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Indicator Assessment Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas (CSI 004) - Assessment published Aug 2010
Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) In the period 1997-2008, 18-50 % of the urban population was potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ) in excess of the EU limit value set for the protection of human health (50 microgram /m 3 daily mean not be exceeded more than 35 days a calendar year); (Figure 1). Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) In the period 1997-2008, 6-41 % of the urban population was potentially exposed to ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations above the EU limit value set for the protection of human health (40 microgram NO 2 /m 3 annual mean). There was a slight downwards trend over the period (Figure 1). Ozone (O 3 ) In the period 1997-2008, 13-62 % of the urban population in Europe was exposed to ambient ozone concentrations exceeding the EU target value set for the protection of human health (120 microgram O 3 /m 3 daily maximum 8-hourly average, not to be exceeded more than 25 times a calendar year by 2010). The 62 % of the urban population exposed to ambient ozone concentrations over the EU target value was recorded in 2003, which was the record year. There was no discernible trend over the period (Figure 1). Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) In the period 1997-2008, the fraction of the urban population in EEA-32 member countries that is potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of sulphur dioxide in excess of the EU limit value set for the protection of human health (125 microgram SO 2 /m 3 daily mean not to be exceeded more than three days a year), decreased to less than 1 %, and as such the EU limit value set is close to being met everywhere in the urban background (Figure 1).
Located in Data and maps Indicators Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas
Indicator Assessment Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone (CSI 005) - Assessment published Aug 2010
Eutrophication The magnitude of the risk of ecosystem eutrophication and its geographical coverage has diminished only slightly over the years. The predictions for 2010 and 2020 indicate that the risk is still widespread over Europe. This is in conflict with the EU's long-term objective of not exceeding critical loads of airborne acidifying and eutrophying substances in sensitive ecosystem areas (National Emission Ceilings Directive, 6th Environmental Action Programme, Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution). Acidification The situation has considerably improved and it is predicted to improve further. The interim environmental objective for 2010 (National Emission Ceilings Directive) will most likely not be met completely. However, the European ecosystem areas where the critical load will be exceeded is predicted to have declined by more than 80 % in 2010 with 1990 as a base year. By 2020, it is expected that the risk of ecosystem acidification will only be an issue at some hot spots, in particular at the border area between the Netherlands and Germany. Ozone (O 3 ) Most vegetation and agricultural crops are exposed to ozone levels exceeding the long term objective given in the EU Air Quality Directive. A significant fraction is also exposed to levels above the 2010 target value defined in the Directive. Concentrations in 2007 were lower than in 2006. The effect-related accumulated concentrations, addressing exposure of crops to ozone over several summer months, shows large year-to-year variations, there is a non-significance tendency to increase.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone
Indicator Assessment Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances (CSI 006) - Assessment published Jan 2009
Implementation of the Montreal Protocol has led to a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere. The total production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in EEA member countries has decreased strongly since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, and it is practically zero nowadays. However, the ozone hole expanded in 2008 to 27 million square kilometres, equivalent to about 6 times the territory of the EU.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances
File Ozone: fluctuations over 15 years
This video shows the projected difference in the 'ozone hole' over the arctic between the year 2000 and 2015. Source: Animation form 'Global animations'
Located in Environmental topics Climate change Multimedia
File Creation of low level ozone
HOW LOW LEVEL OZONE IS CREATED Low level ozone pollution is often not given much consideration next to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, it can damage health of humans, animals, trees and plants. In high quantities it also contributes to acid rain and the green house effect, as well as being partly responsible for photo chemical smog. Car exhausts release nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere. Volatile Organic Compounds are released through chemical plants and products including solvents, paints and hairspray. These two chemicals react with each other and sunlight to create ozone. In humans, ozone can cause lung tissue damage, and create high incidences of asthma and allergenic reactions. Plants exposed to high ozone concentrations lose their chlorophyll and their food manufacturing abilities.
Located in Environmental topics Air pollution Multimedia
Figure Ozone 2010 - 8 hour mean target value for the protection of human health
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set a target value and a long term objective value for ozone (O3) for the protection of human health. Target value: the maximum daily eight-hour mean may not exceed 120 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) on more than 25 days per calendar year averaged over three years. Long term objective value: the maximum daily eight-hour mean may not exceed 120 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) within a calendar year.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Agricultural area (in 1 000 km²) in EEA member countries for each exposure class
Due to lack of detailed land cover data and/or rural ozone data Iceland and Norway are not included until 2006 and onwards. Switzerland have not been included in the analysis for the entire period 1996-2007 due to the same reasons. Turkey is not included in the analysis 1996-2008.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Maximum ozone hole area in 2010
False-color view of total ozone over the Antarctic pole. The purple and blue colors are where there is the least ozone, and the yellows and reds are where there is more ozone. Measured by October 1.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure File PostScript document CSI005_fig11_ExposureOfForrestArea_2011.eps
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs Exposure of forest area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (μg/m³).h) in EEA member countries
Publication Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2012
Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April… - September 2012
Located in Publications
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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