmes to cut air pollutant levels in order to meet the required standards. The communities and pollutants subject to municipal clean air programmes are listed on the IAOS website (http://eea.government.bg/bul/NSMOS/Air/ROUKAV/index.html). The programmes comprise short and long-term measures which are implemented by the municipalities.

Disclaimer

The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100