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The report introduces the concept of urban metabolism, the circular model and the role of compactness in urban resource efficiency. Cities require natural resources and energy to sustain the activities and daily life of the urban population. Nevertheless, there are opportunities to minimise the use of resources needed to sustain urban life and to reduce waste and emissions. As the urban form shapes the way people live, work and move, compact cities offer great potential to reduce the dependence on natural resources and energy. Urban planning, based on a vision of the future and developed with local stakeholders and crossing administrative borders, is a key factor in increasing the density of urban areas.
Shifting to a resource-efficient society is not just a question of technological change but a systemic one. It is a process that assumes fundamental changes in the governance, economy, social structure, culture and practices of the societal system. This report analyses challenges and opportunities for enabling resource-efficient cities.
Summary of data reported by companies on the production, import and export of fluorinated greenhouse gases in the European Union. This report is based on submissions for 2014, the first reporting year under the new F-Gas Regulation
517/2014. The new regulation requires, among other things, that companies report on produced, imported and exported quantities of fluorinated greenhouse
gases, including mixtures.
The report ‘Waste prevention in Europe – the status in 2014’ is the second in a series of annual reviews of waste prevention programmes in Europe as stipulated by the Waste Framework Directive. EU Member States are obliged to adopt waste prevention programmes, while EEA is invited to carry out review on their completion and implementation. Therefore, this report presents cross-programme comparison, including scope, objectives, targets, indicators, monitoring systems and measures, and policy instruments. The analysis is completed by presenting collection of examples of good practice for 27 analysed programmes.
Information reported by Member States under the European Union Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. The report presents a synthesis of the information on climate change mitigation policies and measures (PaMs) reported in 2015 by EU Member States. It aims to provide an overview of the main characteristics of the PaMs implemented, adopted or planned by Member States, such as their objective, type, targeted sectors, entities responsible for their implementation, etc.
This report provides new insights into adaptation monitoring, reporting and evaluation systems at the national level in Europe and constitutes the first attempt to consolidate emerging information across European countries. It aims to offer reliable and targeted information to support the effective and efficient implementation of climate adaptation policies and actions at the national level in Europe.
This report presents an updated overview and analysis of air quality in Europe. It is focused in the state in 2013 and the development from 2004 to 2013. It reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the air quality directives. An overview of the latest findings and estimates of the effects of air pollution on health and its impacts on ecosystems is also given.
EU GHG inventory submission to UNFCCC (EEA and DG Climate Action)
This report is the annual submission of the greenhouse gas inventory of the European Union to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It presents the greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2013 for the EU-28 individual Member States by IPCC sector.
This report provides an overview of the performance of car and van manufacturers in meeting their 2014 CO2 emission targets. In order to evaluate the progress that manufacturers are making towards their targets, the EEA has collected and quality checked data on CO2 emissions from passenger cars and vans registered in all EU Member States since 2010. The reported CO2 emissions data presented in this report are based on measurements performed in the laboratory using a standard European vehicle test cycle. Such measurements may not reflect real-world driving performance.
This report descibes the EUNIS habitat classification review which provides the context for a number of policy-related ecosystem and habitat assessments. It is a European reference to which other national or regional classifications can be cross referenced. The review of terrestrial EUNIS habitat classification, on the basis of georeferenced vegetation samples, aims to enhance the technical capacity for documenting, monitoring and assessing the quality of habitats at the European level. This work strengthens the knowledge base that is used for assessing progress towards the European Union (EU) and global biodiversity targets for 2020.
Annual accounts for the European Environment Agency, financial year 2014
This European Environment Agency (EEA) technical report presents an overview of the 2012 spatial distribution of the networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) established in the waters of EU), excluding overseas territories.
The 2015 edition of the annual European Environment Agency (EEA) 'Trends and projections' report provides an updated assessment of the progress of the European Union (EU) and European countries towards their climate mitigation and energy targets.
The assessment of Member States’ progress towards their climate and energy targets is based on: national data on GHG emissions, renewable energy and energy consumption for 2013; and projections reported by Member States concerning expected trends in greenhouse gas emissions until 2035.
The report also presents preliminary ('approximated' or 'proxy') data for the year 2014. The report supports and complements the annual assessment, by the European Commission, of the progress of the EU and its Member States towards meeting the Kyoto and EU 2020 objectives, as required by EU regulation (the Monitoring Mechanism Regulation).
This report provides an analysis of past, present and future
emissions trends under the EU ETS, based on the latest
data and information available from the European
Commission and Member States. It also analyses the
balance between supply and demand of allowances
in the market. The report's annexes provide extensive
material describing the functioning, scope and cap of
the EU ETS, as well as a specific analysis of emissions of
non-CO2 gases covered by the EU ETS.
This report provides proxy estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU) and its Member States for the year 2014, covering the full GHG inventory (all sectors, except Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), and all gases). The proxy estimates in this report are based on data reported by Member States to the European Commission under existing EU legislation and on calculations made by the European Environment Agency (EEA). The proxy estimates are not based on complete activity data and should be considered as preliminary until the official inventory submissions for years 1990-2014 are reported to UNFCCC in 2016. The proxy estimates greatly improve the timeliness of information on GHG emissions and are used for analysis of emission trends and progress to EU climate targets.
Europe's seas are under pressure. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can act as a key conservation measure to safeguard marine ecosystems and biodiversity as well as the services these ecosystems provide. The report provides an overview on progress made to date in establishing MPAs and MPA networks in Europe's seas, specifically MPAs reported by European Union (EU) Member States up to and including 2012. It also discusses how best to assess the effectiveness of these MPAs and determine their effectiveness in protecting biodiversity across Europe's seas.
This report provides for the first time a European overview of the role of forests in water retention, based on the Water Accounts Production Database developed at the EEA. The results represent 287 sub-basins hosting more than 65 000 catchments across Europe. The impact of forests on water retention is measured according to three parameters/characteristics: forest cover (measured in hectares), forest types (coniferous, broad-leaved, mixed), and the degree of management of the forests (‘protected’ versus unprotected/commercial forests). The estimation of the water-retention potential is derived from the relationships between input (rainfall) and output (water run-off into rivers and lakes) as affected by these three forest characteristics.
This report focuses on certain types of extreme events and natural hazards at European scale that will be very likely amplified by ongoing climate change, i.e. landslides, avalanches, floods and storm surges. In addition, the report also touches upon the green infrastructure and ecosystem services contributing to global climate regulation. The analysis is carried out using spatially explicit data centred on the physical capacity of ecosystems to deliver services that can mitigate natural hazard risks.
Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union. This document summarises the data reported under the ODS Regulation for the year 2014, and looks at the major trends since 2006.
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/latest or scan the QR code.
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